Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure.
ABSTRACT: High blood pressure increases the risks of stroke, dementia, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Although aerobic exercise and dietary modifications have been shown to reduce blood pressure, no randomized trials have examined the effects of aerobic exercise combined with dietary modification on neurocognitive functioning in individuals with high blood pressure (ie, prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension). As part of a larger investigation, 124 participants with elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 130 to 159 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 85 to 99 mm Hg) who were sedentary and overweight or obese (body mass index: 25 to 40 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet alone, DASH combined with a behavioral weight management program including exercise and caloric restriction, or a usual diet control group. Participants completed a battery of neurocognitive tests of executive function-memory-learning and psychomotor speed at baseline and again after the 4-month intervention. Participants on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program exhibited greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning (Cohen's D=0.562; P=0.008) and psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.480; P=0.023), and DASH diet alone participants exhibited better psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.440; P=0.036) compared with the usual diet control. Neurocognitive improvements appeared to be mediated by increased aerobic fitness and weight loss. Also, participants with greater intima-medial thickness and higher systolic blood pressure showed greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning in the group on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program. In conclusion, combining aerobic exercise with the DASH diet and caloric restriction improves neurocognitive function among sedentary and overweight/obese individuals with prehypertension and hypertension.
Project description:The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND).One hundred sixty adults (M [SD] = 65.4 [6.8] years) with CIND completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess adherence to the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets were obtained to assess direct effects with neurocognition. Potential indirect associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile also were examined.Greater aerobic capacity (? = 0.24) and daily physical activity (? = 0.15) were associated with better executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory (?s = 0.24; 0.16). Adherence to the DASH diet was associated with better verbal memory (? = 0.17). Greater high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (?s = -0.14; -0.21) and Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (? = -0.18; -0.18) were associated with poorer executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory. Greater stroke risk partially mediated the association of aerobic capacity with executive functioning/processing speed, and verbal memory and greater inflammation partially mediated the association of physical activity and aerobic fitness, with verbal memory.Higher levels of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and adherence to the DASH diet are associated with better neurocognitive performance in adults with CIND. These findings suggest that the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline in vulnerable older adults.NCT01573546.
Project description:This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7 kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95% CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg], respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the independent and additive effects of aerobic exercise (AE) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on executive functioning in adults with cognitive impairments with no dementia (CIND) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS:A 2-by-2 factorial (exercise/no exercise and DASH diet/no DASH diet) randomized clinical trial was conducted in 160 sedentary men and women (age >55 years) with CIND and CVD risk factors. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 months of AE, DASH diet nutritional counseling, a combination of both AE and DASH, or health education (HE). The primary endpoint was a prespecified composite measure of executive function; secondary outcomes included measures of language/verbal fluency, memory, and ratings on the modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. RESULTS:Participants who engaged in AE (d = 0.32, p = 0.046) but not those who consumed the DASH diet (d = 0.30, p = 0.059) demonstrated significant improvements in the executive function domain. The largest improvements were observed for participants randomized to the combined AE and DASH diet group (d = 0.40, p = 0.012) compared to those receiving HE. Greater aerobic fitness (b = 2.3, p = 0.049), reduced CVD risk (b = 2.6, p = 0.042), and reduced sodium intake (b = 0.18, p = 0.024) were associated with improvements in executive function. There were no significant improvements in the memory or language/verbal fluency domains. CONCLUSIONS:These preliminary findings show that AE promotes improved executive functioning in adults at risk for cognitive decline. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT01573546. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class I evidence that for adults with CIND, AE but not the DASH diet significantly improves executive functioning.
Project description:Background:Physical activity may attenuate age-related cognitive decline by improving cerebrovascular function. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate effects of aerobic exercise training on cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is a sensitive physiological marker of cerebrovascular function, in sedentary older men. Methods:Seventeen apparently healthy men, aged 60-70 years and with a BMI between 25 and 35 kg/m2, were included in a randomized, controlled cross-over trial. Study participants were randomly allocated to a fully-supervised, progressive, aerobic exercise training or no-exercise control period for 8 weeks, separated by a 12-week wash-out period. Measurements at the end of each period included aerobic fitness evaluated using peak oxygen consumption during incremental exercise (VO2 peak), CBF measured with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, and post-load glucose responses determined using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Furthermore, cognitive performance was assessed in the domains of executive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results:VO2 peak significantly increased following aerobic exercise training compared to no-exercise control by 262 ± 236 mL (P < 0.001). CBF was increased by 27% bilaterally in the frontal lobe, particularly the subcallosal and anterior cingulate gyrus (cluster volume: 1008 mm3; P < 0.05), while CBF was reduced by 19% in the right medial temporal lobe, mainly temporal fusiform gyrus (cluster volume: 408 mm3; P < 0.05). Mean post-load glucose concentrations determined using an OGTT decreased by 0.33 ± 0.63 mmol/L (P = 0.049). Furthermore, executive function improved as the latency of response was reduced by 5% (P = 0.034), but no changes were observed in memory or psychomotor speed. Conclusion:Aerobic exercise training improves regional CBF in sedentary older men. These changes in CBF may underlie exercise-induced beneficial effects on executive function, which could be partly mediated by improvements in glucose metabolism. This clinical trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03272061.
Project description:Background Nonpharmacologic interventions that modify lifestyle can lower blood pressure (BP) and have been assessed in numerous randomized controlled trials and pairwise meta-analyses. It is still unclear which intervention would be most efficacious. Methods and Results Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed to estimate the comparative effectiveness of different interventions for lowering BP. From 60 166 potentially relevant articles, 120 eligible articles (14 923 participants) with a median follow-up of 12 weeks, assessing 22 nonpharmacologic interventions, were included. According to the surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality of evidence, for adults with prehypertension to established hypertension, high-quality evidence indicated that the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) was superior to usual care and all other nonpharmacologic interventions in lowering systolic BP (weighted mean difference, 6.97 mm Hg; 95% credible interval, 4.50-9.47) and diastolic BP (weighted mean difference, 3.54 mm Hg; 95% credible interval, 1.80-5.28). Compared with usual care, moderate- to high-quality evidence indicated that aerobic exercise, isometric training, low-sodium and high-potassium salt, comprehensive lifestyle modification, breathing-control, and meditation could lower systolic BP and diastolic BP. For patients with hypertension, moderate- to high-quality evidence suggested that the interventions listed (except comprehensive lifestyle modification) were associated with greater systolic BP and diastolic BP reduction than usual care; salt restriction was also effective in lowering both systolic BP and diastolic BP. Among overweight and obese participants, low-calorie diet and low-calorie diet plus exercise could lower more BP than exercise. Conclusions DASH might be the most effective intervention in lowering BP for adults with prehypertension to established hypertension. Aerobic exercise, isometric training, low-sodium and high-potassium salt, comprehensive lifestyle modification, salt restriction, breathing-control, meditation and low-calorie diet also have obvious effects on BP reduction.
Project description:This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the dose-response relationship between exercise and cognitive function in older adults with and without cognitive impairments. We included single-modality randomized controlled aerobic, anaerobic, multicomponent or psychomotor exercise trials that quantified training frequency, session and program duration and specified intensity quantitatively or qualitatively. We defined total exercise duration in minutes as the product of program duration, session duration, and frequency. For each study, we grouped test-specific Hedges' d (n = 163) and Cohen's d (n = 23) effect sizes in the domains Global cognition, Executive function and Memory. We used multilevel mixed-effects models to investigate dose-related predictors of exercise effects. In healthy older adults (n = 23 studies), there was a small positive effect of exercise on executive function (d = 0.27) and memory (d = 0.24), but dose-parameters did not predict the magnitude of effect sizes. In older adults with cognitive impairments (n = 13 studies), exercise had a moderate positive effect on global cognition (d = 0.37). For older adults with cognitive impairments, we found evidence for exercise programs with a short session duration and high frequency to predict higher effect sizes (d = 0.43-0.50). In healthy older adults, dose-parameters did not predict the magnitude of exercise effects on cognition. For older adults with cognitive impairments, exercise programs with shorter session duration and higher frequency may generate the best cognitive results. Studies are needed in which different exercise doses are directly compared among randomized subjects or conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exercise is often proposed as a non-pharmacological intervention to delay cognitive decline in people with dementia, but evidence remains inconclusive. Previous studies suggest that combining physical exercise with cognitive stimulation may be more successful in this respect. Exergaming is a promising intervention in which physical exercise is combined with cognitively challenging tasks in a single session. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exergame training and aerobic training on cognitive functioning in older adults with dementia. METHODS:A three-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared exergame training, aerobic training and an active control intervention consisting of relaxation and flexibility exercises. Individuals with dementia were randomized and individually trained three times a week during 12?weeks. Cognitive functioning was measured at baseline, after the 12-week intervention period and at 24-week follow-up by neuropsychological assessment. The domains of executive function, episodic memory, working memory and psychomotor speed were evaluated. Test scores were converted into standardized z-scores that were averaged per domain. Between-group differences were analysed with analysis of covariance. RESULTS:Data from 115 people with dementia (mean (SD) age?=?79.2 (6.9) years; mean (SD) MMSE score?=?22.9 (3.4)) were analysed. There was a significant improvement in psychomotor speed in the aerobic and exergame groups compared to the active control group (mean difference domain score (95% CI) aerobic versus control 0.370 (0.103-0.637), p?=?0.007; exergame versus control 0.326 (0.081-0.571), p?=?0.009). The effect size was moderate (partial ?2?=?0.102). No significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found for executive functioning, episodic memory and working memory. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effects of exergame training and aerobic training on cognitive functioning in people with dementia. We found that both exergame training and aerobic training improve psychomotor speed, compared to an active control group. This finding may be clinically relevant as psychomotor speed is an important predictor for functional decline. No effects were found on executive function, episodic memory and working memory. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Netherlands Trial Register, NTR5581 . Registered on 7 October 2015.
Project description:Objective: To report secondary neurocognitive and quality of life outcomes for a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of aerobic training for management of prolonged symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adolescents. Setting: Outpatient research setting. Participants: Thirty adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years who sustained a mTBI and had between 4 and 16 weeks of persistent post-concussive symptoms. Design: Secondary outcome analysis of a partially masked RCT of sub-symptom exacerbation aerobic training compared with a full-body stretching program highlighting cognitive and quality of life outcomes. Main Measures: The secondary outcomes assessed included neurocognitive changes in fluid and crystallized age-adjusted cognition using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) toolbox and self and parent-reported total quality of life using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results: Twenty-two percent of eligible participants enrolled in the trial. General linear models did not reveal statistically significant differences between groups. Within group analyses using paired t-tests demonstrated improvement in age-adjusted fluid cognition [t (13) = 3.39, p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.61] and crystallized cognition [t (13) = 2.63, p = 0.02, Cohen's d = 0.70] within the aerobic training group but no significant improvement within the stretching group. Paired t-tests demonstrated significant improvement in both self-reported and parent-reported total quality of life measures in the aerobic training group [self-report t (13) = 3.51, p = 0.004, Cohen's d = 0.94; parent-report t (13) = 6.5, p < 0.0001, Cohen's d = 1.80] and the stretching group [self-report t (14) = 4.20, p = 0.0009, Cohen's d = 1.08; parent-report t (14) = 4.06, p = 0.0012, Cohen's d = 1.045]. Conclusion: Quality of life improved significantly in both the aerobic exercise and stretching groups; however, this study suggests that only sub-symptom exacerbation aerobic training was potentially beneficial for neurocognitive recovery, particularly the fluid cognition subset in the NIH Toolbox. Limited sample size and variation in outcomes measures limited ability to detect between group differences. Future research should focus on developing larger studies to determine optimal timing post-injury and intensity of active rehabilitation to facilitate neurocognitive recovery and improve quality of life after mTBI. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02035579.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Potential moderators such as exercise intensity or apolipoprotein-E4 (ApoE4) carriership may determine the magnitude of exercise effects on physical and cognitive functions in patients with dementia (PwD). We determined the effects of a 24-week aerobic and strength training program with a low- and high-intensity phase on physical and cognitive function. METHODS:In an assessor-blinded randomized trial, 91 PwD (all-cause dementia, recruited from daycare and residential care facilities, age 82.3?±?7.0 years, 59 women, Mini-Mental State Examination 20.2?±?4.4) were allocated to the exercise or control group. In the exercise group, PwD participated in a walking and lower limb strength training program with 12?weeks low- and 12?weeks high-intensity training offered three times/week. Attention-matched control participants performed flexibility exercises and recreational activities. We assessed adherence, compliance, and exercise intensity for each session. We assessed physical (endurance, gait speed, mobility, balance, leg strength) and cognitive (verbal memory, visual memory, executive function, inhibitory control, psychomotor speed) functions with performance-based tests at baseline and after 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 weeks (follow-up). ApoE4 carriership was determined post-intervention. RESULTS:Sixty-nine PwD were analyzed. Their mean attendance was ~?60% during the study period. There were no significant effects of the exercise vs. control intervention on endurance, mobility, balance, and leg strength in favor of the exercise group (Cohen's d?=?0.13-0.18). Gait speed significantly improved with ~?0.05?m/s after the high-intensity phase for exercise participants (Cohen's d?=?0.41) but declined at follow-up. There were no significant effects of the exercise vs. control intervention on any of the cognitive measures (Cohen's d ~?-?0.04). ApoE4 carriership did not significantly moderate exercise effects on physical or cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS:Exercise was superior to control activities for gait speed in our sample of PwD. However, the training effect provided no protection for mobility loss after detraining (follow-up). There were no beneficial effects of the exercise vs. control group on cognitive function. Exercise intensity moderated the effects of exercise on gait speed. ApoE4 carriership moderated the effect of exercise on global cognition only (trend level). TRIAL REGISTRATION:Netherlands Trial Register, NTR5035. Registered on 2 March 2015.
Project description:The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) dietary pattern, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, significantly lowers blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.The study was designed to test the effects of substituting full-fat for low-fat dairy foods in the DASH diet, with a corresponding increase in fat and a reduction in sugar intake, on blood pressure and plasma lipids and lipoproteins.This was a 3-period randomized crossover trial in free-living healthy individuals who consumed in random order a control diet, a standard DASH diet, and a higher-fat, lower-carbohydrate modification of the DASH diet (HF-DASH diet) for 3 wk each, separated by 2-wk washout periods. Laboratory measurements, which included lipoprotein particle concentrations determined by ion mobility, were made at the end of each experimental diet.Thirty-six participants completed all 3 dietary periods. Blood pressure was reduced similarly with the DASH and HF-DASH diets compared with the control diet. The HF-DASH diet significantly reduced triglycerides and large and medium very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentrations and increased LDL peak particle diameter compared with the DASH diet. The DASH diet, but not the HF-DASH diet, significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, intermediate-density lipoprotein and large LDL particles, and LDL peak diameter compared with the control diet.The HF-DASH diet lowered blood pressure to the same extent as the DASH diet but also reduced plasma triglyceride and VLDL concentrations without significantly increasing LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01404897.