Human common salivary protein 1 (CSP-1) promotes binding of Streptococcus mutans to experimental salivary pellicle and glucans formed on hydroxyapatite surface.
ABSTRACT: The saliva proteome includes host defense factors and specific bacterial-binding proteins that modulate microbial growth and colonization of the tooth surface in the oral cavity. A multidimensional mass spectrometry approach identified the major host-derived salivary proteins that interacted with Streptococcus mutans (strain UA159), the primary microorganism associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. Two abundant host proteins were found to tightly bind to S. mutans cells, common salivary protein-1 (CSP-1) and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, also known as salivary agglutinin or gp340). In contrast to gp340, limited functional information is available on CSP-1. The sequence of CSP-1 shares 38.1% similarity with rat CSP-1. Recombinant CSP-1 (rCSP-1) protein did not cause aggregation of S. mutans cells and was devoid of any significant biocidal activity (2.5 to 10 ?g/mL). However, S. mutans cells exposed to rCSP-1 (10 ?g/mL) in saliva displayed enhanced adherence to experimental salivary pellicle and to glucans in the pellicle formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Thus, our data demonstrate that the host salivary protein CSP-1 binds to S. mutans cells and may influence the initial colonization of this pathogenic bacterium onto the tooth surface.
Project description:Salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp340 aggregates streptococci and other bacteria as part of the host innate defense system at mucosal surfaces. In this article, we have investigated the properties of fluid-phase gp340 and hydroxylapatite surface-adsorbed gp340 in aggregation and adherence, respectively, of viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans), non-viridans group streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus suis), and oral Actinomyces. Fluid-phase gp340 and surface-phase gp340 bioforms were differentially recognized by streptococci, which formed three phenotypic groupings according to their modes of interaction with gp340. Group I streptococci were aggregated by and adhered to gp340, and group II streptococci preferentially adhered to surface-bound gp340, while group III streptococci were preferentially aggregated by gp340. Each species of Streptococcus tested was found to contain strains representative of at least two of these gp340 interaction groupings. The gp340 interaction modes I to III and sugar specificities of gp340 binding strains coincided for several species. Many gp340 interactions were sialidase sensitive, and each of the interaction modes (I to III) for S. gordonii was correlated with a variant of sialic acid specificity. Adherence of S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) to surface-bound gp340 was dependent upon expression of the sialic acid binding adhesin Hsa. However, aggregation of cells by fluid-phase gp340 was independent of Hsa and involved SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family) polypeptides. Conversely, both gp340-mediated aggregation and adherence of S. mutans NG8 involved antigen I/II polypeptide. Deletion of the mga virulence regulator gene in S. pyogenes resulted in increased cell aggregation by gp340. These results suggest that salivary gp340 recognizes different bacterial receptors according to whether gp340 is present in the fluid phase or surface bound. This phase-associated differential recognition by gp340 of streptococcal species of different levels of virulence and diverse origins may mediate alternative host responses to commensal or pathogenic bacterial phenotypes.
Project description:Proteins in saliva are needed for preprocessing food in the mouth, maintenance of tooth mineralization, and protection from microbial pathogens. Novel insights into human lineage-specific functions of salivary proteins and clues to their involvement in human disease can be gained through evolutionary studies, as recently shown for salivary amylase AMY1 and salivary agglutinin DMBT1/gp340. However, the entirety of proteins in saliva, the salivary proteome, has not yet been investigated from an evolutionary perspective. Here, we compared the proteomes of human saliva and the saliva of our closest extant evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, using macaques as an outgroup, with the aim to uncover features in saliva protein composition that are unique to each species. We found that humans produce a waterier saliva, containing less than half total protein than great apes and Old World monkeys. For all major salivary proteins in humans, we could identify counterparts in chimpanzee and gorilla saliva. However, we discovered unique protein profiles in saliva of humans that were distinct from those of nonhuman primates. These findings open up the possibility that dietary differences and pathogenic pressures may have shaped a distinct salivary proteome in the human lineage.
Project description:The commensal pathogen Streptococcus mutans uses AgI/II adhesins to adhere to gp340 adsorbed on teeth. Here we analyzed isolates of S. mutans (n = 70 isolates) from caries and caries-free human extremes (n = 19 subjects) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), AgI/II full-length gene sequencing, and adhesion to parotid saliva matched from the strain donors (nested from a case-control sample of defined gp340 and acidic proline-rich protein [PRP] profiles). The concatenated MLST as well as AgI/II gene sequences showed unique sequence types between, and identical types within, the subjects. The matched adhesion levels ranged widely (40% adhesion range), from low to moderate to high, between subjects but were similar within subjects (or sequence types). In contrast, the adhesion avidity of the strains was narrow, normally distributed for high, moderate, or low adhesion reference saliva or pure gp340 regardless of the sequence type. The adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt and matched isolates and saliva samples correlated (r = 0.929), suggesting that the host specify about four-fifths (r(2) = 0.86) of the variation in matched adhesion. Half of the variation in S. mutans Ingbritt adhesion to saliva from the caries cases-controls (n = 218) was explained by the primary gp340 receptor and PRP coreceptor composition. The isolates also varied, although less so, in adhesion to standardized saliva (18% adhesion range) and clustered into three major AgI/II groups (groups A, B(1), and B(2)) due to two variable V-region segments and diverse AgI/II sequence types due to a set of single-amino-acid substitutions. Isolates with AgI/II type A versus types B(1) and B(2) tended to differ in gp340 binding avidity and qualitative adhesion profiles for saliva gp340 phenotypes. In conclusion, the host saliva phenotype plays a more prominent role in S. mutans adhesion than anticipated previously.
Project description:The acquired enamel pellicle is an oral, fluid-derived protein layer that forms on the tooth surface. It is a biologically and clinically important integument that protects teeth against enamel demineralization, and abrasion. Tooth surfaces are exposed to different proteinaceous microenvironments depending on the enamel location. For instance, tooth surfaces close to the gingival sulcus contact serum proteins that emanate via this sulcus, which may impact pellicle composition locally. The aims of this study were to define the major salivary and serum components that adsorb to hydroxyapatite, to study competition among them, and to obtain preliminary evidence in an in vivo saliva/serum pellicle model. Hydroxyapatite powder was incubated with saliva and serum, and the proteins that adsorbed were identified by mass spectrometry. To study competition, saliva and serum proteins were labeled with CyDyes, mixed in various proportions, and incubated with hydroxyapatite. In vivo competition was assessed using a split-mouth design, with half the buccal tooth surfaces coated with serum and the other half with saliva. After exposure to the oral environment for 0 min, 30 min and 2 h, the pellicles were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. In pure saliva- or serum-derived pellicles, 82 and 84 proteins were identified, respectively. When present concomitantly, salivary protein adsorbers effectively competed with serum protein adsorbers for the hydroxyapatite surface. Specifically, acidic proline-rich protein, cystatin, statherin and protein S100-A9 proteins competed off apolipoproteins, complement C4-A, haptoglobin, transthyretin and serotransferrin. In vivo evidence further supported the replacement of serum proteins by salivary proteins. In conclusion, although significant numbers of serum proteins emanate from the gingival sulcus, their ability to participate in dental pellicle formation is likely reduced in the presence of strong salivary protein adsorbers. The functional properties of the acquired enamel pellicle will therefore be mostly dictated by the salivary component.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to investigate salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacilli, and other salivary indices in subjects wearing clear aligners (CA) in comparison with multibrackets orthodontic appliances (MB).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A sample of 80 participants (46 males and 34 females) was included in the study: 40 subjects (aged 20.4±1.7 years) were treated with CA, and 40 (aged 21.3±1.7 years) were treated with MB. Plaque index (PI), salivary flow, buffering power of saliva, and salivary levels of S. mutans and Lactobacilli were evaluated prior to start of orthodontic treatment (t0), after 3 months (t1) and 6 months (t2).<h4>Results</h4>CA patients maintained PI at level 0 over time, while MB participants experienced a statistically significant increasing trend of PI over time. In addition, at t2, 37.5% of MB participants (15 subjects over 40) showed risky salivary levels (CFU/ml>105) of S. mutans (odds ratio = 7.40; 95% C.I. = 1.94-28.25; chi-square = 10.32; p = 0.001) as well as Lactobacilli (odds ratio = 23.40; 95% C.I. = 2.91-188.36; chi-square = 15.31; p = 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Comparing all the data, subjects treated with CA achieved lower salivary microbial colonization after 6 months of treatment compared with MB. Different additional strategies for plaque control and salivary microbial colonization must be triggered considering the type of orthodontic appliance.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340). This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K), a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2), suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K) may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K) on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h) was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h) was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 ?M Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K) had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 ?M Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide's activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06) and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06) biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K) acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further consider these results in the context of the safety, specificity, and stability properties of the Ssp(A4K-A11K) peptide.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI), encoded by type A transcripts of the gene Car6, is a secretory product of salivary glands and is found in the enamel pellicle. Because higher caries prevalence is associated with lower salivary concentrations of CA VI in humans, we tested whether CA VI protects enamel surfaces from caries induced by Streptococcus mutans, using Car6(-/-) mice, in which salivary CA VI expression is absent. We detected aberrant Car6 type A transcripts in Car6(-/-) mice, likely targets for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression of the intracellular stress-induced isoform of CA VI encoded by type B transcripts was restricted to parotid and submandibular glands of wild type mice. The salivary function of Car6(-/-) mice was normal as assessed by the histology and protein/glycoprotein profiles of glands, salivary flow rates and protein/glycoprotein compositions of saliva. Surprisingly, total smooth surface caries and sulcal caries in Car6(-/-) mice were more than 6-fold and 2-fold lower than in wild type mice after infection with S. mutans strain UA159. Recoveries of S. mutans and total microbiota from molars were also lower in Car6(-/-) mice. To explore possible mechanisms for increased caries susceptibility, we found no differences in S. mutans adherence to salivary pellicles, in vitro. Interestingly, higher levels of Lactobacillus murinus and an unidentified Streptococcus species were cultivated from the oral microbiota of Car6(-/-) mice. Collective results suggest salivary CA VI may promote caries by modulating the oral microbiota to favor S. mutans colonization and/or by the enzymatic production of acid within plaque.
Project description:Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, and , we show that a reduction in causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.
Project description:Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19(-/-) mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19(-/-) mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19(-/-) mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19(-/-) mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed.
Project description:Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.