Intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion.
ABSTRACT: Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through intracellular calcium (Ca2(+)(i))-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation.We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1, a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, ethylene glycol-bis(?-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC inhibitors were used to modulate Ca(2+)(i)-release, PKC activity, and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H(+)/K(+)-?-cholera-toxin-overexpressing mice.Mice that expressed secreted hedgehog-interacting protein-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression also was repressed in the hyperchlorhydric H(+)/K(+)-?-cholera-toxin model with increased cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca(2+)(i) release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin-, and carbachol-mediated release of Ca(2+)(i) induced Shh expression. Ca(2+)-chelation with BAPTA + EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-?, -?, and -? (but not PKC-?) induced an Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene.Secretagogues that stimulate gastric acid secretion induce Shh gene expression through increased Ca(2+)(i)-release and PKC activation. Shh might be the ligand transducing changes in gastric acidity to the regulation of G-cell secretion of gastrin.
Project description:Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the adult stomach, but its role as a gastric morphogen is unclear. We sought to identify mechanisms by which Shh might regulate gastric epithelial cell function and differentiation.Mice with a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (HKCre/Shh(KO)) were created. Gastric morphology and function were studied in control and HKCre/Shh(KO) mice between 1 and 8 months of age.In contrast to control mice, HKCre/Shh(KO) mice developed gastric hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinemia, and a phenotype that resembled foveolar hyperplasia. The fundic mucosa of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice had an expanded surface pit cell lineage that was documented by increased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and was attributed to the hypergastrinemia. Compared with controls, numbers of total mucous neck and zymogen cells were significantly decreased in stomachs of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice. In addition, zymogen and neck cell markers were coexpressed in the same cell populations, indicating disrupted differentiation of the zymogen cell lineage from the mucous neck cells in the stomachs of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice. Laser capture microdissection of the surface epithelium, followed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, revealed a significant increase in expression of Indian Hedgehog, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1, Wnt, and cyclin D1. Laser capture microdissection analysis also showed a significant increase in Snail with a concomitant decrease in E-cadherin.In the stomachs of adult mice, loss of Shh from parietal cells results in hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia might subsequently induce increased Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in the surface pit epithelium, resulting in hyperproliferation.
Project description:In addition to its role as a morphogen, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has also been shown to function as a guidance factor that directly acts on the growth cones of various types of axons. However, the noncanonical signaling pathways that mediate the guidance effects of Shh protein remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that a novel signaling pathway consisting of protein kinase C? (PKC?) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) mediates the negative guidance effects of high concentration of Shh on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Shh rapidly increased Ca(2+) level and activated PKC? and ILK in the growth cones of RGC axons. By in vitro kinase assay, PKC? was found to directly phosphorylate ILK on threonine-173 and -181. Inhibition of PKC? or expression of a mutant ILK with the PKC? phosphorylation sites mutated (ILK-DM), abolished the Shh-induced macropinocytosis, growth cone collapse and repulsive axon turning. In vivo, expression of a dominant negative PKC? or ILK-DM disrupted RGC axon pathfinding at the optic chiasm but not the projection toward the optic disk, supporting that this signaling pathway plays a specific role in Shh-mediated negative guidance effects.
Project description:In both human subjects and rodent models, Helicobacter infection leads to a decrease in Shh expression in the stomach. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is highly expressed in the gastric corpus and its loss correlates with gastric atrophy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines induce gastric atrophy by inhibiting Shh expression.Shh-LacZ reporter mice were infected with Helicobacter felis for 3 and 8 weeks. Changes in Shh expression were monitored using beta-galactosidase staining and immunohistochemistry. Gastric acidity was measured after infection, and interleukin (IL)-1beta was quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mice were injected with either IL-1beta or omeprazole before measuring Shh mRNA expression and acid secretion. Organ cultures of gastric glands from wild-type or IL-1R1 null mice were treated with IL-1beta then Shh expression was measured. Primary canine parietal or mucous cells were treated with IL-1beta. Shh protein was determined by immunoblot analysis. Changes in intracellular calcium were measured by Fura-2.All major cell lineages of the corpus including surface pit, mucous neck, zymogenic, and parietal cells expressed Shh. Helicobacter infection reduced gastric acidity and inhibited Shh expression in parietal cells by 3 weeks. IL-1beta produced during Helicobacter infection inhibited gastric acid, intracellular calcium, and Shh expression through the IL-1 receptor. Suppression of parietal cell Shh expression by IL-1beta and omeprazole was additive. IL-1beta did not suppress Shh expression in primary gastric mucous cells.IL-1beta suppresses Shh gene expression in parietal cells by inhibiting acid secretion and subsequently the release of intracellular calcium.
Project description:This study investigated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in gastric metaplasia in the insulin-gastrin (InsGas) hypergastrinaemic mouse +/- Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. Sonic hedgehog gene and protein expression was reduced in pre-metaplastic lesions from non-infected mice (90% gene reduction, P<0.01) compared to normal mucosa. Sonic hedgehog was reactivated in gastric metaplasia of H. felis-infected mice (3.5-fold increase, P<0.01) compared to pre-metaplastic lesions. Additionally, the Shh target gene, glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)-1, was significantly reduced in the gastric glands of InsGas mice (75% reduction, P<0.05) and reactivated with H. felis infection (P<0.05, base of glands, P<0.01 stroma of metaplastic glands). The ability of H. felis to activate the Shh pathway was investigated by measuring the effect of target cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), on Shh expression in AGS and MGLVA1 cells, which was shown to induce Shh expression at physiological concentrations. H. felis induced the expression of NF-kappaB in inflammatory infiltrates in vivo, and the expression of the IL-8 mouse homologue, protein KC, in inflammatory infiltrates and metaplastic lesions. Sonic hedgehog pathway reactivation was paralleled with an increase in proliferation of metaplastic lesions (15.75 vs 4.39% in infected vs non-infected mice, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, Shh overexpression increased the growth rate of the gastric cancer cell line, AGS. The antiapoptotic protein, bcl-2, was expressed in the stroma of infected mice, along with a second Shh target gene, patched-1 (P=0.0001, stroma of metaplastic gland). This study provides evidence suggesting reactivation of Shh signalling from pre-metaplastic to advanced metaplastic lesions of the stomach and outlines the importance of the Shh pathway as a potential chemoprophylactic target for gastric carcinogenesis.
Project description:Although metal ions are involved in a myriad of biological processes, noninvasive detection of free metal ions in deep tissue remains a formidable challenge. We present an approach for specific sensing of the presence of Ca(2+) in which the amplification strategy of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is combined with the broad range of chemical shifts found in (19)F NMR spectroscopy to obtain magnetic resonance images of Ca(2+). We exploited the chemical shift change (??) of (19)F upon binding of Ca(2+) to the 5,5'-difluoro derivative of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (5F-BAPTA) by radiofrequency labeling at the Ca(2+)-bound (19)F frequency and detection of the label transfer to the Ca(2+)-free (19)F frequency. Through the substrate binding kinetics we were able to amplify the signal of Ca(2+) onto free 5F-BAPTA and thus indirectly detect low Ca(2+) concentrations with high sensitivity.
Project description:Eradication of Helicobacter pylori correlates with regeneration of the gastric epithelium, ulcer healing and re-expression of the gastric morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). We sought to identify the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric epithelial regeneration during wound healing. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific, tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Shh (HKCre(ERT2);Shh(flox/flox) or PC-iShhKO) was developed. Stomachs were collected and compared 7-150 days after the final vehicle or tamoxifen injection. Ulcers were induced in both controls and PC-iShhKO mice using acetic acid and ulcer size compared 1 and 7 days post induction. (1) Re-expression of Shh correlates with decreased hyperproliferation: Compared to controls, PC-iShhKO mice developed foveolar hyperplasia. Restoration of normal gastric epithelial architecture and differentiation correlated with the re-expression of Shh in PC-iShhKO mice 150 days after the final tamoxifen injection. At the tamoxifen dose used to induce Cre recombination there was no genotoxicity reported in either HKCre(ERT2) or Shh(flox/flox) control mouse stomachs. (2) Delayed wound healing in PC-iShhKO mouse stomachs: To identify the role of Shh in gastric regeneration, an acetic acid ulcer was induced in control and PC-iShhKO mice. Ulcers began to heal in control mice by 7 days after induction. Ulcer healing was documented by decreased ulcer size, angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration and formation of granulation tissue that correlated with the re-expression of Shh within the ulcerated tissue. PC-iShhKO mice did not show evidence of ulcer healing. Re-expression of Shh contributes to gastric regeneration. Our current study may have clinical implications given that eradication of H. pylori correlates with re-expression of Shh, regeneration of the gastric epithelium and ulcer healing.
Project description:An optically controlled Ca(2+)-chelator 1 was developed to mimic natural calcium oscillations. Compound 1, a spiroamido-rhodamine derivative of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), underwent cycles of reversible transitions between a colorless closed state and a fluorescent open form. The closed-state exhibited a high affinity for Ca(2+) (K(d): 509 nM) with excellent selectivity over Mg(2+) (K(d): 19 mM). The open isomer had a 350-fold lower Ca(2+) affinity (K(d): 181 ?M), while the Mg(2+) affinity was not significantly affected (K(d): 14 mM).
Project description:We investigated the role of a Ca(2+) channel and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in osmotic stress-induced JNK activation and tight junction disruption in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption was attenuated by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) depletion. Depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) at the apical surface, but not basolateral surface, also prevented tight junction disruption. Similarly, thapsigargin-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) depletion attenuated tight junction disruption. Thapsigargin or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion partially reduced osmotic stress-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas thapsigargin and extracellular Ca(2+) depletion together resulted in almost complete loss of rise in [Ca(2+)](i). L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (isradipine and diltiazem) or knockdown of the Ca(V)1.3 channel abrogated [Ca(2+)](i) rise and disruption of tight junction. Osmotic stress-induced JNK2 activation was abolished by BAPTA and isradipine, and partially reduced by extracellular Ca(2+) depletion, thapsigargin, or Ca(V)1.3 knockdown. Osmotic stress rapidly induced c-Src activation, which was significantly attenuated by BAPTA, isradipine, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion. Tight junction disruption by osmotic stress was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and PP2) or siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src. Osmotic stress induced a robust increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, which was attenuated by BAPTA, SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or PP2. These results demonstrate that Ca(V)1.3 and rise in [Ca(2+)](i) play a role in the mechanism of osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption in an intestinal epithelial monolayer. [Ca(2+)](i) mediate osmotic stress-induced JNK activation and subsequent c-Src activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction proteins. Additionally, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated release of ER Ca(2+) also contributes to osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption.
Project description:Mutations in TRPML1, a lysosomal Ca(2+)-permeable TRP channel, lead to mucolipidosis type IV, a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease. An unusual feature of mucolipidosis type IV is constitutive achlorhydria. We produced Trpml1(-/-) (null) mice to investigate the requirement for this protein in gastric acid secretion.Trpml1-null mice were generated by gene targeting. The expression of Trpml1 and its role in acid secretion by gastric parietal cells were analyzed using biochemical, histologic, and ultrastructural approaches.Trpml1 is expressed by parietal cells and localizes predominantly to the lysosomes; it was dynamically palmitoylated and dephosphorylated in vivo following histamine stimulation of acid secretion. Trpml1-null mice had significant impairments in basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion and markedly reduced levels of the gastric proton pump. Histologic and ultrastructural analyses revealed that Trpml1(-/-) parietal cells were enlarged, had multivesicular and multi-lamellated lysosomes, and maintained an abnormal intracellular canalicular membrane. The intralysosomal Ca(2+) content and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling were, however, unaffected in Trpml1(-/-) gastric glands, indicating that Trpml1 does not function in the regulation of lysosomal Ca(2+).Loss of Trpml1 causes reduced levels and mislocalization of the gastric proton pump and alters the secretory canaliculi, causing hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia. The lysosomal enlargement and defective intracellular canaliculi formation observed in Trpml1(-/-) parietal cells indicate that Trpml1 functions in the formation and trafficking of the tubulovesicles. This study provides direct evidence for the regulation of gastric acid secretion by a TRP channel; TRPML1 is an important protein in parietal cell apical membrane trafficking.
Project description:We investigated the regulation of cardiac cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels by protein kinase C (PKC) in Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNA encoding the cardiac (exon 5-) CFTR Cl- channel isoform. Membrane currents were recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Activators of PKC or a cAMP cocktail elicited robust time-independent Cl- currents in cardiac CFTR-injected oocytes, but not in control water-injected oocytes. The effects of costimulation of both pathways were additive; however, maximum protein kinase A (PKA) activation occluded further activation by PKC. In oocytes expressing either the cardiac (exon 5-) or epithelial (exon 5+) CFTR isoform, Cl- currents activated by PKA were sustained, whereas PKC-activated currents were transient, with initial activation followed by slow current decay in the continued presence of phorbol esters, the latter effect likely due to down-regulation of endogenous PKC activity. The specific PKA inhibitor, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (Rp-cAMPS), and various protein phosphatase inhibitors were used to determine whether the stimulatory effects of PKC are dependent upon the PKA phosphorylation state of cardiac CFTR channels. Intraoocyte injection of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N, N,N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or pretreatment of oocytes with BAPTA-acetoxymethyl-ester (BAPTA-AM) nearly completely prevented dephosphorylation of CFTR currents activated by cAMP, an effect consistent with inhibition of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) by chelation of intracellular Mg2+. PKC-induced stimulation of CFTR channels was prevented by inhibition of basal endogenous PKA activity, and phorbol esters failed to stimulate CFTR channels trapped into either the partially PKA phosphorylated (P1) or the fully PKA phosphorylated (P1P2) channel states. Site-directed mutagenesis of serines (S686 and S790) within two consensus PKC phosphorylation sites on the cardiac CFTR regulatory domain attentuated, but did not eliminate, the stimulatory effects of phorbol esters on mutant CFTR channels. The effects of PKC on cardiac CFTR Cl- channels are consistent with a simple model in which PKC phosphorylation of the R domain facilitates PKA-induced transitions from dephosphorylated (D) to partially (P1) phosphorylated and fully (P1P2) phosphorylated channel states.