High-resolution genotyping via whole genome hybridizations to microarrays containing long oligonucleotide probes.
ABSTRACT: To date, microarray-based genotyping of large, complex plant genomes has been complicated by the need to perform genome complexity reduction to obtain sufficiently strong hybridization signals. Genome complexity reduction techniques are, however, tedious and can introduce unwanted variables into genotyping assays. Here, we report a microarray-based genotyping technology for complex genomes (such as the 2.3 GB maize genome) that does not require genome complexity reduction prior to hybridization. Approximately 200,000 long oligonucleotide probes were identified as being polymorphic between the inbred parents of a mapping population and used to genotype two recombinant inbred lines. While multiple hybridization replicates provided ?97% accuracy, even a single replicate provided ?95% accuracy. Genotyping accuracy was further increased to >99% by utilizing information from adjacent probes. This microarray-based method provides a simple, high-density genotyping approach for large, complex genomes.
Project description:We present GStream, a method that combines genome-wide SNP and CNV genotyping in the Illumina microarray platform with unprecedented accuracy. This new method outperforms previous well-established SNP genotyping software. More importantly, the CNV calling algorithm of GStream dramatically improves the results obtained by previous state-of-the-art methods and yields an accuracy that is close to that obtained by purely CNV-oriented technologies like Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH). We demonstrate the superior performance of GStream using microarray data generated from HapMap samples. Using the reference CNV calls generated by the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and well-known studies on whole genome CNV characterization based either on CGH or genotyping microarray technologies, we show that GStream can increase the number of reliably detected variants up to 25% compared to previously developed methods. Furthermore, the increased genome coverage provided by GStream allows the discovery of CNVs in close linkage disequilibrium with SNPs, previously associated with disease risk in published Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). These results could provide important insights into the biological mechanism underlying the detected disease risk association. With GStream, large-scale GWAS will not only benefit from the combined genotyping of SNPs and CNVs at an unprecedented accuracy, but will also take advantage of the computational efficiency of the method.
Project description:We report the development of a microarray platform for rapid and cost-effective genetic mapping, and its evaluation using rice as a model. In contrast to methods employing whole-genome tiling microarrays for genotyping, our method is based on low-cost spotted microarray production, focusing only on known polymorphic features.We have produced a genotyping microarray for rice, comprising 880 single feature polymorphism (SFP) elements derived from insertions/deletions identified by aligning genomic sequences of the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 93-11. The SFPs were experimentally verified by hybridization with labeled genomic DNA prepared from the two cultivars. Using the genotyping microarrays, we found high levels of polymorphism across diverse rice accessions, and were able to classify all five subpopulations of rice with high bootstrap support. The microarrays were used for mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the causative organism of rice blast disease, by quantitative genotyping of samples from a recombinant inbred line population pooled by phenotype.We anticipate this microarray-based genotyping platform, based on its low cost-per-sample, to be particularly useful in applications requiring whole-genome molecular marker coverage across large numbers of individuals.
Project description:Cultivated wheats are derived from an intricate history of three genomes, A, B, and D, present in both diploid and polyploid species. It was recently proposed that the D genome originated from an ancient hybridization between the A and B lineages. However, this result has been questioned, and a robust phylogeny of wheat relatives is still lacking. Using transcriptome data from all diploid species and a new methodological approach, our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis revealed that more than half of the species descend from an ancient hybridization event but with a more complex scenario involving a different parent than previously thought-Aegilops mutica, an overlooked wild species-instead of the B genome. We also detected other extensive gene flow events that could explain long-standing controversies in the classification of wheat relatives.
Project description:The study of natural genetic variation for plant disease resistance responses is a complementary approach to utilizing mutants to elucidate genetic pathways. While some key genes involved in pathways controlling disease resistance, and signaling intermediates such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), have been identified through mutational analyses, the use of genetic variation in natural populations permits the identification of change-of-function alleles, which likely act in a quantitative manner. Whole genome microarrays, such as Affymetrix GeneChips, allow for molecular characterization of the disease response at a genomics level and characterization of differences in gene expression due to natural variation. Differences in the level of gene expression, or expression level polymorphisms (ELPs), can be mapped in a segregating population to identify regulatory quantitative trait loci (expression QTLs, eQTLs) affecting host resistance responses. We surveyed recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a population derived from a cross of inbred Arabidopsis accessions Bayreuth-0 (Bay-0) and Shahdara (Sha) in order to map eQTLs controlling ELPs. We treated vegetatively grown plants with either SA or a control solution (Silwet), and harvested the plants 28 hours after chemical treatment. Here we present Affymetrix GeneChip microarray expression data for 8 biological replications of the control (Silwet) samples for Bay-0 and Sha.
Project description:The large genome and allohexaploidy of common wheat have complicated construction of a high-density genetic map. Although improvements in the throughput of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made it possible to obtain a large amount of genotyping data for an entire mapping population by direct sequencing, including hexaploid wheat, a significant number of missing data points are often apparent due to the low coverage of sequencing. In the present study, a microarray-based polymorphism detection system was developed using NGS data obtained from complexity-reduced genomic DNA of two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring (CS) and Mironovskaya 808. After design and selection of polymorphic probes, 13,056 new markers were added to the linkage map of a recombinant inbred mapping population between CS and Mironovskaya 808. On average, 2.49 missing data points per marker were observed in the 201 recombinant inbred lines, with a maximum of 42. Around 40% of the new markers were derived from genic regions and 11% from repetitive regions. The low number of retroelements indicated that the new polymorphic markers were mainly derived from the less repetitive region of the wheat genome. Around 25% of the mapped sequences were useful for alignment with the physical map of barley. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of 14 agronomically important traits related to flowering, spikes, and seeds demonstrated that the new high-density map showed improved QTL detection, resolution, and accuracy over the original simple sequence repeat map.
Project description:We present an optimized probe design for copy number variation (CNV) and SNP genotyping in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. We demonstrate that variable length and isothermal probes are superior to static length probes. We show that sample preparation and hybridization conditions mitigate the effects of host DNA contamination in field samples. The microarray and workflow presented can be used to identify CNVs and SNPs with 95% accuracy in a single hybridization, in field samples containing up to 92% human DNA contamination.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific iodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. RESULTS: In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands > or = 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. CONCLUSION: Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by more than a few percent. The data suggest that interspecific cross-hybridization will not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data from multispecies microarrays, provided that the species' DNA sequences differ by > 20% (mean of 5b differences per 25b oligo). Recovery of DNA sequence data from multiple, distantly-related species on a single multiplex gene chip should be a practical, highly-parallel method for investigating genomic biodiversity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: High-density oligonucleotide arrays are effective tools for genotyping numerous loci simultaneously. In small genome species (genome size: < approximately 300 Mb), whole-genome DNA hybridization to expression arrays has been used for various applications. In large genome species, transcript hybridization to expression arrays has been used for genotyping. Although rice is a fully sequenced model plant of medium genome size (approximately 400 Mb), there are a few examples of the use of rice oligonucleotide array as a genotyping tool. RESULTS: We compared the single feature polymorphism (SFP) detection performance of whole-genome and transcript hybridizations using the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array, using the rice cultivars with full genome sequence, japonica cultivar Nipponbare and indica cultivar 93-11. Both genomes were surveyed for all probe target sequences. Only completely matched 25-mer single copy probes of the Nipponbare genome were extracted, and SFPs between them and 93-11 sequences were predicted. We investigated optimum conditions for SFP detection in both whole genome and transcript hybridization using differences between perfect match and mismatch probe intensities of non-polymorphic targets, assuming that these differences are representative of those between mismatch and perfect targets. Several statistical methods of SFP detection by whole-genome hybridization were compared under the optimized conditions. Causes of false positives and negatives in SFP detection in both types of hybridization were investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The optimizations allowed a more than 20% increase in true SFP detection in whole-genome hybridization and a large improvement of SFP detection performance in transcript hybridization. Significance analysis of the microarray for log-transformed raw intensities of PM probes gave the best performance in whole genome hybridization, and 22,936 true SFPs were detected with 23.58% false positives by whole genome hybridization. For transcript hybridization, stable SFP detection was achieved for highly expressed genes, and about 3,500 SFPs were detected at a high sensitivity (> 50%) in both shoot and young panicle transcripts. High SFP detection performances of both genome and transcript hybridizations indicated that microarrays of a complex genome (e.g., of Oryza sativa) can be effectively utilized for whole genome genotyping to conduct mutant mapping and analysis of quantitative traits such as gene expression levels.
Project description:The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a multiparent panel of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains derived from eight founder laboratory strains. RI panels are popular because of their long-term genetic stability, which enhances reproducibility and integration of data collected across time and conditions. Characterization of their genomes can be a community effort, reducing the burden on individual users. Here we present the genomes of the CC strains using two complementary approaches as a resource to improve power and interpretation of genetic experiments. Our study also provides a cautionary tale regarding the limitations imposed by such basic biological processes as mutation and selection. A distinct advantage of inbred panels is that genotyping only needs to be performed on the panel, not on each individual mouse. The initial CC genome data were haplotype reconstructions based on dense genotyping of the most recent common ancestors (MRCAs) of each strain followed by imputation from the genome sequence of the corresponding founder inbred strain. The MRCA resource captured segregating regions in strains that were not fully inbred, but it had limited resolution in the transition regions between founder haplotypes, and there was uncertainty about founder assignment in regions of limited diversity. Here we report the whole genome sequence of 69 CC strains generated by paired-end short reads at 30× coverage of a single male per strain. Sequencing leads to a substantial improvement in the fine structure and completeness of the genomes of the CC. Both MRCAs and sequenced samples show a significant reduction in the genome-wide haplotype frequencies from two wild-derived strains, CAST/EiJ and PWK/PhJ. In addition, analysis of the evolution of the patterns of heterozygosity indicates that selection against three wild-derived founder strains played a significant role in shaping the genomes of the CC. The sequencing resource provides the first description of tens of thousands of new genetic variants introduced by mutation and drift in the CC genomes. We estimate that new SNP mutations are accumulating in each CC strain at a rate of 2.4 ± 0.4 per gigabase per generation. The fixation of new mutations by genetic drift has introduced thousands of new variants into the CC strains. The majority of these mutations are novel compared to currently sequenced laboratory stocks and wild mice, and some are predicted to alter gene function. Approximately one-third of the CC inbred strains have acquired large deletions (>10 kb) many of which overlap known coding genes and functional elements. The sequence of these mice is a critical resource to CC users, increases threefold the number of mouse inbred strain genomes available publicly, and provides insight into the effect of mutation and drift on common resources.