Sec16A defines the site for vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum on exit from mitosis.
ABSTRACT: Mitotic inhibition of COPII-dependent export of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum results in disassembly of the Golgi complex. This ensures ordered inheritance of organelles by the two daughter cells. Reassembly of the Golgi is intimately linked to the re-initiation of ER export on exit from mitosis. Here, we show that unlike all other COPII components, which are cytosolic during metaphase, Sec16A remains associated with ER exit sites throughout mitosis, and thereby could provide a template for the rapid assembly of functional export domains in anaphase. Full assembly of COPII at exit sites precedes reassembly of the Golgi in telophase.
Project description:CFTR is a transmembrane protein that reaches the cell surface via the conventional Golgi mediated secretion pathway. Interestingly, ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces alternative GRASP-mediated, Golgi-bypassing unconventional trafficking of wild-type CFTR and the disease-causing ?F508-CFTR, which has folding and trafficking defects. Here, we show that Sec16A, the key regulator of conventional ER-to-Golgi transport, plays a critical role in the ER exit of protein cargos during unconventional secretion. In an initial gene silencing screen, Sec16A knockdown abolished the unconventional secretion of wild-type and ?F508-CFTR induced by ER-to-Golgi blockade, whereas the knockdown of other COPII-related components did not. Notably, during unconventional secretion, Sec16A was redistributed to cell periphery and associated with GRASP55 in mammalian cells. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed that IRE1?-mediated signaling is an upstream regulator of Sec16A during ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress associated unconventional secretion. These findings highlight a novel function of Sec16A as an essential mediator of ER stress-associated unconventional secretion.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders. However, its normal physiological functions and pathogenic properties remain elusive. Here we show that LRRK2 regulates the anterograde ER-Golgi transport through anchoring Sec16A at the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES). LRRK2 interacted and co-localized with Sec16A, a key protein in the formation of ERES. Lrrk2 depletion caused a dispersion of Sec16A from ERES and impaired ER export. In neurons, LRRK2 and Sec16A showed extensive co-localization at the dendritic ERES (dERES) that locally regulate the transport of proteins to the dendritic spines. A loss of Lrrk2 affected the association of Sec16A with dERES and impaired the activity-dependent targeting of glutamate receptors onto the cell/synapse surface. Furthermore, the PD-related LRRK2 R1441C missense mutation in the GTPase domain interfered with the interaction of LRRK2 with Sec16A and also affected ER-Golgi transport, while LRRK2 kinase activity was not required for these functions. Therefore, our findings reveal a new physiological function of LRRK2 in ER-Golgi transport, suggesting ERES dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD.
Project description:RAB10 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane (PM) of adipocytes, which is essential for whole-body glucose homeostasis. We establish SEC16A as a novel RAB10 effector in this process. Colocalization of SEC16A with RAB10 is augmented by insulin stimulation, and SEC16A knockdown attenuates insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation, phenocopying RAB10 knockdown. We show that SEC16A and RAB10 promote insulin-stimulated mobilization of GLUT4 from a perinuclear recycling endosome/TGN compartment. We propose RAB10-SEC16A functions to accelerate formation of the vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the PM during insulin stimulation. Because GLUT4 continually cycles between the PM and intracellular compartments, the maintenance of elevated cell-surface GLUT4 in the presence of insulin requires accelerated biogenesis of the specialized GLUT4 transport vesicles. The function of SEC16A in GLUT4 trafficking is independent of its previously characterized activity in ER exit site formation and therefore independent of canonical COPII-coated vesicle function. However, our data support a role for SEC23A, but not the other COPII components SEC13, SEC23B, and SEC31, in the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 trafficking, suggesting that vesicles derived from subcomplexes of COPII coat proteins have a role in the specialized trafficking of GLUT4.
Project description:Golgi inheritance during mammalian cell division occurs through the disassembly, partitioning, and reassembly of Golgi membranes. The mechanisms responsible for these processes are poorly understood. To address these mechanisms, we have examined the identity and dynamics of Golgi proteins within mitotic membranes using live cell imaging and electron microscopy techniques. Mitotic Golgi fragments, seen in prometaphase and telophase, were found to localize adjacent to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export domains, and resident Golgi transmembrane proteins cycled rapidly into and out of these fragments. Golgi proteins within mitotic Golgi haze-seen during metaphase-were found to redistribute with ER markers into fragments when the ER was fragmented by ionomycin treatment. The temperature-sensitive misfolding mutant ts045VSVG protein, when localized to the Golgi at the start of mitosis, became trapped in the ER at the end of mitosis in cells shifted to 40 degrees C. Finally, reporters for Arf1 and Sar1 activity revealed that Arf1 and Sar1 undergo sequential inactivation during mitotic Golgi breakdown and sequential reactivation upon Golgi reassembly at the end of mitosis. Together, these findings support a model of mitotic Golgi inheritance that involves inhibition and subsequent reactivation of cellular activities controlling the cycling of Golgi components into and out of the ER.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the entry point into the secretory pathway and from here newly synthesized proteins and lipids are delivered to the Golgi. The selective cargo export from the ER is mediated by COPII-assembly at specific sites of the ER, the so-called transitional ER (tER). The peripheral membrane protein Sec16, first identified in yeast, localizes to transitional ER and plays a key role in organization of these sites. Sec16 defines the tER and is thought to act as a scaffold for the COPII coat assembly. In humans two isoforms of Sec16 are present, the larger Sec16A and the smaller Sec16B. Nevertheless, the functional differences between the two isoforms are ill-defined. Here we describe characterization of the localization and dynamics of Sec16B relative to Sec16A, provide evidence that Sec16B is likely a minor or perhaps specialized form of Sec16, and that it is not functionally redundant with Sec16A.
Project description:The inner and outer layers of COPII mediate cargo sorting and vesicle biogenesis. Sec16A and p125A (officially known as SEC23IP) proteins interact with both layers to control coat activity, yet the steps directing functional assembly at ER exit sites (ERES) remain undefined. By using temperature blocks, we find that Sec16A is spatially segregated from p125A-COPII-coated ERES prior to ER exit at a step that required p125A. p125A used lipid signals to control ERES assembly. Within p125A, we defined a C-terminal DDHD domain found in phospholipases and PI transfer proteins that recognized PA and phosphatidylinositol phosphates in vitro and was targeted to PI4P-rich membranes in cells. A conserved central SAM domain promoted self-assembly and selective lipid recognition by the DDHD domain. A basic cluster and a hydrophobic interface in the DDHD and SAM domains, respectively, were required for p125A-mediated functional ERES assembly. Lipid recognition by the SAM-DDHD module was used to stabilize membrane association and regulate the spatial segregation of COPII from Sec16A, nucleating the coat at ERES for ER exit.
Project description:Transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi is mediated by the sequential action of the COPII and COPI coat complexes. COPII subunits are recruited to the ER membrane where they mediate the selection of cargo for transport to the Golgi, and also membrane deformation and vesicle formation. New ER exit sites can be generated by lateral growth and medial fission (in Pythium sp.) or by de novo formation (in Pichia pastoris) but it is not known how mammalian ER exit sites form. Here, time-lapse imaging of COPII-coated structures in live mammalian cells reveals that the number of ER export sites increases greatly during interphase by de novo formation. These results show the fusion of pre-existing ER export sites and the fission of larger structures. These three mechanisms of de novo formation, fusion and fission probably cooperate to regulate the size of these sites in mammalian cells.
Project description:The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei (Tb) is a critical virulence factor. The VSG glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor strongly influences passage through the early secretory pathway. Using a dominant-negative mutation of TbSar1, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of secretory cargo in trypanosomes is dependent on the coat protein complex II (COPII) machinery. Trypanosomes have two orthologues each of the Sec23 and Sec24 COPII subunits, which form specific heterodimeric pairs: TbSec23.1/TbSec24.2 and TbSec23.2/TbSec24.1. RNA interference silencing of each subunit is lethal but has minimal effects on trafficking of soluble and transmembrane proteins. However, silencing of the TbSec23.2/TbSec24.1 pair selectively impairs ER exit of GPI-anchored cargo. All four subunits colocalize to one or two ER exit sites (ERES), in close alignment with the postnuclear flagellar adherence zone (FAZ), and closely juxtaposed to corresponding Golgi clusters. These ERES are nucleated on the FAZ-associated ER. The Golgi matrix protein Tb Golgi reassembly stacking protein defines a region between the ERES and Golgi, suggesting a possible structural role in the ERES:Golgi junction. Our results confirm a selective mechanism for GPI-anchored cargo loading into COPII vesicles and a remarkable degree of streamlining in the early secretory pathway. This unusual architecture probably maximizes efficiency of VSG transport and fidelity in organellar segregation during cytokinesis.
Project description:Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YX?ESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence and function. However, unlike normal ER export signals, the ER export signal mimic of p22 is necessary for apparent inhibition of normal COPII vesicle trafficking, which leads to Golgi disassembly and antagonism of Golgi-dependent cellular protein secretion. This is the first reported function for p22. Disassembly of the Golgi apparatus was also observed in cells replicating Norwalk virus, which may contribute to pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes that are dependent on an intact secretory pathway. These results indicate that the ER export signal mimic is critical to the antagonistic function of p22, shown herein to be a novel antagonist of ER/Golgi trafficking. This unique and well-conserved human norovirus motif is therefore an appealing target for antiviral drug development.
Project description:Membrane proteins exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in COPII-transport vesicles. ER export is a selective process in which transport signals present in the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of cargo membrane proteins must be recognized by coatomer proteins for incorporation in COPII vesicles. Two classes of ER export signals have been described for type I membrane proteins, the diacidic and the dihydrophobic motifs. Both motifs participate in the Sar1-dependent binding of Sec23p-Sec24p complex to the CTs during early steps of cargo selection. However, information concerning the amino acids in the CTs that interact with Sar1 is lacking. Herein, we describe a third class of ER export motif, [RK](X)[RK], at the CT of Golgi resident glycosyltransferases that is required for these type II membrane proteins to exit the ER. The dibasic motif is located proximal to the transmembrane border, and experiments of cross-linking in microsomal membranes and of binding to immobilized peptides showed that it directly interacts with the COPII component Sar1. Sar1GTP-bound to immobilized peptides binds Sec23p. Collectively, the present data suggest that interaction of the dibasic motif with Sar1 participates in early steps of selection of Golgi resident glycosyltransferases for transport in COPII vesicles.