Hyperthermia-induced Hsp90·eNOS preserves mitochondrial respiration in hyperglycemic endothelial cells by down-regulating Glut-1 and up-regulating G6PD activity.
ABSTRACT: Uncoupling of NO production from NADPH oxidation by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is enhanced in hyperglycemic endothelium, potentially due to dissociation of heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90), and cellular glucose homeostasis is enhanced by a ROS-induced positive feed back mechanism. In this study we investigated how such an uncoupling impacts oxygen metabolism and how the oxidative phosphorylation can be preserved by heat shock (42 °C for 2 h, hyperthermia) in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Normal and heat-shocked bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to normoglycemia (NG, 5.0 mM) or hyperglycemia (30 mM). With hyperglycemia treatment, O(2) consumption rate was reduced (from V(O(2)max) = 7.51 ± 0.54 to 2.35 ± 0.27 mm Hg/min/10(6) cells), whereas in heat-shocked cells, O(2) consumption rate remained unaltered (8.19 ± 1.01 mm Hg/min/10 × 10(6) cells). Heat shock was found to enhance Hsp90/endothelial NOS interactions and produce higher NO. Moreover, ROS generation in the hyperglycemic condition was also reduced in heat-shocked cells. Interestingly, glucose uptake was reduced in heat-shocked cells as a result of decrease in Glut-1 protein level. Glucose phosphate dehydrogenase activity that gives rise to NADPH generation was increased by hyperthermia, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was preserved. In conclusion, the present study provides a novel mechanism wherein the reduced oxidative stress in heat-shocked hyperglycemic cells down-regulates Glut-1 and glucose uptake, and fine-tuning of this pathway may be a potential approach to use for therapeutic benefit of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Heat shock, sudden change in temperature, triggers various responses in cells for protecting the cells from such a severe circumstance. Here we investigated gene silencing mediated by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in mammalian cells exposed to a mild hyperthermia, by means of miRNA activity assay using a luciferase reporter gene as well as miRNA expression analysis using a DNA microarray. Our findings indicated that the gene silencing activities involving miRNAs were enhanced without increasing in their expression levels under heat-stress conditions. Additionally, the gene silencing activity appeared to be independent of the cytoprotective action involving heat shock proteins that are immediately activated in heat-shocked cells and that function as molecular chaperons for restoring heat-denatured proteins to normal proteins. Our current findings suggested the possibility that gene silencing involving endogenous miRNAs might play a subsidiary role in heat-shocked cells for an aggressive inhibition of the expression of heat-denatured proteins.
Project description:The regulation of glucose transporters (GLUT-1 and GLUT-3), in terms of both mRNA and protein, in human retinal endothelial cells was investigated. The cells responded within 1 h of exposure to 5 mM glucose with an increase in the level of GLUT-3 mRNA that was due to an increase in the transcription of the 4.1 kb mRNA of the gene for GLUT-3. In the absence of glucose, the gene for GLUT-1 was not transcribed but the level of GLUT-3 mRNA was increased in these conditions and this was the result of an increase in the transcription of the 4.1 kb mRNA. The level of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 mRNA was maximal when the cells were exposed to 15 mM glucose. These results are discussed in the light of the glucose regulatory potential of the retinal microvasculature and the implications that this may have for the mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:Autophagy is a physiological mechanism that can be activated under stress conditions. However, the role of autophagy during oocyte maturation has been poorly investigated. Therefore, this study characterized the role of autophagy on developmental competence and gene expression of bovine oocytes exposed to heat shock (HS). Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were matured at Control (38.5 °C) and HS (41 °C) temperatures in the presence of 0 and 10 mM 3-methyladenine (3MA; autophagy inhibitor). Western blotting analysis revealed that HS increased autophagy marker LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in oocytes. However, there was no effect of temperature for oocytes matured with 3MA. On cumulus cells, 3MA reduced LC3-II/LC3-I ratio regardless of temperature. Inhibition of autophagy during IVM of heat-shocked oocytes (3MA-41 °C) reduced cleavage and blastocyst rates compared to standard in vitro matured heat-shocked oocytes (IVM-41 °C). Therefore, the magnitude of HS detrimental effects was greater in the presence of autophagy inhibitor. Oocyte maturation under 3MA-41 °C reduced mRNA abundance for genes related to energy metabolism (MTIF3), heat shock response (HSF1), and oocyte maturation (HAS2 and GREM1). In conclusion, autophagy is a stress response induced on heat shocked oocytes. Inhibition of autophagy modulated key functional processes rendering the oocyte more susceptible to the deleterious effects of heat shock.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Elevated temperatures induce activation of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) which in somatic cells leads to heat shock proteins synthesis and cytoprotection. However, in the male germ cells (spermatocytes) caspase-3 dependent apoptosis is induced upon HSF1 activation and spermatogenic cells are actively eliminated. RESULTS: To elucidate a mechanism of such diverse HSF1 activity we carried out genome-wide transcriptional analysis in control and heat-shocked cells, either spermatocytes or hepatocytes. Additionally, to identify direct molecular targets of active HSF1 we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) combined with promoter microarrays (ChIP on chip). Genes that are differently regulated after HSF1 binding during hyperthermia in both types of cells have been identified. Despite HSF1 binding to promoter sequences in both types of cells, strong up-regulation of Hsps and other genes typically activated by the heat shock was observed only in hepatocytes. In spermatocytes HSF1 binding correlates with transcriptional repression on a large scale. HSF1-bound and negatively regulated genes encode mainly for proteins required for cell division, involved in RNA processing and piRNA biogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Observed suppression of the transcription could lead to genomic instability caused by meiotic recombination disturbances, which in turn might induce apoptosis of spermatogenic cells. We propose that HSF1-dependent induction of cell death is caused by the simultaneous repression of many genes required for spermatogenesis, which guarantees the elimination of cells damaged during heat shock. Such activity of HSF1 prevents transmission of damaged genetic material to the next generation.
Project description:In somatic cells elevated temperature induces activation of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) what leads to heat shock proteins synthesis and cytoprotection. However, in the male germ cells (spermatocytes) upon HSF1 activation, caspase-3 dependent apoptosis is induced and spermatogenic cells are actively eliminated. To elucidate a mechanism of such diverse HSF1 activity we carried out genome-wide transcriptional analysis in control and heat-shocked cells, either spermatogenic or somatic. As model somatic cells we used hepatocytes that respond to hyperthermia in a classical way by induction of heat shock genes transcription. As spermatogenic cells we used a fraction of cells enriched with spermatocytes, which are the most sensitive to damage in elevated temperatures. Using isolated spermatocytes we avoided the influence of the somatic testicular component on the our final results. Genes that are differently regulated during hyperthermia in both types of cells have been identified. On Affymetrix gene chip arrays we analyzed RNA isolated from spermatocytes or hepatocytes, either untreated (control) or after heat shock and 2h of recovery at physiological temperature. Analyses were done in triplicate.
Project description:This study was conducted to compare the effects of acute hyperthermia (45 °C for 4 h) on the viability, proliferation, and migratory activity through wound-healing assays of cow and sheep fibroblasts. The study examined the effects on primary cultures and first passage skin-derived fibroblasts. Relative quantification of HSP70, HSP90, P53, BAX, BCL2, and BECN1 was investigated after normalization to housekeeping genes GAPDH and beta-actin. The results revealed that cultured cow primary fibroblasts exhibited increased viability and reinitiated cell migration to close the cell monolayer scratch earlier than sheep cells. Similar patterns were observed in the first passage fibroblasts, with severe effects on sheep cells. Both cow and sheep cells exhibited decreased cell viability and failed to regain migratory activity after re-exposure of recovered heat-shocked cells. Effects of hyperthermia on sheep cells were potentiated by cell cryopreservation. The qPCR results showed that cow cells significantly increased HSP70 and HSP90 expression, which decreased the elevation of P53, and ameliorated the effects of the increased BAX/BCL2 ratio. The results provide a paradigm to compare thermotolerance among different animal species and revealed that trypsin could be an additional stress, which potentiates the effects of heat shock in in vitro experiments.
Project description:Cells naïve to stress can display the effects of stress, such as DNA damage and apoptosis, when they are exposed to signals from stressed cells; this phenomenon is known as the bystander effect. We previously showed that bystander effect induced by ionising radiation are mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Bystander effect can also be induced by other types of stress, including heat shock, but it is unclear whether EVs are involved. Here we show that EVs released from heat shocked cells are also able to induce bystander damage in unstressed populations. Naïve cells treated with media conditioned by heat shocked cells showed higher levels of DNA damage and apoptosis than cells treated with media from control cells. Treating naïve cells with EVs derived from media conditioned by heat shocked cells also induced a bystander effect when compared to control, with DNA damage and apoptosis increasing whilst the level of cell viability was reduced. We demonstrate that treatment of naïve cells with heat shocked cell-derived EVs leads to greater invasiveness in a trans-well Matrigel assay. Finally, we show that naïve cells treated with EVs from heat-shocked cells are more likely to survive a subsequent heat shock, suggesting that these EVs mediate an adaptive response. We propose that EVs released following stress mediate an intercellular response that leads to apparent stress in neighbouring cells but also greater robustness in the face of a subsequent insult.
Project description:Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and development of vascular pathology. Endothelial cell dysfunction is a starting point for pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. We previously showed the polyol erythritol to be a hydroxyl radical scavenger preventing endothelial cell dysfunction onset in diabetic rats. To unravel mechanisms, other than scavenging of radicals, by which erythritol mediates this protective effect, we evaluated effects of erythritol in endothelial cells exposed to normal (7 mM) and high glucose (30 mM) or diabetic stressors (e.g. SIN-1) using targeted and transcriptomic approaches. This study demonstrates that erythritol (i.e. under non-diabetic conditions) has minimal effects on endothelial cells. However, under hyperglycemic conditions erythritol protected endothelial cells against cell death induced by diabetic stressors (i.e. high glucose and peroxynitrite). Also a number of harmful effects caused by high glucose, e.g. increased nitric oxide release, are reversed. Additionally, total transcriptome analysis indicated that biological processes which are differentially regulated due to high glucose are corrected by erythritol. We conclude that erythritol protects endothelial cells during high glucose conditions via effects on multiple targets. Overall, these data indicate a therapeutically important endothelial protective effect of erythritol under hyperglycemic conditions.
Project description:Glucose transporters (GLUT) are twelve-transmembrane spanning proteins that contain two pores capable of transporting glucose and dehydroascorbate in and out of cells. The mechanism by which transport is effected is unknown. An evolutionarily-based hypothesis for the mechanism of glucose transport is presented here based on reports that insulin has multiple binding sites for glucose. It is proposed that insulin-like peptides were incorporated as modular elements into transmembrane proteins during evolution, resulting in glucose transporting capacity. Homology searching reveals that all GLUT contain multiple copies of insulin-like regions. These regions map onto a model of GLUT in positions that define the glucose transport cores. This observation provides a mechanism for glucose transport involving the diffusion of glucose from one insulin-like glucose-binding region to another. It also suggests a mechanism by which glucose disregulation may occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes: insulin rapidly self-glycates under hyperglycemic conditions. Insulin-like regions of GLUT may also self-glycate rapidly, thereby interfering with transport of glucose into cells and disabling GLUT sensing of blood glucose levels. All aspects of the hypothesis are experimentally testable.
Project description:The ER chaperone GRP78/BiP is a homolog of the Hsp70 family of heat shock proteins, yet GRP78/BiP is not induced by heat shock but instead by ER stress. However, previous studies had not considered more physiologically relevant temperature elevation associated with febrile hyperthermia. In this report we examine the response of GRP78/BiP and other components of the ER stress pathway in cells exposed to 40°C.AD293 cells were exposed to 43°C heat shock to confirm inhibition of the ER stress response genes. Five mammalian cell types, including AD293 cells, were then exposed to 40°C hyperthermia for various time periods and induction of the ER stress pathway was assessed.The inhibition of the ER stress pathway by heat shock (43°C) was confirmed. In contrast cells subjected to more mild temperature elevation (40°C) showed either a partial or full ER stress pathway induction as determined by downstream targets of the three arms of the ER stress pathway as well as a heat shock response. Cells deficient for Perk or Gcn2 exhibit great sensitivity to ER stress induction by hyperthermia.The ER stress pathway is induced partially or fully as a consequence of hyperthermia in parallel with induction of Hsp70. These findings suggest that the ER and cytoplasm of cells contain parallel pathways to coordinately regulate adaptation to febrile hyperthermia associated with disease or infection.