Daughter centriole elongation is controlled by proteolysis.
ABSTRACT: The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center of most mammalian cells and consists of a pair of centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material. Before mitosis, the two centrioles duplicate and two new daughter centrioles form adjacent to each preexisting maternal centriole. After initiation of daughter centriole synthesis, the procentrioles elongate in a process that is poorly understood. Here, we show that inhibition of cellular proteolysis by Z-L3VS or MG132 induces abnormal elongation of daughter centrioles to approximately 4 times their normal length. This activity of Z-L3VS or MG132 was found to correlate with inhibition of intracellular protease-mediated substrate cleavage. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identified a total of nine gene products that either attenuated (seven) or promoted (two) abnormal Z-L3VS-induced daughter centriole elongation. Our hits included known regulators of centriole length, including CPAP and CP110, but, interestingly, several proteins involved in microtubule stability and anchoring as well as centrosome cohesion. This suggests that nonproteasomal functions, specifically inhibition of cellular proteases, may play an important and underappreciated role in the regulation of centriole elongation. They also highlight the complexity of daughter centriole length control and provide a framework for future studies to dissect the molecular details of this process.
Project description:Reproductive and respiratory organs, along with brain ventricles, are lined by multiciliated epithelial cells (MCC) that generate cilia-powered fluid flows. MCC hijack the centrosome duplication pathway to form hundreds of centrioles and nucleate motile cilia. In these cells, the large majority of procentrioles are formed associated with partially characterized organelles called deuterosomes. We recently challenged the paradigm that deuterosomes and procentrioles are formed de novo by providing data, in brain MCC, suggesting that they are nucleated from the pre-existing centrosomal younger centriole. However, the origin of deuterosomes and procentrioles is still under debate. Here, we further question centrosome importance for deuterosome and centriole amplification. First, we provide additional data confirming that centriole amplification occurs sequentially from the centrosomal region, and that the first procentriole-loaded deuterosomes are associated with the daughter centriole or in the centrosomal centriole vicinity. Then, to further test the requirement of the centrosome in deuterosome and centriole formation, we depleted centrosomal centrioles using a Plk4 inhibitor. We reveal unexpected limited consequences in deuterosome/centriole number in absence of centrosomal centrioles. Notably, in absence of the daughter centriole only, deuterosomes are not seen associated with the mother centriole. In absence of both centrosomal centrioles, procentrioles are still amplified sequentially and with no apparent structural defects. They seem to arise from a focal region, characterized by microtubule convergence and pericentriolar material (PCM) assembly. The relevance of deuterosome association with the daughter centriole as well as the role of the PCM in the focal and sequential genesis of centrioles in absence of centrosomal centrioles are discussed.
Project description:Microtubule-organizing centers recruit alpha- and beta-tubulin polypeptides for microtubule nucleation. Tubulin synthesis is complex, requiring five specific cofactors, designated tubulin cofactors (TBCs) A-E, which contribute to various aspects of microtubule dynamics in vivo. Here, we show that tubulin cofactor D (TBCD) is concentrated at the centrosome and midbody, where it participates in centriologenesis, spindle organization, and cell abscission. TBCD exhibits a cell-cycle-specific pattern, localizing on the daughter centriole at G1 and on procentrioles by S, and disappearing from older centrioles at telophase as the protein is recruited to the midbody. Our data show that TBCD overexpression results in microtubule release from the centrosome and G1 arrest, whereas its depletion produces mitotic aberrations and incomplete microtubule retraction at the midbody during cytokinesis. TBCD is recruited to the centriole replication site at the onset of the centrosome duplication cycle. A role in centriologenesis is further supported in differentiating ciliated cells, where TBCD is organized into "centriolar rosettes". These data suggest that TBCD participates in both canonical and de novo centriolar assembly pathways.
Project description:Centriole duplication is the process by which two new daughter centrioles are generated from the proximal end of preexisting mother centrioles. Accurate centriole duplication is important for many cellular and physiological events, including cell division and ciliogenesis. Centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), centrosomal protein of 152 kDa (CEP152), and centrobin are known to be essential for centriole duplication. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to centriole duplication is not known. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with CEP152 and CPAP, and the centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for centriole duplication. Although depletion of centrobin from cells did not have an effect on the centriolar levels of CEP152, it caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly formed centrioles. Moreover, exogenous expression of the CPAP-binding fragment of centrobin also caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly synthesized centrioles, possibly in a dominant negative manner, thereby inhibiting centriole duplication and the PLK4 overexpression-mediated centrosome amplification. Interestingly, exogenous overexpression of CPAP in the centrobin-depleted cells did not restore CPAP localization to the centrioles. However, restoration of centrobin expression in the centrobin-depleted cells led to the reappearance of centriolar CPAP. Hence, we conclude that centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for the recruitment of CPAP to procentrioles to promote the elongation of daughter centrioles and for the persistence of CPAP on preexisting mother centrioles. Our study indicates that regulation of CPAP levels on the centrioles by centrobin is critical for preserving the normal size, shape, and number of centrioles in the cell.
Project description:Centrosomes and their component centrioles represent the principal microtubule organizing centers of animal cells. Here, we show that the gene underlying orofaciodigital syndrome 1, Ofd1, is a component of the distal centriole that controls centriole length. In the absence of Ofd1, distal regions of centrioles, but not procentrioles, elongate abnormally. These long centrioles are structurally similar to normal centrioles but contain destabilized microtubules with abnormal posttranslational modifications. Ofd1 is also important for centriole distal appendage formation and centriolar recruitment of the intraflagellar transport protein Ift88. To model OFD1 syndrome in embryonic stem cells, we replaced the Ofd1 gene with missense alleles from human OFD1 patients. Distinct disease-associated mutations cause different degrees of excessive or decreased centriole elongation, all of which are associated with diminished ciliogenesis. Our results indicate that Ofd1 acts at the distal centriole to build distal appendages, recruit Ift88, and stabilize centriolar microtubules at a defined length.
Project description:Supernumerary centrioles lead to abnormal mitosis, which in turn promotes tumorigenesis. Thus, centriole duplication must be coordinated with the cell cycle to ensure that the number of centrioles in the cell doubles precisely during each cell cycle. However, in some transformed cells, centrioles undergo multiple rounds of duplication (reduplication) during prolonged interphase. Mechanisms responsible for centriole reduplication are poorly understood. Here, we report that centrioles reduplicate consistently in cancerous and nontransformed human cells during G2 arrests and that this reduplication requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). We also find that a cell's ability to reduplicate centrioles during S arrests depends on the presence of activated (Thr210-phosphorylated) Plk1 at the centrosome. In the absence of activated Plk1, nascent procentrioles remain associated with mother centrioles, which prevents centriole reduplication. In contrast, if Plk1(pT210) appears at the centrosome, procentrioles mature, disengage from mother centrioles, and ultimately duplicate. Plk1 activity is not required for the assembly of procentrioles, however. Thus, the role of Plk1 is to coordinate the centriole duplication cycle with the cell cycle. Activation of Plk1 during late S/G2 induces procentriole maturation, and after this point, the centriole cycle can be completed autonomously, even in the absence of cell-cycle progression.
Project description:Mammalian epithelial cells use a pair of parental centrioles and numerous deuterosomes as platforms for efficient basal body production during multiciliogenesis. How deuterosomes form and function, however, remain controversial. They are proposed to arise either spontaneously for massive de novo centriole biogenesis or in a daughter centriole-dependent manner as shuttles to carry away procentrioles assembled at the centriole. Here, we show that both parental centrioles are dispensable for deuterosome formation. In both mouse tracheal epithelial and ependymal cells (mTECs and mEPCs), discrete deuterosomes in the cytoplasm are initially procentriole-free. They emerge at widely dispersed positions in the cytoplasm and then enlarge, concomitant with their increased ability to form procentrioles. More importantly, deuterosomes still form efficiently in mEPCs whose daughter centriole or even both parental centrioles are eliminated through shRNA-mediated depletion or drug inhibition of Plk4, a kinase essential to centriole biogenesis in both cycling cells and multiciliated cells. Therefore, deuterosomes can be assembled autonomously to mediate de novo centriole amplification in multiciliated cells.
Project description:After centrosome duplication, centrioles elongate before M phase. To identify genes required for this process and to understand the regulatory mechanism, we investigated the centrioles in <i>Drosophila</i> premeiotic spermatocytes expressing fluorescently tagged centriolar proteins. We demonstrated that an essential microtubule polymerisation factor, Orbit (the <i>Drosophila</i> CLASP orthologue, encoded by <i>chb</i>), accumulated at the distal end of centrioles and was required for the elongation. Conversely, a microtubule-severing factor, Klp10A, shortened the centrioles. Genetic analyses revealed that these two proteins functioned antagonistically to determine centriole length. Furthermore, Cp110 in the distal tip complex was closely associated with the factors involved in centriolar dynamics at the distal end. We observed loss of centriole integrity, including fragmentation of centrioles and earlier separation of the centriole pairs, in <i>Cp110</i>-null mutant cells either overexpressing Orbit or depleted of <i>Klp10A</i> Excess centriole elongation in the absence of the distal tip complex resulted in the loss of centriole integrity, leading to the formation of multipolar spindle microtubules emanating from centriole fragments, even when they were unpaired. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanism of centriole integrity, disruption of which leads to chromosome instability in cancer cells.
Project description:Centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM) serve as the core structure of the centrosome. A newly formed daughter centriole grows into a functional mother centriole. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Cep295, an evolutionarily conserved protein, is required for generation of a bona fide mother centriole organizing a functional centrosome. We find that Cep295 is recruited to the proximal centriole wall in the early stages of procentriole assembly. Cep295 then acts as a scaffold for the proper assembly of the daughter centriole. We also find that Cep295 binds directly to and recruits Cep192 onto the daughter centriole wall, which presumably endows the function of the new mother centriole for PCM assembly, microtubule-organizing centre activity and the ability for centriole formation. These findings led us to propose that Cep295 acts upstream of the conserved pathway for centriole formation and promotes the daughter-to-mother centriole conversion.
Project description:Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older "mother" and a younger "daughter" centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging, we show in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that the mitotic kinase Polo and its centriolar protein substrate Centrobin (Cnb) accumulate on the daughter centriole during mitosis, thereby generating molecularly distinct mother and daughter centrioles before interphase. Cnb's asymmetric localization, potentially involving a direct relocalization mechanism, is regulated by Polo-mediated phosphorylation, whereas Polo's daughter centriole enrichment requires both Wdr62 and Cnb. Based on optogenetic protein mislocalization experiments, we propose that the establishment of centriole asymmetry in mitosis primes biased interphase MTOC activity, necessary for correct spindle orientation.
Project description:The two centrioles of the centrosome in quiescent cells are inherently asymmetric structures that differ in age, morphology and function. How these asymmetric properties are established and maintained during quiescence remains unknown. Here, we show that a daughter centriole-associated ciliopathy protein, Cep120, plays a critical inhibitory role at daughter centrioles. Depletion of Cep120 in quiescent mouse and human cells causes accumulation of pericentriolar material (PCM) components including pericentrin, Cdk5Rap2, ninein and Cep170. The elevated PCM levels result in increased microtubule-nucleation activity at the centrosome. Consequently, loss of Cep120 leads to aberrant dynein-dependent trafficking of centrosomal proteins, dispersal of centriolar satellites, and defective ciliary assembly and signaling. Our results indicate that Cep120 helps to maintain centrosome homeostasis by inhibiting untimely maturation of the daughter centriole, and defines a potentially new molecular defect underlying the pathogenesis of ciliopathies such as Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy and Joubert syndrome.