Roles and interactions among protease-activated receptors and P2ry12 in hemostasis and thrombosis.
ABSTRACT: Toward understanding their redundancies and interactions in hemostasis and thrombosis, we examined the roles of thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors, PARs) and the ADP receptor P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y G protein-coupled 12) in human and mouse platelets ex vivo and in mouse models. Par3(-/-) and Par4(+/-) mouse platelets showed partially decreased responses to thrombin, resembling those in PAR1 antagonist-treated human platelets. P2ry12(+/-) mouse platelets showed partially decreased responses to ADP, resembling those in clopidogrel-treated human platelets. Par3(-/-) mice showed nearly complete protection against carotid artery thrombosis caused by low FeCl(3) injury. Par4(+/-) and P2ry12(+/-) mice showed partial protection. Increasing FeCl(3) injury abolished such protection; combining partial attenuation of thrombin and ADP signaling, as in Par3(-/-):P2ry12(+/-) mice, restored it. Par4(-/-) mice, which lack platelet thrombin responses, showed still better protection. Our data suggest that (i) the level of thrombin driving platelet activation and carotid thrombosis was low at low levels of arterial injury and increased along with the contribution of thrombin-independent pathways of platelet activation with increasing levels of injury; (ii) although P2ry12 acts downstream of PARs to amplify platelet responses to thrombin ex vivo, P2ry12 functioned in thrombin/PAR-independent pathways in our in vivo models; and (iii) P2ry12 signaling was more important than PAR signaling in hemostasis models; the converse was noted for arterial thrombosis models. These results make predictions being tested by ongoing human trials and suggest hypotheses for new antithrombotic strategies.
Project description:Because of the role of thrombin and platelets in myocardial infarction and other pathological processes, identifying and blocking the receptors by which thrombin activates platelets has been an important goal. Three protease-activated receptors (PARs) for thrombin -- PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 -- are now known. PAR1 functions in human platelets, and the recent observation that a PAR4-activating peptide activates human platelets suggests that PAR4 also acts in these cells. Whether PAR1 and PAR4 account for activation of human platelets by thrombin, or whether PAR3 or still other receptors contribute, is unknown. We have examined the roles of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 in platelets. PAR1 and PAR4 mRNA and protein were detected in human platelets. Activation of either receptor was sufficient to trigger platelet secretion and aggregation. Inhibition of PAR1 alone by antagonist, blocking antibody, or desensitization blocked platelet activation by 1 nM thrombin but only modestly attenuated platelet activation by 30 nM thrombin. Inhibition of PAR4 alone using a blocking antibody had little effect at either thrombin concentration. Strikingly, simultaneous inhibition of both PAR1 and PAR4 virtually ablated platelet secretion and aggregation, even at 30 nM thrombin. These observations suggest that PAR1 and PAR4 account for most, if not all, thrombin signaling in platelets and that antagonists that block these receptors might be useful antithrombotic agents.
Project description:Anti-platelet drugs are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for heart attack and stroke prevention, yet improvements are continually sought. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets and targeting platelet thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors; PARs) is an emerging anti-thrombotic approach. Humans express two PARs on their platelets-PAR1 and PAR4. The first PAR1 antagonist was recently approved for clinical use and PAR4 antagonists are in early clinical development. However, pre-clinical studies examining platelet PAR function are challenging because the platelets of non-primates do not accurately reflect the PAR expression profile of human platelets. Mice, for example, express Par3 and Par4. To address this limitation, we aimed to develop a genetically modified mouse that would express the same repertoire of platelet PARs as humans. Here, human PAR1 preceded by a lox-stop-lox was knocked into the mouse Par3 locus, and then expressed in a platelet-specific manner (hPAR1-KI mice). Despite correct targeting and the predicted loss of Par3 expression and function in platelets from hPAR1-KI mice, no PAR1 expression or function was detected. Specifically, PAR1 was not detected on the platelet surface nor internally by flow cytometry nor in whole cell lysates by Western blot, while a PAR1-activating peptide failed to induce platelet activation assessed by either aggregation or surface P-selectin expression. Platelets from hPAR1-KI mice did display significantly diminished responsiveness to thrombin stimulation in both assays, consistent with a Par3-/- phenotype. In contrast to the observations in hPAR1-KI mouse platelets, the PAR1 construct used here was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells. Together, these data suggest ectopic PAR1 expression is not tolerated in mouse platelets and indicate a different approach is required to develop a small animal model for the purpose of any future preclinical testing of PAR antagonists as anti-platelet drugs.
Project description:Thrombin activates human platelets via 2 protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4, both of which are antithrombotic drug targets: a PAR1 inhibitor is approved for clinical use, and a PAR4 inhibitor is in trial. However, a common sequence variant in human PAR4 (rs773902, encoding Thr120 in place of Ala120) renders the receptor more sensitive to agonists and less sensitive to antagonists. Here, we develop the first human monoclonal function-blocking antibody to human PAR4 and show it provides equivalent efficacy against the Ala120 and Thr120 PAR4 variants. This candidate was generated from a panel of anti-PAR4 antibodies, was found to bind PAR4 with affinity (KD ? 0.4 nM) and selectivity (no detectable binding to any of PAR1, PAR2, or PAR3), and is capable of near-complete inhibition of thrombin cleavage of either the Ala120 or Thr120 PAR4 variant. Platelets from individuals expressing the Thr120 PAR4 variant exhibit increased thrombin-induced aggregation and phosphatidylserine exposure vs those with the Ala120 PAR4 variant, yet the PAR4 antibody inhibited these responses equivalently (50% inhibitory concentration, 4.3 vs 3.2 µg/mL against Ala120 and Thr120, respectively). Further, the antibody significantly impairs platelet procoagulant activity in an ex vivo thrombosis assay, with equivalent inhibition of fibrin formation and overall thrombus size in blood from individuals expressing the Ala120 or Thr120 PAR4 variant. These findings reveal antibody-mediated inhibition of PAR4 cleavage and activation provides robust antithrombotic activity independent of the rs773902 PAR4 sequence variant and provides rationale for such an approach for antithrombotic therapy targeting this receptor.
Project description:Human platelets express two protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 (F2R) and PAR4 (F2RL3), which are activated by a number of serine proteases that are generated during pathological events and cause platelet activation. Recent interest has focused on PAR4 as a therapeutic target, given PAR4 seems to promote experimental thrombosis and procoagulant microparticle formation, without a broadly apparent role in hemostasis. However, it is not yet known whether PAR4 activity plays a role in platelet-leukocyte interactions, which are thought to contribute to both thrombosis and acute or chronic thrombo-inflammatory processes. We sought to determine whether PAR4 activity contributes to granule secretion from activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte interactions. We performed in vitro and ex vivo studies of platelet granule release and platelet-leukocyte interactions in the presence of PAR4 agonists including PAR4 activating peptide, thrombin, cathepsin G, and plasmin in combination with small-molecule PAR4 antagonists. Activation of human platelets with thrombin, cathepsin G, or plasmin potentiated platelet dense granule secretion that was specifically impaired by PAR4 inhibitors. Platelet-leukocyte interactions and platelet P-selectin exposure the following stimulation with PAR4 agonists were also impaired by activated PAR4 inhibition in either a purified system or in whole blood. These results indicate PAR4-specific promotion of platelet granule release and platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation and suggest that pharmacological control of PAR4 activity could potentially attenuate platelet granule release or platelet-leukocyte interaction-mediated pathological processes.
Project description:ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when treated with bivalirudin and clopidogrel had increased frequency of early stent thrombosis. 24 patients referred for intervention with planned bivalirudin therapy, not previously treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor and not receiving heparins or ?IIb?3 inhibitors were randomized to treatment with either clopidogrel (600?mg) or prasugrel (60?mg). Platelet aggregation (PA) was measured by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) of platelet-rich plasma in response to ADP, PAR1/PAR4 thrombin receptor agonists and collagen at baseline and at 1, 2, 4 and 16?h following the cessation of bivalirudin infusion. Prasugrel-mediated inhibition of PA was significantly greater than that of clopidogrel at all time points for ADP as well as PAR1. There was an unanticipated, significantly greater protection of PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation only detected with prasugrel and not observed with clopidogrel. We further examined the effect of the hyperreactive PAR4 Thr120 variant in the protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs773902 on aggregation protection. The PAR4 protective effect with prasugrel was lost in individuals carrying the PAR4 Thr120 variant, and not in Ala120 homozygote. PAR1, ADP and collagen inhibition was not significantly affected in the hyperreactive PAR4 Thr120 variant. We documented that the P2Y12 ADP receptor-mediated regulation of the strength of the high-affinity conformation of ?IIb?3 as detected by PAC-1 ab, and in control of platelet adhesiveness through Rap1 GTPase protein activation. Importantly, the PAR4 Thr120 variant resulted in the increased rate and magnitude of Rap1 activation. Human platelet PAR4 mediated-activation of ?IIb?3 was phospholipase C beta (PLC?)-dependent and unlike mouse platelet PI3K-independent. These data identify a PAR4-dependent inhibitory mechanism for the prasugrel-mediated platelet inhibition, not seen with clopidogrel that could explain the reduction in stent thrombosis documented in clinical trials with prasugrel.
Project description:Cancer-associated thrombosis is a common first presenting sign of malignancy and is currently the second leading cause of death in cancer patients after their malignancy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer-associated thrombosis remain undefined. In this study, we aimed to develop a better understanding of how cancer cells affect the coagulation cascade and platelet activation to induce a prothrombotic phenotype. Our results show that colon cancer cells trigger platelet activation in a manner dependent on cancer cell tissue factor (TF) expression, thrombin generation, activation of the protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) on platelets and consequent release of ADP and thromboxane A2. Platelet-colon cancer cell interactions potentiated the release of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) rather than cancer cell-derived EVs. Our data show that single colon cancer cells were capable of recruiting and activating platelets and generating fibrin in plasma under shear flow. Finally, in a retrospective analysis of colon cancer patients, we found that the number of venous thromboembolism events was 4.5 times higher in colon cancer patients than in a control population. In conclusion, our data suggest that platelet-cancer cell interactions and perhaps platelet procoagulant EVs may contribute to the prothrombotic phenotype of colon cancer patients. Our work may provide rationale for targeting platelet-cancer cell interactions with PAR4 antagonists together with aspirin and/or ADP receptor antagonists as a potential intervention to limit cancer-associated thrombosis, balancing safety with efficacy.
Project description:Arrestins can facilitate desensitization or signaling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in many cells, but their roles in platelets remain uncharacterized. Because of recent reports that arrestins can serve as scaffolds to recruit phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)s to GPCRs, we sought to determine whether arrestins regulate PI3K-dependent Akt signaling in platelets, with consequences for thrombosis. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that arrestin-2 associates with p85 PI3K?/? subunits in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but not resting cells. The association is inhibited by inhibitors of P2Y12 and Src family kinases (SFKs). The function of arrestin-2 in platelets is agonist-specific, as PAR4-dependent Akt phosphorylation and fibrinogen binding were reduced in arrestin-2 knock-out platelets compared with WT controls, but ADP-stimulated signaling to Akt and fibrinogen binding were unaffected. ADP receptors regulate arrestin recruitment to PAR4, because co-immunoprecipitates of arrestin-2 with PAR4 are disrupted by inhibitors of P2Y1 or P2Y12. P2Y1 may regulate arrestin-2 recruitment to PAR4 through protein kinase C (PKC) activation, whereas P2Y12 directly interacts with PAR4 and therefore, may help to recruit arrestin-2 to PAR4. Finally, arrestin2(-/-) mice are less sensitive to ferric chloride-induced thrombosis than WT mice, suggesting that arrestin-2 can regulate thrombus formation in vivo. In conclusion, arrestin-2 regulates PAR4-dependent signaling pathways, but not responses to ADP alone, and contributes to thrombus formation in vivo.
Project description:Current antiplatelet strategies to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke are limited by bleeding risk. A better understanding of the roles of distinct platelet-activating pathways is needed. We determined whether platelet activation by 2 key primary activators, thrombin and collagen, plays distinct, redundant, or interacting roles in tail bleeding and carotid thrombosis in mice.Platelets from mice deficient for the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-4 (Par4) and the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI protein (GPVI) lack responses to thrombin and collagen, respectively. We examined tail bleeding and FeCl3-induced carotid artery occlusion in mice lacking Par4, GPVI, or both. We also examined a series of Par mutants with increasing impairment of thrombin signaling in platelets. Ablation of thrombin signaling alone by Par4 deficiency increased blood loss in the tail bleeding assay and impaired occlusive thrombus formation in the carotid occlusion assay. GPVI deficiency alone had no effect. Superimposing GPVI deficiency on Par4 deficiency markedly increased effect size in both assays. In contrast to complete ablation of thrombin signaling, 9- and 19-fold increases in EC50 for thrombin-induced platelet activation had only modest effects.The observation that loss of Par4 uncovered large effects of GPVI deficiency implies that Par4 and GPVI made independent, partially redundant contributions to occlusive thrombus formation in the carotid and to hemostatic clot formation in the tail under the experimental conditions examined. At face value, these results suggest that thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet activation can play partially redundant roles, despite important differences in how these agonists are made available to platelets.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Activation of human platelets by thrombin is mediated predominately through two proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition leads to reversible PAR1-mediated platelet aggregation, but has no effect on the stability of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying this difference were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The functions of PI3K and PAR4 were assessed using specific inhibitors and aggregometry. The duration of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa exposure was determined by flow cytometry with the antibody PAC-1. Western blotting and fluo-3 was used to evaluate the activation of Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization respectively. KEY RESULTS: When PAR4 function was inhibited either by the PAR4 antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3-(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole] or by receptor desensitization, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin turned thrombin-elicited platelet aggregation from an irreversible event to a reversible event. Moreover, wortmannin plus YD-3 markedly accelerated the inactivation of GPIIb/IIIa in thrombin-stimulated platelets. The aggregation-reversing activity mainly resulted from inhibition of both PI3K-dependent PKC activation and PAR4-mediated sustained intracellular Ca(2+) rises. Blockade of ADP P2Y(12) receptor with 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt mimicked the inhibitory effect of wortmannin on PI3K-dependent PKC activation and its ability to reverse PAR1-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation. Co-administration of 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt with YD-3 also decreased the stability of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that PAR4 acts in parallel with the P2Y(12)/PI3K pathway to stabilize platelet aggregates, and provide new insights into the mechanisms of thrombus stabilization and potential applications for antithrombotic therapy.
Project description:The Akt family of serine/threonine kinases includes Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 isoforms. Prior studies have reported that Akt1 and Akt2, but not Akt3, are expressed in platelets. Here, we show that Akt3 is expressed in substantial amounts in platelets. Akt3(-/-) mouse platelets selectively exhibit impaired platelet aggregation and secretion in response to low concentrations of thrombin receptor agonists and thromboxane A? (TXA?), but not collagen or VWF. In contrast, platelets from Akt1(-/-) or Akt2(-/-) mice are defective in platelet activation induced by thrombin, TXA?, and VWF, but only Akt1(-/-) platelets show significant defects in response to collagen, indicating differences among Akt isoforms. Akt3(-/-) platelets exhibit a significant reduction in thrombin-induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) at Ser9, which is known to inhibit GSK-3? function. Thus, Akt3 is important in inhibiting GSK-3?. Accordingly, treatment of Akt3(-/-) platelets with a GSK-3? inhibitor rescued the defect of Akt3(-/-) platelets in thrombin-induced aggregation, suggesting that negatively regulating GSK-3? may be a mechanism by which Akt3 promotes platelet activation. Importantly, Akt3(-/-) mice showed retardation in FeCl?-induced carotid artery thrombosis in vivo. Thus, Akt3 plays an important and distinct role in platelet activation and in thrombosis.