The cystic fibrosis-causing mutation deltaF508 affects multiple steps in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The deletion of phenylalanine 508 in the first nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is directly associated with >90% of cystic fibrosis cases. This mutant protein fails to traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome. The effects of this mutation may be partially reversed by the application of exogenous osmolytes, expression at low temperature, and the introduction of second site suppressor mutations. However, the specific steps of folding and assembly of full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) directly altered by the disease-causing mutation are unclear. To elucidate the effects of the ?F508 mutation, on various steps in CFTR folding, a series of misfolding and suppressor mutations in the nucleotide binding and transmembrane domains were evaluated for effects on the folding and maturation of the protein. The results indicate that the isolated NBD1 responds to both the ?F508 mutation and intradomain suppressors of this mutation. In addition, identification of a novel second site suppressor of the defect within the second transmembrane domain suggests that ?F508 also effects interdomain interactions critical for later steps in the biosynthesis of CFTR.
Project description:Relative contributions of folding kinetics versus protein quality control (QC) activity in the partitioning of non-native proteins between life and death are not clear. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biogenesis serves as an excellent model to study this question because folding of nascent CFTR is inefficient and deletion of F508 causes accumulation of CFTR?F508 in a kinetically trapped, but foldable state. Herein, a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated Hsp40, DNAJB12 (JB12) is demonstrated to play a role in control of CFTR folding efficiency. JB12 cooperates with cytosolic Hsc70 and the ubiquitin ligase RMA1 to target CFTR and CFTR?F508 for degradation. Modest elevation of JB12 decreased nascent CFTR and CFTR?F508 accumulation while increasing association of Hsc70 with ER forms of CFTR and the RMA1 E3 complex. Depletion of JB12 increased CFTR folding efficiency up to threefold and permitted a pool of CFTR?F508 to fold and escape the ER. Introduction of the V510D misfolding suppressor mutation into CFTR?F508 modestly increased folding efficiency, whereas combined inactivation of JB12 and suppression of intrinsic folding defects permitted CFTR?F508 to fold at 50% of wild-type efficiency. Therapeutic correction of CFTR?F508 misfolding in cystic fibrosis patients may require repair of defective folding kinetics and suppression of ER QC factors, such as JB12.
Project description:The most common cystic fibrosis mutation, ?F508 in nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1), impairs cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-coupled domain folding, plasma membrane expression, function and stability. VX-809, a promising investigational corrector of ?F508-CFTR misprocessing, has limited clinical benefit and an incompletely understood mechanism, hampering drug development. Given the effect of second-site suppressor mutations, robust ?F508-CFTR correction most likely requires stabilization of NBD1 energetics and the interface between membrane-spanning domains (MSDs) and NBD1, which are both established primary conformational defects. Here we elucidate the molecular targets of available correctors: class I stabilizes the NBD1-MSD1 and NBD1-MSD2 interfaces, and class II targets NBD2. Only chemical chaperones, surrogates of class III correctors, stabilize human ?F508-NBD1. Although VX-809 can correct missense mutations primarily destabilizing the NBD1-MSD1/2 interface, functional plasma membrane expression of ?F508-CFTR also requires compounds that counteract the NBD1 and NBD2 stability defects in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells and intestinal organoids. Thus, the combination of structure-guided correctors represents an effective approach for cystic fibrosis therapy.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis is a lethal genetic disease caused by lack of functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins at the apical surface of secretory epithelia. CFTR is a multidomain protein, containing five domains, and its functional structure is attained in a hierarchical folding process. Most CF-causing mutations in CFTR, including the most common mutation, a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (?F508), are unable to properly fold into this functional native three dimensional structure. Currently, no high-resolution structural information about full length CFTR exists. However, insight has been gained through examining homologous ABC transporter structures, molecular modeling, and high-resolution structures of individual, isolated CFTR domains. Taken together, these studies indicate that the prevalent ?F508 mutation disrupts two essential steps during the development of the native structure: folding of the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) and its later association with the fourth intracellular loop (ICL4) in the second transmembrane domain (TMD2). Therapeutics to rescue ?F508 and other mutants in CFTR can be targeted to correct defects that occur during the complex folding process. This article reviews the structural relationships between CFTR and ABC transporters and current knowledge about how CFTR attains its structure-with a focus on how this process is altered by CF-causing mutations in a manner targetable by therapeutics.
Project description:Protein folding is the primary role of proteostasis network (PN) where chaperone interactions with client proteins determine the success or failure of the folding reaction in the cell. We now address how the Phe508 deletion in the NBD1 domain of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF) impacts the binding of CFTR with cellular chaperones. We applied single ion reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) to quantitatively characterize the stoichiometry of the heat shock proteins (Hsps) in CFTR folding intermediates in vivo and mapped the sites of interaction of the NBD1 domain of CFTR with Hsp90 in vitro. Unlike folding of WT-CFTR, we now demonstrate the presence of ?F508-CFTR in a stalled folding intermediate in stoichiometric association with the core Hsps 40, 70 and 90, referred to as a 'chaperone trap'. Culturing cells at 30 C resulted in correction of ?F508-CFTR trafficking and function, restoring the sub-stoichiometric association of core Hsps observed for WT-CFTR. These results support the interpretation that ?F508-CFTR is restricted to a chaperone-bound folding intermediate, a state that may contribute to its loss of trafficking and increased targeting for degradation. We propose that stalled folding intermediates could define a critical proteostasis pathway branch-point(s) responsible for the loss of function in misfolding diseases as observed in CF.
Project description:Production of functional proteins requires multiple steps, including gene transcription and posttranslational processing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate individual stages of these processes. Despite the importance of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel for epithelial anion transport, how its expression is regulated remains uncertain. We discovered that miRNA-138 regulates CFTR expression through its interactions with the transcriptional regulatory protein SIN3A. Treating airway epithelia with an miR-138 mimic increased CFTR mRNA and also enhanced CFTR abundance and transepithelial Cl(-) permeability independent of elevated mRNA levels. An miR-138 anti-miR had the opposite effects. Importantly, miR-138 altered the expression of many genes encoding proteins that associate with CFTR and may influence its biosynthesis. The most common CFTR mutation, ?F508, causes protein misfolding, protein degradation, and cystic fibrosis. Remarkably, manipulating the miR-138 regulatory network also improved biosynthesis of CFTR-?F508 and restored Cl(-) transport to cystic fibrosis airway epithelia. This miRNA-regulated network directs gene expression from the chromosome to the cell membrane, indicating that an individual miRNA can control a cellular process more broadly than recognized previously. This discovery also provides therapeutic avenues for restoring CFTR function to cells affected by the most common cystic fibrosis mutation.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. The most common CF-associated mutation is ?F508, which deletes a phenylalanine in position 508. In vitro studies indicate that the resultant protein, CFTR-?F508, is misprocessed, although the in vivo consequences of this mutation remain uncertain. To better understand the effects of the ?F508 mutation in vivo, we produced CFTR(?F508/?F508) pigs. Our biochemical, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological data on CFTR-?F508 in newborn pigs paralleled in vitro predictions. They also indicated that CFTR(?F508/?F508) airway epithelia retain a small residual CFTR conductance, with maximal stimulation producing ~6% of wild-type function. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) agonists were less potent at stimulating current in CFTR(?)(F508/)(?)(F508) epithelia, suggesting that quantitative tests of maximal anion current may overestimate transport under physiological conditions. Despite residual CFTR function, four older CFTR(?F508/?F508) pigs developed lung disease similar to human CF. These results suggest that this limited CFTR activity is insufficient to prevent lung or gastrointestinal disease in CF pigs. These data also suggest that studies of recombinant CFTR-?F508 misprocessing predict in vivo behavior, which validates its use in biochemical and drug discovery experiments. These findings help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of the common CF mutation and will guide strategies for developing new therapeutics.
Project description:Deletion of Phe508 from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ?F508 CFTR was stable at 22 °C and increased at 28 °C, a temperature permissive for ?F508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37 °C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ?F508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly toward background, a phenomenon referred to here as "thermal inactivation." Thermal inactivation of ?F508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K, and R1070W, but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (P(o)) of ?F508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase P(o) of ?F508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37 °C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ?F508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172 were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ?F508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities.
Project description:Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (?F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ?F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ?F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ?F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ?F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ?F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ?F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508.
Project description:Misfolding of ?F508 cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlies pathology in most CF patients. F508 resides in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR near a predicted interface with the fourth intracellular loop (ICL4). Efforts to identify small molecules that restore function by correcting the folding defect have revealed an apparent efficacy ceiling. To understand the mechanistic basis of this obstacle, positions statistically coupled to 508, in evolved sequences, were identified and assessed for their impact on both NBD1 and CFTR folding. The results indicate that both NBD1 folding and interaction with ICL4 are altered by the ?F508 mutation and that correction of either individual process is only partially effective. By contrast, combination of mutations that counteract both defects restores ?F508 maturation and function to wild-type levels. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for the limited efficacy of extant corrector compounds and suggest approaches for identifying compounds that correct both defective steps.
Project description:The most prevalent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ?F508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain (NBD) 1 and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane-spanning domains. The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 (3-[6-[[[1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl]-benzoic acid) or the R1070W mutation. Second-generation ?F508-CFTR correctors are needed to improve on the modest efficacy of existing cystic fibrosis correctors. We postulated that a second corrector targeting a distinct folding/interfacial defect might act in synergy with VX-809 or the R1070W suppressor mutation. A biochemical screen for ?F508-CFTR cell surface expression was developed in a human lung epithelium-derived cell line (CFBE41o(-)) by expressing chimeric CFTRs with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the fourth exofacial loop in either the presence or absence of R1070W. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, screening of approximately 110,000 small molecules produced nine novel corrector scaffolds that increased cell surface ?F508-CFTR expression by up to 200% in the presence versus absence of maximal VX-809. Further screening of 1006 analogs of compounds identified from the primary screen produced 15 correctors with an EC50 < 5 µM. Eight chemical scaffolds showed synergy with VX-809 in restoring chloride permeability in ?F508-expressing A549 cells. An aminothiazole increased chloride conductance in human bronchial epithelial cells from a ?F508 homozygous subject beyond that of maximal VX-809. Mechanistic studies suggested that NBD2 is required for the aminothiazole rescue. Our results provide proof of concept for synergy screening to identify second-generation correctors, which, when used in combination, may overcome the "therapeutic ceiling" of first-generation correctors.