ABSTRACT: Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation, which is characterized in male patients by psychomotor and growth retardation and various skeletal anomalies. Typical facial changes and specific clinical and radiological signs in the hand are useful aids in the diagnosis. CLS is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene located at Xp22.2, which encodes RSK2, a growth-factor-regulated protein kinase. RPS6KA3 mutations are extremely heterogeneous and lead to loss of phosphotransferase activity in the RSK2 kinase, most often because of premature termination of translation.
Project description:We describe three families with X-linked mental retardation, two with a deletion of a single amino acid and one with a missense mutation in the proximal domain of the RSK2(RPS6KA3) (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 3) protein similar to mutations found in Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). In two families, the clinical diagnosis had been nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation. In the third family, although CLS had been suspected, the clinical features were atypical and the degree of intellectual disability much less than expected. These families show that strict reliance on classical clinical criteria for mutation testing may result in a missed diagnosis. A less targeted screening approach to mutation testing is advocated.
Project description:Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation that is characterized, in male patients, by psychomotor and growth retardation and various skeletal anomalies. Typical facial changes and specific clinical and radiological hand aspects exhibited by patients are essential clues for the diagnosis. CLS is caused by mutations in a gene that is located in Xp22.2 and that encodes RSK2, a growth-factor-regulated protein kinase. RSK2 mutations are extremely heterogeneous and lead to premature termination of translation and/or loss of phosphotransferase activity. Surprisingly, among a series of 250 patients screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, in whom a clinical diagnosis of CLS was made, no mutations were detected in 66% (165) of the patients. To determine what proportion of these latter patients have a RSK2 mutation that has not been detected and what proportion have different disorders that are phenotypically similar to CLS, we have, in the present article, investigated, by western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay, cell lines from 26 patients in whom no mutation was previously identified by SSCP analysis. This approach allowed us to identify seven novel RSK2 mutations: two changes in the coding sequence of RSK2, one intragenic deletion, and four unusual intronic nucleotide substitutions that do not affect the consensus GT or AG splice sites. We have also determined the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the RSK2 gene, and we have screened it for mutations. No disease-causing nucleotide change was identified, suggesting that mutations affecting the promoter region are unlikely to account for a large number of patients with CLS. Finally, our results provide evidence that some patients have a disease that is phenotypically very similar to CLS, which is not caused by RSK2 defects. This suggests that there are defects in either additional genes or combinations of genes that may result in a CLS-like phenotype.
Project description:Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromal form of X linked mental retardation, in which some associated facial, hand, and skeletal abnormalities are diagnostic features. Accurate diagnosis, critical for genetic counselling, is often difficult, especially in early childhood. We have recently shown that Coffin-Lowry syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene encoding RSK2, a growth factor regulated protein kinase. RSK2 mutations are very heterogeneous and most of them lead to premature termination of translation or to loss of phosphotransferase activity or both. In the present study, we have evaluated immunoblot and RSK2 kinase assays as a rapid and simple diagnostic test for CLS, using cultured lymphoblastoid or fibroblast cell lines. Western blot analysis failed to detect RSK2 in six patients, suggesting the presence of truncated proteins in these patients. This conclusion was confirmed in four patients, in whom the causative mutations, all leading to premature termination of translation, were identified. Of four patients showing a normal amount of RSK2 protein on western blot and tested for RSK2 phosphotransferase activity, one had a dramatically impaired activity. Analysis of the RSK2 cDNA sequence in this patient showed a mutation of a putative phosphorylation site that would be critical for RSK2 activity. Preliminary results show that, at least, the western blot protocol can be successfully applied to lymphocyte protein extracts prepared directly from blood samples. These assays promise to become important diagnostic tools for CLS, particularly with regard to very young patients with no family history of the condition.
Project description:Mutation of RPS6KA3 can induce Coffin-Lowry syndrome, an X-linked syndrome. The case here reported manifests its signature characteristic of short stature, facial dysmorphism, development retardation, hearing defect. The mutation of RPS6KA3 we detected by NGS analysis is c.2185 C > T. The short stature is a noteworthy problem we discuss here to improve the patient's growth and development. The efficacy and safety of application of growth hormone analogs on patients with CLS are not confirmed and need to be carefully considered.
Project description:Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare form of X-linked mental retardation caused by mutations of the RSK2 gene, associated with cognitive impairment and skeletal malformations. We conducted the first morphometric study of CLS brain morphology by comparing brain volumes from two CLS families with healthy controls. Individuals with CLS consistently showed markedly reduced total brain volume. Cerebellum and hippocampus volumes were particularly impacted by CLS and may be associated with specific interfamilial RSK2 mutations. We provide preliminary evidence that the magnitude of hippocampus volume deviation from that of controls may predict general cognitive outcome in CLS.
Project description:The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X linked disorder in which affected males show severe mental retardation with characteristic dysmorphism, most notably affecting the face and hands. The typical facial features consist of a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, a flat nasal bridge, downward sloping palpebral fissures, and a wide mouth with full lips. Mild progression in facial coarsening occurs during childhood and adult life. The hands are broad with soft, stubby, tapering fingers. Other clinical findings include short stature (95%), a pectus deformity (80%), a kyphosis and/or scoliosis (80%), mitral valve dysfunction, and sensorineural hearing loss. The causal gene, RSK2, was identified in 1996 and contains 22 exons which encode a protein of 740 amino acids. Over 75 distinct pathogenic mutations have been identified in 250 unrelated CLS patients.
Project description:An unreported missense mutation of the ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) gene has been identified in two male sibs with a mild form of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) inherited from their healthy mother. They exhibit transient severe hypotonia, macrocephaly, delay in closure of the fontanelles, normal gait, and mild mental retardation, associated in the first sib with transient autistic behaviour. Some dysmorphic features of CLS (in particular forearm fullness and tapering fingers) and many atypical findings (some of which were reminiscent of FG syndrome) were observed as well. The moderate phenotypic expression of this mutation extends the CLS phenotype to include less severe mental retardation and minor, hitherto unreported signs. The missense mutation identified may be less deleterious than those previously described. As this mutation occurs in a protein domain with no predicted function, it could be responsible for a conformational change affecting the protein catalytic function, since a non-polar amino acid is replaced by a charged residue.
Project description:Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare neurodevelopmental condition caused by heterogeneous mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene on the X chromosome, leading to severe intellectual disability and dysmorphism in men, while women are carriers and only weakly affected. CLS is well known for stimulus-induced drop episodes; however, epilepsy is not commonly reported in this condition. We report on a CLS patient presenting with recurrent episodes of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with generalized epileptic activity, for which investigations did not find any other cause than the patient's genetic condition. This case underlines that the possibility of nonconvulsive epileptic seizures and status epilepticus should, therefore, be considered in those patients. The treatable diagnosis of NCSE may easily be overlooked, as symptoms can be unspecific.
Project description:Loss of function mutations in the rsk2 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), which is associated with multiple symptoms including severe mental disabilities. Despite the characterization of ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) as a protein kinase acting as a downstream effector of the well characterized ERK MAP-kinase signaling pathway, it turns out to be a challenging task to link RSK2 to specific neuronal processes dysregulated in case of mutation. Animal models such as mouse and Drosophila combine advanced genetic manipulation tools with in vivo imaging techniques, high-resolution connectome analysis and a variety of behavioral assays, thereby allowing for an in-depth analysis for gene functions in the nervous system. Although modeling mental disability in animal systems has limitations because of the complexity of phenotypes, the influence of genetic variation and species-specific characteristics at the neural circuit and behavioral level, some common aspects of RSK2 function in the nervous system have emerged, which will be presented. Only with this knowledge our understanding of the pathophysiology of CLS can be improved, which might open the door for development of potential intervention strategies.
Project description:Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, facial and digital dysmorphisms, and progressive skeletal deformations. By using a positional cloning approach, we have recently shown that mutations in the gene coding for the RSK2 serine-threonine protein kinase are responsible for this syndrome. To facilitate mutational analysis, we have now determined the genomic structure of the human RSK2 gene. The open reading frame of the RSK2 coding region is split into 22 exons. Primers were designed for PCR amplification of single exons from genomic DNA and subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. We screened 37 patients with clinical features suggestive of CLS. Twenty-five nucleotide changes predicted to be disease-causing mutations were identified, including eight splice-site alterations, seven nonsense mutations, five frameshift mutations, and five missense mutations. Twenty-three of them were novel mutations. Coupled with previously reported mutations, these findings bring the total of different RSK2 mutations to 34. These are distributed throughout the RSK2 gene, with no clustering, and all but two, which have been found in two independent patients, are unique. A very high (68%) rate of de novo mutations was observed. It is noteworthy also that three mutations were found in female probands, with no affected male relatives, ascertained through learning disability and mild but suggestive facial and digital dysmorphisms. No obvious correlation was observed between the position or type of the RSK2 mutations and the severity or particular clinical features of CLS.