Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia.
ABSTRACT: Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive within macrophages by arresting the maturation of phagocytic vacuoles. The bacteria preclude fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes by a process that is poorly understood. Using murine macrophages, we investigated the stage at which maturation is arrested and analyzed the underlying mechanism. Vacuoles containing B. cenocepacia strain J2315, an isolate of the transmissible ET12 clone, recruited Rab5 and synthesized phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, indicating progression to the early phagosomal stage. Despite the fact that the B. cenocepacia-containing vacuoles rarely fused with lysosomes, they could nevertheless acquire the late phagosomal markers CD63 and Rab7. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and use of a probe that detects Rab7-guanosine triphosphate indicated that activation of Rab7 was impaired by B. cenocepacia, accounting at least in part for the inability of the vacuole to merge with lysosomes. The Rab7 defect was not due to excessive cholesterol accumulation and was confined to the infected vacuoles. Jointly, these experiments indicate that B. cenocepacia express virulence factors capable of interfering with Rab7 function and thereby with membrane traffic.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cenocepacia is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex group of bacteria that cause infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis. B. cenocepacia isolate J2315 has been genome sequenced and is representative of a virulent, epidemic CF strain (ET12). Its genome encodes multiple antimicrobial resistance pathways and it is not known which of these is important for intrinsic or spontaneous resistance. To map these pathways, transcriptomic analysis was performed on: (i) strain J2315 exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and the antibiotic potentiator chlorpromazine, and (ii) on spontaneous mutants derived from J2315 and with increased resistance to the antibiotics amikacin, meropenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two pan-resistant ET12 outbreak isolates recovered two decades after J2315 were also compared to identify naturally evolved gene expression changes. RESULTS: Spontaneous resistance in B. cenocepacia involved more gene expression changes and different subsets of genes than those provoked by exposure to sub inhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic. The phenotype and altered gene expression in the resistant mutants was also stable irrespective of the presence of the priming antibiotic. Both known and novel genes involved in efflux, antibiotic degradation/modification, membrane function, regulation and unknown functions were mapped. A novel role for the phenylacetic acid (PA) degradation pathway genes was identified in relation to spontaneous resistance to meropenem and glucose was found to repress their expression. Subsequently, 20 mM glucose was found to produce greater that 2-fold reductions in the MIC of multiple antibiotics against B. cenocepacia J2315. Mutation of an RND multidrug efflux pump locus (BCAM0925-27) and squalene-hopene cyclase gene (BCAS0167), both upregulated after chlorpromazine exposure, confirmed their role in resistance. The recently isolated outbreak isolates had altered the expression of multiple genes which mirrored changes seen in the antibiotic resistant mutants, corroborating the strategy used to model resistance. Mutation of an ABC transporter gene (BCAS0081) upregulated in both outbreak strains, confirmed its role in B. cenocepacia resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Global mapping of the genetic pathways which mediate antibiotic resistance in B. cenocepacia has revealed that they are multifactorial, identified potential therapeutic targets and also demonstrated that putative catabolite repression of genes by glucose can improve antibiotic efficacy.
Project description:Bacterial infections of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients cause major complications in the treatment of this common genetic disease. Burkholderia cenocepacia infection is particularly problematic since this organism has high levels of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to eradicate; the resulting chronic infections are associated with severe declines in lung function and increased mortality rates. B. cenocepacia strain J2315 was isolated from a CF patient and is a member of the epidemic ET12 lineage that originated in Canada or the United Kingdom and spread to Europe. The 8.06-Mb genome of this highly transmissible pathogen comprises three circular chromosomes and a plasmid and encodes a broad array of functions typical of this metabolically versatile genus, as well as numerous virulence and drug resistance functions. Although B. cenocepacia strains can be isolated from soil and can be pathogenic to both plants and man, J2315 is representative of a lineage of B. cenocepacia rarely isolated from the environment and which spreads between CF patients. Comparative analysis revealed that ca. 21% of the genome is unique in comparison to other strains of B. cenocepacia, highlighting the genomic plasticity of this species. Pseudogenes in virulence determinants suggest that the pathogenic response of J2315 may have been recently selected to promote persistence in the CF lung. The J2315 genome contains evidence that its unique and highly adapted genetic content has played a significant role in its success as an epidemic CF pathogen.
Project description:The Burkholderia cenocepacia epidemic ET12 lineage belongs to the genomovar IIIA including the reference strain J2315, a highly transmissible epidemic B. cenocepacia lineage. Members of this lineage are able to cause lung infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. In this study, we describe the genome of F01, an environmental B. cenocepacia strain isolated from soil in Burkina Faso that is, to our knowledge, the most closely related strain to this epidemic lineage. A comparative genomic analysis was performed on this new isolate, in association with five clinical and one environmental B. cenocepacia strains whose genomes were previously sequenced. Antibiotic resistances, virulence phenotype, and genomic contents were compared and discussed with an emphasis on virulent and antibiotic determinants. Surprisingly, no significant differences in antibiotic resistance and virulence were found between clinical and environmental strains, while the most important genomic differences were related to the number of prophages identified in their genomes. The ET12 lineage strains showed a noticeable greater number of prophages (partial or full-length), especially compared to the phylogenetically related environmental F01 strain (i.e., 5-6 and 3 prophages, respectively). Data obtained suggest possible involvements of prophages in the clinical success of opportunistic pathogens.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic bacterium that infects patients with cystic fibrosis. B. cenocepacia strains J2315, K56-2, C5424, and BC7 belong to the ET12 epidemic clone, which is transmissible among patients. We have previously shown that transposon mutants with insertions within the O antigen cluster of strain K56-2 are attenuated for survival in a rat model of lung infection. From the genomic DNA sequence of the O antigen-deficient strain J2315, we have identified an O antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis gene cluster that has an IS402 interrupting a predicted glycosyltransferase gene. A comparison with the other clonal isolates revealed that only strain K56-2, which produced O antigen and displayed serum resistance, lacked the insertion element inserted within the putative glycosyltransferase gene. We cloned the uninterrupted gene and additional flanking sequences from K56-2 and conjugated this plasmid into strains J2315, C5424, and BC7. All the exconjugants recovered the ability to form LPS O antigen. We also determined that the structure of the strain K56-2 O antigen repeat, which was absent from the LPS of strain J2315, consisted of a trisaccharide unit made of rhamnose and two N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The complexity of the gene organization of the K56-2 O antigen cluster was also investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, revealing several transcriptional units, one of which also contains genes involved in lipid A-core oligosaccharide biosynthesis.
Project description:The small GTPase Rab5 promotes recruitment of the Ccz1-Mon1 guanosine exchange complex to endosomes to activate Rab7, which facilitates endosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes. How these factors function during autophagy is incompletely understood. Here we show that autophagosomes accumulate due to impaired fusion with lysosomes upon loss of the Ccz1-Mon1-Rab7 module in starved Drosophila fat cells. In contrast, autophagosomes generated in Rab5-null mutant cells normally fuse with lysosomes during the starvation response. Consistent with that, Rab5 is dispensable for the Ccz1-Mon1-dependent recruitment of Rab7 to PI3P-positive autophagosomes, which are generated by the action of the Atg14-containing Vps34 PI3 kinase complex. Finally, we find that Rab5 is required for proper lysosomal function. Thus the Ccz1-Mon1-Rab7 module is required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion, whereas Rab5 loss interferes with a later step of autophagy: the breakdown of autophagic cargo within lysosomes.
Project description:Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are delivered to phagosomes during the maturation process. We used cells from LAMP-deficient mice to analyze the role of these proteins in phagosome maturation. Macrophages from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2-deficient mice displayed normal fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. Because ablation of both the lamp-1 and lamp-2 genes yields an embryonic-lethal phenotype, we were unable to study macrophages from double knockouts. Instead, we reconstituted phagocytosis in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by transfection of FcgammaIIA receptors. Phagosomes formed by FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs obtained from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2- deficient mice acquired lysosomal markers. Remarkably, although FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs from double-deficient mice ingested particles normally, phagosomal maturation was arrested. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 double-deficient phagosomes acquired Rab5 and accumulated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, but failed to recruit Rab7 and did not fuse with lysosomes. We attribute the deficiency to impaired organellar motility along microtubules. Time-lapse cinematography revealed that late endosomes/lysosomes as well as phagosomes lacking LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 had reduced ability to move toward the microtubule-organizing center, likely precluding their interaction with each other.
Project description:Bacteria belonging to the "Burkholderia cepacia complex" (Bcc) often cause fatal pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients, yet little is know about the underlying molecular mechanisms. These Gram-negative bacteria can adopt an intracellular lifestyle, although their ability to replicate intracellularly has been difficult to demonstrate. Here we show that Bcc bacteria survive and multiply in macrophages of zebrafish embryos. Local dissemination by nonlytic release from infected cells was followed by bacteremia and extracellular replication. Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates belonging to the epidemic electrophoretic type 12 (ET12) lineage were highly virulent for the embryos; intravenous injection of <10 bacteria of strain K56-2 killed embryos within 3 days. However, small but significant differences between the clonal ET12 isolates K56-2, J2315, and BC7 were evident. In addition, the innate immune response in young embryos was sufficiently developed to control infection with other less virulent Bcc strains, such as Burkholderia vietnamiensis FC441 and Burkholderia stabilis LMG14294. A K56-2 cepR quorum-sensing regulator mutant was highly attenuated, and its ability to replicate and spread to neighboring cells was greatly reduced. Our data indicate that the zebrafish embryo is an excellent vertebrate model to dissect the molecular basis of intracellular replication and the early innate immune responses in this intricate host-pathogen interaction.
Project description:Phagosomes offer kinetically and morphologically tractable organelles to dissect the control of phagolysosome biogenesis by Rab GTPases. Model phagosomes harboring latex beads undergo a coordinated Rab5-Rab7 exchange, which is akin to the process of endosomal Rab conversion, the control mechanisms of which are unknown. In the process of blocking phagosomal maturation, the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis prevents Rab7 acquisition, thus, providing a naturally occurring tool to study Rab conversion. We show that M. tuberculosis inhibition of Rab7 acquisition and arrest of phagosomal maturation depends on Rab22a. Four-dimensional microscopy revealed that phagosomes harboring live mycobacteria recruited and retained increasing amounts of Rab22a. Rab22a knockdown in macrophages via siRNA enhanced the maturation of phagosomes with live mycobacteria. Conversely, overexpression of the GTP-locked mutant Rab22aQ64L prevented maturation of phagosomes containing heat-killed mycobacteria, which normally progress into phagolysosomes. Moreover, Rab22a knockdown led to Rab7 acquisition by phagosomes harboring live mycobacteria. Our findings show that Rab22a defines the critical checkpoint for Rab7 conversion on phagosomes, allowing or disallowing organellar transition into a late endosomal compartment. M. tuberculosis parasitizes this process by actively recruiting and maintaining Rab22a on its phagosome, thus, preventing Rab7 acquisition and blocking phagolysosomal biogenesis.
Project description:Many intracellular pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii, survive within macrophages by residing in vacuoles that avoid fusion with lysosomes. It is important to determine whether cell-mediated immunity can trigger macrophage antimicrobial activity by rerouting these vacuoles to lysosomes. We report that CD40 stimulation of human and mouse macrophages infected with T. gondii resulted in fusion of parasitophorous vacuoles and late endosomes/lysosomes. Vacuole/lysosome fusion took place even when CD40 was ligated after the formation of parasitophorous vacuoles. Genetic and pharmacological approaches that impaired phosphoinositide-3-class 3 (PIK3C3), Rab7, vacuolar ATPase, and lysosomal enzymes revealed that vacuole/lysosome fusion mediated antimicrobial activity induced by CD40. Ligation of CD40 caused colocalization of parasitophorous vacuoles and LC3, a marker of autophagy, which is a process that controls lysosomal degradation. Vacuole/lysosome fusion and antimicrobial activity were shown to be dependent on autophagy. Thus, cell-mediated immunity through CD40 stimulation can reroute an intracellular pathogen to the lysosomal compartment, resulting in macrophage antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that infects individuals with cystic fibrosis, chronic granulomatous disease, and other immunocompromised states. B. cenocepacia survives in macrophages in membrane-bound vacuoles; however, the mechanism by which B. cenocepacia gains entry into macrophages remains unknown. After macrophage internalization, survival of B. cenocepacia within a bacteria-containing membrane vacuole (BcCV) is associated with its ability to arrest the maturation of the BcCV. In this study, we show that B. cenocepacia induces localized membrane ruffling, macropinocytosis, and macropinosomes-like compartments upon contact with the macrophage. The Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) of B. cenocepacia contributes to macrophage entry and macropinosome-like compartment formation. These data demonstrate the ability of Burkholderia to enter macrophages through the induction of macropinocytosis.