Regulation and identification of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit phosphorylation in rat parotid acinar cells.
ABSTRACT: The stimulation of fluid and electrolyte secretion in salivary cells results in ionic changes that promote rapid increases in the activity of the Na,K-ATPase. In many cell systems, there are conflicting findings concerning the regulation of the phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase ? subunit, which is the catalytic moiety. Initially, we investigated the phosphorylation sites on the ?1 subunit in native rat parotid acinar cells using tandem mass spectrometry and identified two new phosphorylation sites (Ser(222), Ser(407)), three sites (Ser(217), Tyr(260), Ser(47)) previously found from large scale proteomic screens, and two sites (Ser(23), Ser(16)) known to be phosphorylated by PKC. Subsequently, we used phospho-specific antibodies to examine the regulation of phosphorylation on Ser(23) and Ser(16) and measured changes in ERK phosphorylation in parallel. The G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptor mimetic carbachol, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, and the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A increased Ser(23) ?1 phosphorylation. Inhibition of classical PKC proteins blocked carbachol-stimulated Ser(23) ?1 subunit phosphorylation but not ERK phosphorylation, which was blocked by an inhibitor of novel PKC proteins. The carbachol-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(23) ?1 subunit was not modified by ERK or PKA activity. The Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain reduced and enhanced the carbachol-promoted phosphorylation of Ser(23) and Ser(16), respectively, the latter because ouabain itself increased Ser(16) phosphorylation; thus, both sites display conformational-dependent phosphorylation changes. Ouabain-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(16) ?1 was not blocked by PKC inhibitors, unlike carbachol- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-initiated phosphorylations, suggesting that this site was also a substrate for a kinase other than PKC.
Project description:1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump.
Project description:G protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channels regulate cellular excitability and neurotransmission. The GIRK channels are activated by a number of inhibitory neurotransmitters through the G protein betagamma subunit (G(betagamma)) after activation of G protein-coupled receptors and inhibited by several excitatory neurotransmitters through activation of phospholipase C. If the inhibition is produced by PKC, there should be PKC phosphorylation sites in GIRK channel proteins. To identify the PKC phosphorylation sites, we performed systematic mutagenesis analysis on GIRK4 and GIRK1 subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our data showed that the heteromeric GIRK1/GIRK4 channels were inhibited by a PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) through reduction of single channel open-state probability. Direct application of the catalytic subunit of PKC to excised patches had a similar inhibitory effect. This inhibition was greatly eliminated by mutation of Ser-185 in GIRK1 and Ser-191 in GIRK4 that remained G protein sensitive. The PKC-dependent phosphorylation seems to mediate the channel inhibition by the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) as specific PKC inhibitors and mutation of these PKC phosphorylation sites abolished the SP-induced inhibition of GIRK1/GIRK4 channels. Thus, these results indicate that the PKC-dependent phosphorylation underscores the inhibition of GIRK channels by SP, and Ser-185 in GIRK1 and Ser-191 in GIRK4 are the PKC phosphorylation sites.
Project description:TRPC6 is a cation channel in the plasma membrane that plays a role in Ca(2+) entry following the stimulation of a G(q)-protein coupled or tyrosine kinase receptor. A dysregulation of TRPC6 activity causes abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells and glomerulosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of TRPC6 activity by protein kinase C (PKC). We showed that inhibiting PKC with GF1 or activating it with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate potentiated and inhibited agonist-induced Ca(2+) entry, respectively, into cells expressing TRPC6. Similar results were obtained when TRPC6 was directly activated with 1-oleyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Activation of the cells with carbachol increased the phosphorylation of TRPC6, an effect that was prevented by the inhibition of PKC. The target residue of PKC was identified by an alanine screen of all canonical PKC sites on TRPC6. Unexpectedly, all the mutants, including TRPC6(S768A) (a residue previously proposed to be a target for PKC), displayed PKC-dependent inhibition of channel activity. Phosphorylation prediction software suggested that Ser(448), in a non-canonical PKC consensus sequence, was a potential target for PKC?. Ba(2+) and Ca(2+) entry experiments revealed that GF1 did not potentiate TRPC6(S448A) activity. Moreover, activation of PKC did not enhance the phosphorylation state of TRPC6(S448A). Using A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells, which endogenously express TRPC6, we observed that a novel PKC isoform is involved in the inhibition of the vasopressin-induced Ca(2+) entry. Furthermore, knocking down PKC? in A7r5 cells potentiated vasopressin-induced Ca(2+) entry. In summary, we provide evidence that PKC? exerts a negative feedback effect on TRPC6 through the phosphorylation of Ser(448).
Project description:Vascular ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are inhibited by multiple vasoconstricting hormones via the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. However, the molecular substrates for PKC phosphorylation remain unknown. To identify the PKC sites, Kir6.1/SUR2B and Kir6.2/SUR2B were expressed in HEK293 cells. Following channel activation by pinacidil, the catalytic fragment of PKC inhibited the Kir6.1/SUR2B currents but not the Kir6.2/SUR2B currents. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a PKC activator) had similar effects. Using Kir6.1-Kir6.2 chimeras, two critical protein domains for the PKC-dependent channel inhibition were identified. The proximal N terminus of Kir6.1 was necessary for channel inhibition. Because there was no PKC phosphorylation site in the N-terminal region, our results suggest its potential involvement in channel gating. The distal C terminus of Kir6.1 was crucial where there are several consensus PKC sites. Mutation of Ser-354, Ser-379, Ser-385, Ser-391, or Ser-397 to nonphosphorylatable alanine reduced PKC inhibition moderately but significantly. Combined mutations of these residues had greater effects. The channel inhibition was almost completely abolished when 5 of them were jointly mutated. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that 4 of the serine residues were necessary for the PKC-dependent (32)P incorporation into the distal C-terminal peptides. Thus, a motif containing four phosphorylation repeats is identified in the Kir6.1 subunit underlying the PKC-dependent inhibition of the Kir6.1/SUR2B channel. The presence of the phosphorylation motif in Kir6.1, but not in its close relative Kir6.2, suggests that the vascular K(ATP) channel may have undergone evolutionary optimization, allowing it to be regulated by a variety of vasoconstricting hormones and neurotransmitters.
Project description:An altered cardiac myofilament response to activating Ca(2+) is a hallmark of human heart failure. Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is critical in modulating contractility and Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac muscle. cTnI can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) at Ser(22/23) and protein kinase C (PKC) at Ser(22/23), Ser(42/44), and Thr(143). Whereas the functional significance of Ser(22/23) phosphorylation is well understood, the role of other cTnI phosphorylation sites in the regulation of cardiac contractility remains a topic of intense debate, in part, due to the lack of evidence of in vivo phosphorylation. In this study, we utilized top-down high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) combined with immunoaffinity chromatography to determine quantitatively the cTnI phosphorylation changes in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of hypertensive heart disease and failure. Our data indicate that cTnI is hyperphosphorylated in the failing SHR myocardium compared with age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The top-down electron capture dissociation MS unambiguously localized augmented phosphorylation sites to Ser(22/23) and Ser(42/44) in SHR. Enhanced Ser(22/23) phosphorylation was verified by immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Immunoblot analysis also revealed up-regulation of PKC-? and -?, decreased PKC?, but no changes in PKA or PKC-? levels in the SHR myocardium. This provides direct evidence of in vivo phosphorylation of cTnI-Ser(42/44) (PKC-specific) sites in an animal model of hypertensive heart failure, supporting the hypothesis that PKC phosphorylation of cTnI may be maladaptive and potentially associated with cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:The tSNARE (the target-membrane soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor, where NSF is N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is implicated in regulated insulin secretion. In pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, SNAP-25 is phosphorylated at Ser(187), which lies in a region that is important for its function. The aims of the present study were to determine whether SNAP-25 is phosphorylated at Ser(187) in insulin-secreting cells and, if so, whether this is important for regulated insulin secretion. The major findings are: (i) SNAP-25 is rapidly and reversibly phosphorylated on Ser(187) in both rat insulinoma INS-1 cells and rat islets in response to the phorbol ester, PMA; (ii) less than 35% of SNAP-25 in INS-1 cells is phosphorylated in response to PMA, and phosphorylation is limited to plasma-membrane-associated SNAP-25; (iii) both SNAP-25 isoforms (a and b) are phosphorylated, with 1.8-fold greater phosphorylation for SNAP-25b in response to PMA; (iv) in rat islets, Ser(187) phosphorylation is stimulated by glucose or carbachol, albeit to a lesser extent than by PMA, but not by cAMP; (v) insulin secretion from botulinum neurotoxin E-treated hamster insulinoma tumour (HIT) cells, transfected with toxin-resistant Ser(187)-->Ala or Ser(187)-->Asp mutant SNAP-25, was similar to that of wild-type HIT cells. Furthermore, in rat islets no correlation was found between the extent of SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser(187) in response to secretagogues and stimulation of insulin release; (vi) use of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors suggests that glucose stimulates SNAP-25 phosphorylation via conventional and non-conventional PKC isoforms. In summary, although SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser(187) occurs in insulin-secreting cells and is mediated by PKC, it does not appear to play a major role in regulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates the C-terminus of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)), although the exact site(s) of phosphorylation are unidentified. In the present study, we examined the phosphorylation of epitope-tagged wild-type AT(1A) receptors, transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, in response to angiotensin II (AngII) and following selective activation and inhibition of PKC. This phosphorylation was compared with mutant receptors where C-terminal serine residues (Ser(331), Ser(338) and Ser(348)) within three putative PKC consensus sites were replaced with alanine, either individually or in combination. Stimulation by AngII or the phorbol ester PMA to activate PKC induced an increase in phosphorylation of the wild-type AT(1A) receptor, which was prevented by truncation of the receptor C-terminus to remove the last 34 amino acids, including Ser(331), Ser(338) and Ser(348). Whereas single alanine mutation (Ser(331)Ala, Ser(338)Ala and Ser(348)Ala) resulted in decreased receptor phosphorylation, no single mutant completely inhibited either AngII- or PMA-induced phosphorylation. Combined mutation of the three PKC consensus sites caused an approximately 70% reduction in PMA-mediated phosphorylation. The approximately 60% reduction in AngII (1 microM)-induced phosphorylation of this triple mutant and the partial inhibition of wild-type receptor phosphorylation by bisindolylmaleimide, a specific PKC inhibitor, suggest a significant contribution of PKC to agonist-stimulated regulation. The ratio of PKC to total receptor phosphorylation was greatest at low doses of AngII (1 nM), consistent with the idea that PKC phosphorylates and regulates receptor function at low levels of stimulation, whereas phosphorylation by other kinases is more prevalent at high levels of agonist stimulation. To determine if a single PKC site is favoured when the contribution of PKC varies, the phosphorylation of wild-type and mutant receptors was examined over a range of AngII concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 100 nM). At all AngII concentrations, single mutation of Ser(331), Ser(338) or Ser(348) was incapable of completely preventing receptor phosphorylation, suggesting no clear preference for PKC consensus-site utilization. Together, these results indicate a redundancy in PKC phosphorylation of the AT(1A) receptor, whereby all three consensus sites are utilized to some degree following homologous (AngII) and heterologous (PMA) stimulation. The contribution of PKC phosphorylation to receptor regulation is unclear, but multiple PKC phosphorylation of the AT(1A) receptor may allow independent and/or complementary events to occur at the three separate sites of the C-terminus.
Project description:The elevation of [cAMP](i) is an important mechanism of platelet inhibition and is regulated by the opposing activity of adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, we demonstrate that a variety of platelet agonists, including thrombin, significantly enhance the activity of PDE3A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Stimulation of platelets with the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN resulted in rapid and transient phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser(312), Ser(428), Ser(438), Ser(465), and Ser(492), in parallel with the PKC (protein kinase C) substrate, pleckstrin. Furthermore, phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A required the activation of PKC, but not of PI3K/PKB, mTOR/p70S6K, or ERK/RSK. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters also resulted in phosphorylation of the same PDE3A sites in a PKC-dependent, PKB-independent manner. This was further supported by the finding that IGF-1, which strongly activates PI3K/PKB, but not PKC, did not regulate PDE3A. Platelet activation also led to a PKC-dependent association between PDE3A and 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, cAMP-elevating agents such as PGE(1) and forskolin-induced phosphorylation of Ser(312) and increased PDE3A activity, but did not stimulate 14-3-3 binding. Finally, complete antagonism of PGE(1)-evoked cAMP accumulation by thrombin required both G(i) and PKC activation. Together, these results demonstrate that platelet activation stimulates PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser(312), Ser(428), Ser(438), Ser(465), and Ser(492) leading to a subsequent increase in cAMP hydrolysis and 14-3-3 binding.
Project description:Activation of the G-protein-coupled muscarinic (M3) receptor in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells is known to lead to phosphoinositol hydrolysis and noradrenaline release. In this study, the effect of carbachol on tyrosine phosphorylation and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity in SH-SY5Y cells was examined. Carbachol concentration-dependently induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including one of 42 kDa. This tyrosine-phosphorylated 42 kDa protein co-eluted from a Mono Q anion-exchange column with MAP kinase activity and with immunologically detected MAP kinase. Stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase were also observed after incubation of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Down-regulation or inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) abolished the stimulatory effects of both carbachol and PMA on MAP kinase activity, whereas EGF-stimulated MAP kinase activity remained unaffected. Thus carbachol acting through the muscarinic (M3) receptor PKC-dependently induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a 42 kDa MAP kinase in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas EGF-induced MAP kinase activation occurred independently of PKC.
Project description:The effect of phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) on diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, diC8)- and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization and on the relationship between phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains (MLC20) and force during Ca2+ sensitization were investigated in rabbit portal vein (PV), femoral artery (FA) and ileum smooth muscle. The effects of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and agonists on the membrane versus cytosolic distribution of PKC isoenzymes were also determined. Down-regulation of PKC abolished Ca2+ sensitization of force and the accompanying increases in MLC20 phosphorylation induced by PDBu, as well as Ca2+ sensitization of force by diC8, but not that by GTP[S], aluminum fluoride (AIF4-) or agonists (phenylephrine, endothelin or carbachol). Down-regulation also inhibited the PDBu-, but not the GTP[S]-induced increase in force under Ca(2+)-free conditions. In ileum, PDBu translocated PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta to the membrane fraction, and GTP[S] caused a small translocation of PKC-epsilon. Carbachol- and GTP[S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization remained unaffected in down-regulated ileum in which no cytosolic PKC-epsilon was detectable. We conclude that, although both phorbol ester-induced and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization of force are mediated by increased MLC20 phosphorylation, it is likely that PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta do not play an essential role in, although they may contribute to, the G-protein-coupled mechanism.