Intravenous injection of apolipoprotein A-V reconstituted high-density lipoprotein decreases hypertriglyceridemia in apoav-/- mice and requires glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1.
ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V), a minor protein associated with lipoproteins, has a major effect on triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism. We investigated whether apoA-V complexed with phospholipid in the form of a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) has potential utility as a therapeutic agent for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) when delivered intravenously.Intravenous injection studies were performed in genetically engineered mouse models of severe HTG, including apoav-/- and gpihbp1-/- mice. Administration of apoA-V rHDL to hypertriglyceridemic apoav-/- mice resulted in a 60% reduction in plasma TG concentration after 4 hours. This decline can be attributed to enhanced catabolism/clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), where VLDL TG and cholesterol were reduced ?60%. ApoA-V that associated with VLDL after injection was also rapidly cleared. Site-specific mutations in the heparin-binding region of apoA-V (amino acids 186 to 227) attenuated apoA-V rHDL TG-lowering activity by 50%, suggesting that this sequence element is required for optimal TG-lowering activity in vivo. Unlike apoav-/- mice, injection of apoA-V rHDL into gpihbp1-/- mice had no effect on plasma TG levels, and apoA-V remained associated with plasma VLDL.Intravenously injected apoA-V rHDL significantly lowers plasma TG in an apoA-V deficient mouse model. Its intravenous administration may have therapeutic benefit in human subjects with severe HTG, especially in cases involving apoA-V variants associated with HTG.
Project description:Plasma lipoprotein levels are predictors of risk for coronary artery disease. Lipoprotein structure-function relationships provide important clues that help identify the role of lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease. The compositional and conformational heterogeneity of lipoproteins are major barriers to the identification of their structures, as discovered using traditional approaches. Although electron microscopy (EM) is an alternative approach, conventional negative staining (NS) produces rouleau artifacts. In a previous study of apolipoprotein (apo)E4-containing reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles, we optimized the NS method in a way that eliminated rouleaux. Here we report that phosphotungstic acid at high buffer salt concentrations plays a key role in rouleau formation. We also validate our protocol for analyzing the major plasma lipoprotein classes HDL, LDL, IDL, and VLDL, as well as homogeneously prepared apoA-I-containing rHDL. High-contrast EM images revealed morphology and detailed structures of lipoproteins, especially apoA-I-containing rHDL, that are amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction by single-particle analysis and electron tomography.
Project description:Hypertriglyceridemia severity is linked to acute pancreatitis prognosis, but it remains unknown why a portion of severe hypertriglyceridemia patients do not develop severe acute pancreatitis. To investigate whether hypertriglyceridemia subtypes affect acute pancreatitis progression, we analyzed two genetically modified hypertriglyceridemia mouse models-namely, glycosylphosphatidylinositol high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1 knockout (Gpihbp1-/-) and apolipoprotein C3 transgenic (ApoC3-tg) mice. Acute pancreatitis was induced by 10 intraperitoneal caerulein injections. Biochemical assays and pathological analysis were performed for the severity evaluation of acute pancreatitis. Plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), including chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), were collected via ultracentrifugation to evaluate their cytotoxic effects on primary pancreatic acinar cells (PACs). We found that the particle sizes of Gpihbp1-/- TRLs were larger than ApoC3-tg TRLs. Severe pancreatic injury with large areas of pancreatic necrosis in the entire lobule was induced in Gpihbp1-/- mice when plasma triglyceride levels were greater than 2000 mg/dL. However, ApoC3-tg mice with the same triglyceride levels did not develop large areas of pancreatic necrosis, even upon the administration of poloxamer 407 to further increase triglyceride levels. Meanwhile, in the acute pancreatitis model, free fatty acids (FFAs) in the pancreas of Gpihbp1-/- mice were greater than in ApoC3-tg mice. TRLs from Gpihbp1-/- mice released more FFAs and were more toxic to PACs than those from ApoC3-tg mice. Chylomicrons from patients showed the same effects on PACs as TRLs from Gpihbp1-/- mice. Gpihbp1-/- mice with triglyceride levels below 2000 mg/dL had milder pancreatic injury and less incidence of pancreatic necrosis than those with triglyceride levels above 2000 mg/dL, similar to Gpihbp1-/-mice with triglyceride levels above 2000 mg/dL but with fenofibrate administration. These findings demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia subtypes with large TRL particles could affect acute pancreatitis progression and that chylomicrons showed more cytotoxicity than VLDL by releasing more FFAs.
Project description:Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a common complex metabolic trait that results of the accumulation of relatively common genetic variants in combination with other modifier genes and environmental factors resulting in increased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. The majority of severe primary hypertriglyceridemias is diagnosed in adulthood and their molecular bases have not been fully defined yet. The prevalence of HTG is highly variable among populations, possibly caused by differences in environmental factors and genetic background. However, the prevalence of very high TG and the frequency of rare mutations causing HTG in a whole non-selected population have not been previously studied.The total of 23,310 subjects over 18 years from a primary care-district in a middle-class area of Zaragoza (Spain) with TG >500 mg/dL were selected to establish HTG prevalence. Those affected of primary HTG were considered for further genetic analysis. The promoters, coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of LPL, LMF1, APOC2, APOA5, APOE and GPIHBP1 genes were sequenced. The frequency of rare variants identified was studied in 90 controls.One hundred ninety-four subjects (1.04%) had HTG and 90 subjects (46.4%) met the inclusion criteria for primary HTG. In this subgroup, nine patients (12.3%) were carriers of 7 rare variants in LPL, LMF1, APOA5, GPIHBP1 or APOE genes. Three of these mutations are described for the first time in this work. The presence of a rare pathogenic mutation did not confer a differential phenotype or a higher family history of HTG.The prevalence of rare mutations in candidate genes in subjects with primary HTG is low. The low frequency of rare mutations, the absence of a more severe phenotype or the dominant transmission of the HTG would not suggest the use of genetic analysis in the clinical practice in this population.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) is a potent regulator of intravascular triglyceride (TG) metabolism, yet its plasma concentration is very low compared with that of other apolipoproteins. To examine the basis for its low plasma concentration, the secretion efficiency of apoA-V was measured in stably transfected McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that only ?20% of newly synthesized apoA-V is secreted into culture medium within 3 h postsynthesis and that ?65% undergoes presecretory turnover; similar results were obtained with transfected nonhepatic Chinese hamster ovary cells. ApoA-V secreted by McA-RH7777 cells was not associated with cell surface heparin-competable binding sites. When stably transfected McA-RH7777 cells were treated with oleic acid, the resulting increase in TG synthesis caused a reduction in apoA-V secretion, a reciprocal increase in cell-associated apoA-V, and movement of apoA-V onto cytosolic lipid droplets. In a stably transfected doxycycline-inducible McA-RH7777 cell line, apoA-V expression inhibited TG secretion by ?50%, increased cellular TG, and reduced Z-average VLDL(1) particle diameter from 81 to 67 nm; however, no impact on apoB secretion was observed. These data demonstrate that apoA-V inefficiently traffics within the secretory pathway, that its intracellular itinerary can be regulated by changes in cellular TG accumulation, and that apoA-V synthesis can modulate VLDL TG mobilization and secretion.
Project description:Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V is a novel member of the class of exchangeable apo's involved in triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Whereas a portion of hepatic-derived apoA-V is secreted into plasma and functions to facilitate lipoprotein lipase-mediated TG hydrolysis, another portion is recovered intracellularly, in association with cytosolic lipid droplets. Loss of apoA-V function is positively correlated with elevated plasma TG and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the APOA5 locus can affect transcription efficiency or introduce deleterious amino acid substitutions. Likewise, rare mutations in APOA5 that compromise functionality are associated with increased plasma TG and premature myocardial infarction. Genetically engineered mouse models and human population studies suggest that, in certain instances, supplementation with wild type (WT) apoA-V may have therapeutic benefit. It is hypothesized that individuals that manifest elevated plasma TG owing to deleterious APOA5 SNPs or rare mutations would respond to WT apoA-V supplementation with improved plasma TG clearance. On the other hand, subjects with hypertriglyceridemia of independent origin (unrelated to apoA-V function) may not respond to apoA-V augmentation in this manner. Improvement in the ability to identify individuals predicted to benefit, advances in gene transfer technology and the strong connection between HTG and heart disease, point to apoA-V supplementation as a viable disease prevention / therapeutic strategy. Candidates would include individuals that manifest chronic TG elevation, have low plasma apoA-V due to an APOA5 mutation/polymorphism and not have deleterious mutations/polymorphisms in other genes known to influence plasma TG levels.
Project description:We found earlier that apoA-I variants that induced hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in mice had increased affinity to TG-rich lipoproteins and thereby impaired their catabolism. Here, we tested whether a naturally occurring human apoA-I mutation, Lys107del, associated with HTG also promotes apoA-I binding to TG-rich particles. We expressed apoA-I[Lys107del] variant in Escherichia coli, studied its binding to TG-rich emulsion particles, and performed a physicochemical characterization of the protein. Compared with WT apoA-I, apoA-I[Lys107del] showed enhanced binding to TG-rich particles, lower stability, and greater exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. The crystal structure of truncated, Δ(185-243), apoA-I suggests that deletion of Lys107 disrupts helix registration and disturbs a stabilizing salt bridge network in the N-terminal helical bundle. To elucidate the structural changes responsible for the altered function of apoA-I[Lys107del], we studied another mutant, apoA-I [Lys107Ala]. Our findings suggest that the registry shift and ensuing disruption of the inter-helical salt bridges in apoA-I[Lys107del] result in destabilization of the helical bundle structure and greater exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. We conclude that the structural changes in the apoA-I[Lys107del] variant facilitate its binding to TG-rich lipoproteins and thus, may reduce their lipolysis and contribute to the development of HTG in carriers of the mutation.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are increasingly investigated in cancer immunology and are considered a promising target for better and tailored treatment of malignant growth. Although TAMs also have high diagnostic and prognostic value, TAM imaging still remains largely unexplored. Here, we describe the development of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL)-facilitated TAM PET imaging in a breast cancer model. METHODS:Radiolabeled rHDL nanoparticles incorporating the long-lived positron-emitting nuclide (89)Zr were developed using 2 different approaches. The nanoparticles were composed of phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in a 2.5:1 weight ratio. (89)Zr was complexed with deferoxamine (also known as desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B), conjugated either to a phospholipid or to apoA-I to generate (89)Zr-PL-HDL and (89)Zr-AI-HDL, respectively. In vivo evaluation was performed in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer and included pharmacokinetic analysis, biodistribution studies, and PET imaging. Ex vivo histologic analysis of tumor tissues to assess regional distribution of (89)Zr radioactivity was also performed. Fluorescent analogs of the radiolabeled agents were used to determine cell-targeting specificity using flow cytometry. RESULTS:The phospholipid- and apoA-I-labeled rHDL were produced at 79% ± 13% (n = 6) and 94% ± 6% (n = 6) radiochemical yield, respectively, with excellent radiochemical purity (>99%). Intravenous administration of both probes resulted in high tumor radioactivity accumulation (16.5 ± 2.8 and 8.6 ± 1.3 percentage injected dose per gram for apoA-I- and phospholipid-labeled rHDL, respectively) at 24 h after injection. Histologic analysis showed good colocalization of radioactivity with TAM-rich areas in tumor sections. Flow cytometry revealed high specificity of rHDL for TAMs, which had the highest uptake per cell (6.8-fold higher than tumor cells for both DiO@Zr-PL-HDL and DiO@Zr-AI-HDL) and accounted for 40.7% and 39.5% of the total cellular DiO@Zr-PL-HDL and DiO@Zr-AI-HDL in tumors, respectively. CONCLUSION:We have developed (89)Zr-labeled TAM imaging agents based on the natural nanoparticle rHDL. In an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer, we have demonstrated their specificity for macrophages, a result that was corroborated by flow cytometry. Quantitative macrophage PET imaging with our (89)Zr-rHDL imaging agents could be valuable for noninvasive monitoring of TAM immunology and targeted treatment.
Project description:To define the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind other lipase family members and other apolipoproteins (apos) and lipoproteins.GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored lymphocyte antigen (Ly)6 protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) avidly, but its ability to bind related lipase family members has never been evaluated. As judged by cell-based and cell-free binding assays, LPL binds to GPIHBP1, but other members of the lipase family do not. We also examined the binding of apoAV-phospholipid disks to GPIHBP1. ApoAV binds avidly to GPIHBP1-transfected cells; this binding requires GPIHBP1's amino-terminal acidic domain and is independent of its cysteine-rich Ly6 domain (the latter domain is essential for LPL binding). GPIHBP1-transfected cells did not bind high-density lipoprotein. Chylomicrons bind avidly to GPIHBP1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, but this binding is dependent on GPIHBP1's ability to bind LPL within the cell culture medium.GPIHBP1 binds LPL but does not bind other lipase family members. GPIHBP1 binds apoAV but does not bind apoAI or high-density lipoprotein. The ability of GPIHBP1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells to bind chylomicrons is mediated by LPL; chylomicron binding does not occur unless GPIHBP1 first captures LPL from the cell culture medium.
Project description:The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.
Project description:1. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mediates conversion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL3) to large particles, with concomitant release of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). To study the mechanisms involved in this conversion, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles containing either fluorescent pyrenylacyl cholesterol ester (PyrCE) in their core (PyrCE-rHDL) or pyrenylacyl phosphatidylcholine (PysPC) in their surface lipid layer (PyrPC-rHDL) were prepared. Upon incubation with PLTP they behaved as native HDL3, in that their size increased considerably. 2. When PyrPC-rHDL was incubated with HDL3 in the presence of PLTP, a rapid decline of the pyrene excimer/monomer fluorescence ratio (E/M) occurred, demonstrating that PLTP induced mixing of the surface lipids of PyrPC-rHDL and HDL3. As this mixing was almost complete before any significant increase in HDL particle size was observed, it represents PLTP-mediated phospholipid transfer or exchange that is not directly coupled to the formation of large HDL particles. 3. When core-labelled PyrCE-rHDL was incubated in the presence of PLTP, a much slower, time-dependent decrease of E/M was observed, demonstrating that PLTP also promotes mixing of the core lipids. The rate and extent of mixing of core lipids correlated with the amount of PLTP added and with the increase in particle size. The enlarged particles formed could be visualized as discrete, non-aggregated particles by electron microscopy. Concomitantly with the appearance of enlarged particles, lipid-poor apoA-I molecules were released. These data, together with the fact that PLTP has been shown not to mediate transfer of cholesterol esters, strongly suggest that particle fusion rather than (net) lipid transfer or particle aggregation is responsible for the enlargement of HDL particles observed upon incubation with PLTP.4.ApoA-I rHDL, but not apoA-II rHDL, were converted into large particles, suggesting that the presence of apoA-I is required for PLTP-mediated HDL fusion. A model for PLTP-mediated enlargement of HDL particles is presented.