GATA depletion impacts insulin-like growth factor 1 mRNA and protein levels in luteinizing porcine granulosa cells.
ABSTRACT: GATA4 and GATA6 are zinc-finger transcription factors that regulate specific genes involved in steroidogenesis. Using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of GATA4 and/or GATA6 with microarray analysis, we aimed to identify novel GATA target genes in luteinizing porcine granulosa cells under vehicle- and cAMP-treated conditions. Microarray analysis identified IGF1 mRNA to be cAMP- and GATA-responsive, and real-time PCR demonstrated that the cAMP-induced increase in IGF1 mRNA was reduced under conditions of GATA6 depletion and GATA4 plus GATA6 depletion, but not GATA4 depletion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 protein levels in media were also decreased by GATA6 or GATA4 plus GATA6 reduction. IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 mRNAs were increased and IGFBP5 mRNA decreased with vehicle and cAMP treatment under GATA4 plus GATA6 RNAi conditions. GATA6 reduction alone increased basal IGFBP4 and decreased IGFBP5 with both vehicle and cAMP, and GATA4 reduction alone lowered cAMP IGFBP5 levels with cAMP. No changes in IGFBP3 mRNA were observed with GATA reduction relative to the control RNAi condition. Levels of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 2-5 in media as assessed by Western ligand blotting were not altered by GATA reduction. Electromobility gel shift assays with two GATA-containing oligonucleotides of the IGF1 5'-regulatory region showed GATA4 and GATA6 could bind the more proximal GATA-B site. These studies indicate that although GATA4 and GATA6 can bind the porcine IGF1 5'-region, GATA6 is functionally most important for cAMP-stimulated mRNA levels. Using microarray analysis, we identified other mRNAs that were altered by GATA-reduced conditions, including ALDH1, DIO2, and EDNRB. Our findings further support GATA as a coordinator of endocrine/paracrine/autocrine signals in the ovary.
Project description:Previous studies with cultured granulosa cells implicated GATA4 in gonadotropin regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) gene. Caveats to these prior studies exist. First, GATA4 levels are reduced in granulosa-luteal cells after the LH surge when GATA6 expression is relatively high. Second, STAR mRNA expression is negligible in granulosa cells until after the LH surge. Both exogenous GATA4 and GATA6 can transactivate STAR gene promoter constructs. We used an RNA interference (RNAi) approach to determine the contributions of GATA4 and GATA6 to cAMP analog regulation of the endogenous STAR gene in luteinizing granulosa cells. STAR mRNA was stimulated by cAMP under control RNAi conditions. Surprisingly, GATA4 reduction by its respective RNAi approximately doubled the cAMP induction of STAR mRNA. At 24 h cAMP treatment, this augmentation was abolished by co-down-regulation of GATA4+GATA6. GATA6 down-regulation by itself did not alter STAR mRNA levels. GATA4+GATA6 co-down-regulation elevated basal CYP11A mRNA at 24 h treatment but did not affect its induction by cAMP. Basal levels of HSD3B mRNA were reduced by GATA4 RNAi conditions leading to a greater fold induction of its mRNA by cAMP. Fold cAMP-stimulated progesterone production was enhanced by GATA4 down-regulation but not by GATA4+GATA6 co-down-regulation. These data implicate GATA6 as the facilitator in cAMP-stimulated STAR mRNA and downstream progesterone accumulation under reduced GATA4 conditions. Data also demonstrate that basal levels of GATA4/6 are not required for cAMP induction of the STAR gene. The altered ratio of GATA4 to GATA6 after ovulation may allow GATA6 to enhance STAR mRNA accumulation.
Project description:Recently, heterozygous mutations in GATA6 have been found in neonatal diabetic patients with failed pancreatic organogenesis. To investigate the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse pancreas organogenesis, we conditionally inactivated these genes within the pancreas. Single inactivation of either gene did not have a major impact on pancreas formation, indicating functional redundancy. However, double Gata4/Gata6 mutant mice failed to develop pancreata, died shortly after birth, and displayed hyperglycemia. Morphological defects in Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreata were apparent during embryonic development, and the epithelium failed to expand as a result of defects in cell proliferation and differentiation. The number of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, including PDX1+ cells, was reduced in the Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreatic epithelium. Remarkably, deletion of only 1 Gata6 allele on a Gata4 conditional knockout background severely reduced pancreatic mass. In contrast, a single WT allele of Gata4 in Gata6 conditional knockout mice was sufficient for normal pancreatic development, indicating differential contributions of GATA factors to pancreas formation. Our results place GATA factors at the top of the transcriptional network hierarchy controlling pancreas organogenesis.
Project description:The transcriptional code that programs maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy involves the zinc finger-containing DNA binding factor GATA-4. The highly related transcription factor GATA-6 is also expressed in the adult heart, although its role in controlling the hypertrophic program is unknown.To determine the role of GATA-6 in cardiac hypertrophy and homeostasis.Here, we performed a cardiomyocyte-specific conditional gene targeting approach for Gata6, as well as a transgenic approach to overexpress GATA-6 in the mouse heart. Deletion of Gata6-loxP with Nkx2.5-cre produced late embryonic lethality with heart defects, whereas deletion with ?-myosin heavy chain-cre (?MHC-cre) produced viable adults with >95% loss of GATA-6 protein in the heart. These latter mice were subjected to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy for 2 and 6 weeks, which showed a significant reduction in cardiac hypertrophy similar to that observed Gata4 heart-specific deleted mice. Gata6-deleted mice subjected to pressure overload also developed heart failure, whereas control mice maintained proper cardiac function. Gata6-deleted mice also developed less cardiac hypertrophy following 2 weeks of angiotensin II/phenylephrine infusion. Controlled GATA-6 overexpression in the heart induced hypertrophy with aging and predisposed to greater hypertrophy with pressure overload stimulation. Combinatorial deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 from the adult heart resulted in dilated cardiomyopathy and lethality by 16 weeks of age. Mechanistically, deletion of Gata6 from the heart resulted in fundamental changes in the levels of key regulatory genes and myocyte differentiation-specific genes.These results indicate that GATA-6 is both necessary and sufficient for regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response and differentiated gene expression, both alone and in coordination with GATA-4.
Project description:GATA transcription factors regulate proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in multiple organs. GATA4 is expressed in the proximal 85% of the small intestine and regulates the jejunal-ileal gradient in absorptive enterocyte gene expression. GATA6 is co-expressed with GATA4 but also is expressed in the ileum; its function in the mature small intestine is unknown.We investigated the function of GATA6 in small intestine using adult mice with conditional, inducible deletion of Gata6, or Gata6 and Gata4, specifically in the intestine.In ileum, deletion of Gata6 caused a decrease in crypt cell proliferation and numbers of enteroendocrine and Paneth cells, an increase in numbers of goblet-like cells in crypts, and altered expression of genes specific to absorptive enterocytes. In contrast to ileum, deletion of Gata6 caused an increase in numbers of Paneth cells in jejunum and ileum. Deletion of Gata6 and Gata4 resulted in a jejunal and duodenal phenotype that was nearly identical to that in the ileum after deletion of Gata6 alone, revealing common functions for GATA6 and GATA4.GATA transcription factors are required for crypt cell proliferation, secretory cell differentiation, and absorptive enterocyte gene expression in the small intestinal epithelium.
Project description:Pancreatic ?-cell survival remains poorly understood despite decades of research. GATA transcription factors broadly regulate embryogenesis and influence survival of several cell types, but their role in adult ?-cells remains undefined. To investigate the role of GATA factors in adult ?-cells, we derived ?-cell-inducible Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, along with whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts. ?-Cell Gata4 deletion modestly increased the proportion of dying ?-cells in situ with ultrastructural abnormalities suggesting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Notably, glucose homeostasis was not grossly altered in Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, suggesting that GATA factors do not have essential roles in ?-cells. Several ER stress signals were up-regulated in Gata4 and Gata6 knockouts, most notably CHOP, a known regulator of ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, ER stress signals were not elevated to levels observed after acute thapsigargin administration, suggesting that GATA deficiency only caused mild ER stress. Simultaneous deletion of Gata4 and CHOP partially restored ?-cell survival. In contrast, whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts displayed no evidence of ER stress in other GATA4-enriched tissues, such as heart. Indeed, distinct GATA transcriptional targets were differentially expressed in islets compared with heart. Such ?-cell-specific findings prompted study of a large meta-analysis dataset to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms harbored within the human GATA4 locus, revealing several variants significantly associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We conclude that GATA factors have important but nonessential roles to promote ER integrity and ?-cell survival in a tissue-specific manner and that GATA factors likely contribute to type 1 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis.
Project description:Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs) are benign adrenal-like testicular tumours that frequently occur in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Recently, GATA transcription factors have been linked to the development of TARTs in mice. The aim of our study was to determine GATA expression in human TARTs and other steroidogenic tissues. We determined GATA expression in TARTs (<i>n</i>?=?16), Leydig cell tumours (LCTs; <i>n</i>?=?7), adrenal (foetal (<i>n</i>?=?6)?+?adult (<i>n</i>?=?10)) and testis (foetal (<i>n</i>?=?13)?+?adult (<i>n</i>?=?8)). We found testis-like <i>GATA4</i>, and adrenal-like <i>GATA3</i> and <i>GATA6</i> gene expressions by qPCR in human TARTs, indicating mixed testicular and adrenal characteristics of TARTs. Currently, no marker is available to discriminate TARTs from LCTs, leading to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. <i>GATA3</i> and <i>GATA6</i> mRNAs exhibited excellent discriminative power (area under the curve of 0.908 and 0.816, respectively), while immunohistochemistry did not. GATA genes contain several CREB-binding sites and incubation with 0.1?mM dibutyryl cAMP for 4?h stimulated <i>GATA3</i>, <i>GATA4</i> and <i>GATA6</i> expressions in a human foetal testis cell line (hs181.tes). Incubation of adrenocortical cells (H295RA) with ACTH, however, did not induce <i>GATA</i> expression <i>in vitro</i> Although ACTH did not dysregulate <i>GATA</i> expression in the only human ACTH-sensitive <i>in vitro</i> model available, our results do suggest that aberrant expression of GATA transcription factors in human TARTs might be involved in TART formation.
Project description:GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function.
Project description:The enzyme P450c17 is required for glucocorticoid, sex steroid, and some neurosteroid biosynthesis. Defective human P450c17 causes sexual infantilism and 46,XY sex reversal but is compatible with life, whereas ablation of the corresponding mouse gene causes embryonic lethality at around E7. Normal mouse embryos express P450c17 protein and activity in the embryonic endoderm at E7. Adult adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis requires steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), but SF-1 is not expressed in the early mouse embryo. We show that P450c17 is expressed in differentiated mouse parietal and visceral endoderm lineages, in cultured mouse F9 embryonic carcinoma stem cells, in mouse embryonic stem cells, and in cultured mouse P19 stem cells. Bases -110 to -55 (which contain an SF-1 site and two potential GATA sites) of the rat cyp17 gene confer promoter activity in F9 cells. Overexpression of SF-1 has no effect, whereas overexpression of GATA4 in F9 cells increases transcription from -110/-55 fused to a reporter and increases endogenous P450c17 mRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that GATA4 binds to -215/+55 of mouse cyp17. Stimulating F9 cells with retinoic acid and cAMP differentiates them into visceral and parietal endoderm. Commensurate with cell differentiation, quantitative PCR showed increased GATA4 and GATA6 mRNAs, temporally followed by increased P450c17 mRNA. Small interfering RNA inhibition of GATA4 or GATA6 in undifferentiated or differentiated F9 cells diminished endogenous cyp17 expression. Thus, P450c17 is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, its expression increases upon differentiation to an early embryonic endoderm lineage, and GATA4/6 are responsible for activation of P450c17 gene expression at this early stage of embryonic development.
Project description:The family of zinc finger-containing GATA transcription factors plays critical roles in cell lineage specification during early embryonic development and organ formation. GATA4 and GATA6 were found to be frequently lost in ovarian cancer, and the loss is proposed to account for dedifferentiation of the cancer cells.We further investigated the expression of GATA4 and GATA6 in ovarian surface epithelial lesions and histological subtypes of ovarian carcinomas by immunostaining. GATA4 and GATA6 were found to be absent in high percentages (80 to 90%) of serous, clear cell, and endometrioid ovarian cancer examined. In contrast, both were found positive in 11 out of 12 cases of mucinous carcinomas, suggesting the expression of the GATA factors can distinguish mucinous cancer from other histological subtypes. GATA4 was frequently lost in preneoplastic lesions such as morphologically normal inclusion cysts and epithelial hyperplasia adjacent to malignant cells. The loss of GATA6 correlates closely with neoplastic morphological transformation of ovarian surface epithelia. In culture, GATA4 expression was progressively reduced upon passaging primary ovarian surface epithelial cells, which correlated with changes in histone modification of the GATA4 locus. A reduced GATA6 gene dosage as in GATA6 (+/-) mice led to an increased pre-neoplastic changes and inclusion cysts in the ovaries, suggesting the loss of GATA6 contributes to ovarian cancer development.This study suggests that the expression status of GATA4 and GATA6 may dictate distinct pathologic pathways leading to serous or mucinous ovarian carcinomas. The readily loss of GATA4 expression through changes in chromatin conformation suggests a potential non-phenotypic initiating event, leading to subsequent loss of GATA6, morphological transformation, and ultimate tumorigenesis.
Project description:Gata4 and Gata6 are closely related transcription factors that are essential for the development of a number of embryonic tissues. While they have nearly identical DNA-binding domains and similar patterns of expression, Gata4 and Gata6 null embryos have strikingly different embryonic lethal phenotypes. To determine whether the lack of redundancy is due to differences in protein function or Gata4 and Gata6 expression domains, we generated mice that contained the Gata6 cDNA in place of the Gata4 genomic locus. Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos survived through embryonic day (E)12.5 and successfully underwent ventral folding morphogenesis, demonstrating that Gata6 is able to replace Gata4 function in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, Gata6 is unable to replace Gata4 function in the septum transversum mesenchyme or the epicardium, leading to liver agenesis and lethal heart defects in Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos. These studies suggest that Gata4 has evolved distinct functions in the development of these tissues that cannot be performed by Gata6, even when it is provided in the identical expression domain. Our work has important implications for the respective mechanisms of Gata function during development, as well as the functional evolution of these essential transcription factors.