Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by an interaction of IQGAP related protein GAPA with filamin and cortexillin I.
ABSTRACT: Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin.
Project description:Cytokinesis in eukaryotic organisms is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Cortexillins are actin-binding proteins whose activity is crucial for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. Here we show that the IQGAP-related and Rac1-binding protein DGAP1 specifically interacts with the C-terminal, actin-bundling domain of cortexillin I. Like cortexillin I, DGAP1 is enriched in the cortex of interphase cells and translocates to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. The activated form of the small GTPase Rac1A recruits DGAP1 into a quaternary complex with cortexillin I and II. In DGAP1(-) mutants, a complex can still be formed with a second IQGAP-related protein, GAPA. The simultaneous elimination of DGAP1 and GAPA, however, prevents complex formation and localization of the cortexillins to the cleavage furrow. This leads to a severe defect in cytokinesis, which is similar to that found in cortexillin I/II double-null mutants. Our observations define a novel and functionally significant signaling pathway that is required for cytokinesis.
Project description:The gapA gene encoding a novel RasGTPase-activating protein (RasGAP)-related protein was found to be disrupted in a cytokinesis mutant of Dictyostelium that grows as giant and multinucleate cells in a dish culture. The predicted sequence of the GAPA protein showed considerable homology to those of Gap1/Sar1 from fission yeast and the COOH-terminal half of mammalian IQGAPs, the similarity extending beyond the RasGAP-related domain. In suspension culture, gapA- cells showed normal growth in terms of the increase in cell mass, but cytokinesis inefficiently occurred to produce spherical giant cells. Time-lapse recording of the dynamics of cell division in a dish culture revealed that, in the case of gapA- cells, cytokinesis was very frequently reversed at the step in which the midbody connecting the daughter cells should be severed. Earlier steps of cytokinesis in the gapA- cells seemed to be normal, since myosin II was accumulated at the cleavage furrow. Upon starvation, gapA- cells developed and formed fruiting bodies with viable spores, like the wild-type cells. These results indicate that the GAPA protein is specifically involved in the completion of cytokinesis. Recently, it was reported that IQGAPs are putative effectors for Rac and CDC42, members of the Rho family of GTPases, and participate in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, it is possible that Dictyostelium GAPA participates in the severing of the midbody by regulating the actin cytoskeleton through an interaction with a member of small GTPases.
Project description:Cortexillins I-III are members of the ?-actinin/spectrin subfamily of Dictyostelium calponin homology proteins. Unlike recombinant cortexillins I and II, which form homodimers as well as heterodimers in vitro, we find that recombinant cortexillin III is an unstable monomer but forms more stable heterodimers when coexpressed in Escherichia coli with cortexillin I or II. Expressed cortexillin III also forms heterodimers with both cortexillin I and II in vivo, and the heterodimers complex in vivo with DGAP1, a Dictyostelium GAP protein. Binding of cortexillin III to DGAP1 requires the presence of either cortexillin I or II; that is, cortexillin III binds to DGAP1 only as a heterodimer, and the heterodimers form in vivo in the absence of DGAP1. Expressed cortexillin III colocalizes with cortexillins I and II in the cortex of vegetative amoebae, the leading edge of motile cells, and the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. Colocalization of cortexillin III and F-actin may require the heterodimer/DGAP1 complex. Functionally, cortexillin III may be a negative regulator of cell growth, cytokinesis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis, as all are enhanced in cortexillin III-null cells.
Project description:Mechanosensing governs many processes from molecular to organismal levels, including during cytokinesis where it ensures successful and symmetrical cell division. Although many proteins are now known to be force sensitive, myosin motors with their ATPase activity and force-sensitive mechanical steps are well poised to facilitate cellular mechanosensing. For a myosin motor to experience tension, the actin filament must also be anchored.Here, we find a cooperative relationship between myosin II and the actin crosslinker cortexillin I where both proteins are essential for cellular mechanosensory responses. Although many functions of cortexillin I and myosin II are dispensable for cytokinesis, all are required for full mechanosensing. Our analysis demonstrates that this mechanosensor has three critical elements: the myosin motor where the lever arm acts as a force amplifier, a force-sensitive bipolar thick-filament assembly, and a long-lived actin crosslinker, which anchors the actin filament so that the motor may experience tension. We also demonstrate that a Rac small GTPase inhibits this mechanosensory module during interphase, allowing the module to be primarily active during cytokinesis.Overall, myosin II and cortexillin I define a cellular-scale mechanosensor that controls cell shape during cytokinesis. This system is exquisitely tuned through the enzymatic properties of the myosin motor, its lever arm length, and bipolar thick-filament assembly dynamics. The system also requires cortexillin I to stably anchor the actin filament so that the myosin motor can experience tension. Through this cross-talk, myosin II and cortexillin I define a cellular-scale mechanosensor that monitors and corrects shape defects, ensuring symmetrical cell division.
Project description:During cytokinesis, global and equatorial pathways deform the cell cortex in a stereotypical manner, which leads to daughter cell separation. Equatorial forces are largely generated by myosin-II and the actin crosslinker, cortexillin-I. In contrast, global mechanics are determined by the cortical cytoskeleton, including the actin crosslinker, dynacortin. We used direct morphometric characterization and laser-tracking microrheology to quantify cortical mechanical properties of wild-type and cortexillin-I and dynacortin mutant Dictyostelium cells. Both cortexillin-I and dynacortin influence cytokinesis and interphase cortical viscoelasticity as predicted from genetics and biochemical data using purified dynacortin proteins. Our studies suggest that the regulation of cytokinesis ultimately requires modulation of proteins that control the cortical mechanical properties that establish the force-balance that specifies the shapes of cytokinesis. The combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical observations suggests that the cell's cortical mechanical properties control how the cortex is remodeled during cytokinesis.
Project description:Cytokinesis requires a complex network of equatorial and global proteins to regulate cell shape changes. Here, using interaction genetics, we report the first characterization of a novel protein, enlazin. Enlazin is a natural fusion of two canonical classes of actin-associated proteins, the ezrin-radixin-moesin family and fimbrin, and it is localized to actin-rich structures. A fragment of enlazin, enl-tr, was isolated as a genetic suppressor of the cytokinesis defect of cortexillin-I mutants. Expression of enl-tr disrupts expression of endogenous enlazin, indicating that enl-tr functions as a dominant-negative lesion. Enlazin is distributed globally during cytokinesis and is required for cortical tension and cell adhesion. Consistent with a role in cell mechanics, inhibition of enlazin in a cortexillin-I background restores cytokinesis furrowing dynamics and suppresses the growth-in-suspension defect. However, as expected for a role in cell adhesion, inhibiting enlazin in a myosin-II background induces a synthetic cytokinesis phenotype, frequently arresting furrow ingression at the dumbbell shape and/or causing recession of the furrow. Thus, enlazin has roles in cell mechanics and adhesion, and these roles seem to be differentially significant for cytokinesis, depending on the genetic background.
Project description:SR1 is a dual-function sRNA from B. subtilis that acts as a base-pairing regulatory RNA and as a peptide-encoding mRNA. Both functions of SR1 are highly conserved. Previously, we uncovered that the SR1 encoded peptide SR1P binds the glycolytic enzyme GapA resulting in stabilization of gapA mRNA. Here, we demonstrate that GapA interacts with RNases Y and J1, and this interaction was RNA-independent. About 1% of GapA molecules purified from B. subtilis carry RNase J1 and about 2% RNase Y. In contrast to the GapA/RNase Y interaction, the GapA/RNaseJ1 interaction was stronger in the presence of SR1P. GapA/SR1P-J1/Y displayed in vitro RNase activity on known RNase J1 substrates. Moreover, the RNase J1 substrate SR5 has altered half-lives in a ?gapA strain and a ?sr1 strain, suggesting in vivo functions of the GapA/SR1P/J1 interaction. Our results demonstrate that the metabolic enzyme GapA moonlights in recruiting RNases while GapA bound SR1P promotes binding of RNase J1 and enhances its activity.
Project description:Cell-shape changes associated with processes like cytokinesis and motility proceed on several-second timescales but are derived from molecular events, including protein-protein interactions, filament assembly, and force generation by molecular motors, all of which occur much faster [1-4]. Therefore, defining the dynamics of such molecular machinery is critical for understanding cell-shape regulation. In addition to signaling pathways, mechanical stresses also direct cytoskeletal protein accumulation [5-7]. A myosin-II-based mechanosensory system controls cellular contractility and shape during cytokinesis and under applied stress [6, 8]. In Dictyostelium, this system tunes myosin II accumulation by feedback through the actin network, particularly through the crosslinker cortexillin I. Cortexillin-binding IQGAPs are major regulators of this system. Here, we defined the short timescale dynamics of key cytoskeletal proteins during cytokinesis and under mechanical stress, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, to examine the dynamic interplay between these proteins. Equatorially enriched proteins including cortexillin I, IQGAP2, and myosin II recovered much more slowly than actin and polar crosslinkers. The mobility of equatorial proteins was greatly reduced at the furrow compared to the interphase cortex, suggesting their stabilization during cytokinesis. This mobility shift did not arise from a single biochemical event, but rather from a global inhibition of protein dynamics by mechanical-stress-associated changes in the cytoskeletal structure. Mechanical tuning of contractile protein dynamics provides robustness to the cytoskeletal framework responsible for regulating cell shape and contributes to cytokinesis fidelity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs) are cytoplasmic glycolytic enzymes, which although lacking identifiable secretion signals, have also been found localized to the surface of several bacteria (and some eukaryotic organisms); where in some cases they have been shown to contribute to the colonization and invasion of host tissues. Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate human nasopharyngeal commensal which can cause life-threatening infections including septicaemia and meningitis. N. meningitidis has two genes, gapA-1 and gapA-2, encoding GAPDH enzymes. GapA-1 has previously been shown to be up-regulated on bacterial contact with host epithelial cells and is accessible to antibodies on the surface of capsule-permeabilized meningococcal cells. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine whether GapA-1 was expressed across different strains of N. meningitidis; 2) to determine whether GapA-1 surface accessibility to antibodies was dependent on the presence of capsule; 3) to determine whether GapA-1 can influence the interaction of meningococci and host cells, particularly in the key stages of adhesion and invasion. RESULTS: In this study, expression of GapA-1 was shown to be well conserved across diverse isolates of Neisseria species. Flow cytometry confirmed that GapA-1 could be detected on the cell surface, but only in a siaD-knockout (capsule-deficient) background, suggesting that GapA-1 is inaccessible to antibody in in vitro-grown encapsulated meningococci. The role of GapA-1 in meningococcal pathogenesis was addressed by mutational analysis and functional complementation. Loss of GapA-1 did not affect the growth of the bacterium in vitro. However, a GapA-1 deficient mutant showed a significant reduction in adhesion to human epithelial and endothelial cells compared to the wild-type and complemented mutant. A similar reduction in adhesion levels was also apparent between a siaD-deficient meningococcal strain and an isogenic siaD gapA-1 double mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that meningococcal GapA-1 is a constitutively-expressed, highly-conserved surface-exposed protein which is antibody-accessible only in the absence of capsule. Mutation of GapA-1 does not affect the in vitro growth rate of N. meningitidis, but significantly affects the ability of the organism to adhere to human epithelial and endothelial cells in a capsule-independent process suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of meningococcal infection.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) drive and coordinate multiple cell-cycle events, including construction and contraction of the actomyosin ring during cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear whether CDKs regulate cytokinesis by directly targeting components of the ring. In a search for proteins containing consensus CDK phosphorylation sites in Candida albicans, we found that the IQGAP Iqg1 contains two dense clusters of 19 such sites flanking the actin-interacting CH domain. Here, we show that Iqg1 is indeed a phosphoprotein that undergoes cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation and can be phosphorylated by purified Clb-Cdc28 kinases in vitro. Mass spectrometry identified several phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues among these CDK sites. Mutating 15 of the CDK phosphorylation sites with alanine markedly reduced Iqg1 phosphorylation in vivo. The 15A mutation greatly stabilized Iqg1, caused both premature assembly and delayed disassembly of the actomyosin ring, blocked Iqg1 interaction with the actin-nucleating proteins Bni1 and Bnr1, and resulted in defects in cytokinesis. Our data therefore strongly support the idea that the Cdc28 CDK regulates cytokinesis partly by directly phosphorylating the actomyosin ring component Iqg1.