Multiple controls regulate nucleostemin partitioning between nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
ABSTRACT: Nucleostemin plays an essential role in maintaining the continuous proliferation of stem cells and cancer cells. The movement of nucleostemin between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm provides a dynamic way to partition the nucleostemin protein between these two compartments. Here, we show that nucleostemin contains two nucleolus-targeting regions, the basic and the GTP-binding domains, that exhibit a short and a long nucleolar retention time, respectively. In a GTP-unbound state, the nucleolus-targeting activity of nucleostemin is blocked by a mechanism that traps its intermediate domain in the nucleoplasm. A nucleostemin-interacting protein, RSL1D1, was identified that contains a ribosomal L1-domain. RSL1D1 co-resides with nucleostemin in the same subnucleolar compartment, unlike the B23 and fibrillarin, and displays a longer nucleolar residence time than nucleostemin. It interacts with both the basic and the GTP-binding domains of nucleostemin through a non-nucleolus-targeting region. Overexpression of the nucleolus-targeting domain of RSL1D1 alone disperses nucleolar nucleostemin. Loss of RSL1D1 expression reduces the compartmental size and amount of nucleostemin in the nucleolus. Our work reveals that the partitioning of nucleostemin employs complex mechanisms involving both nucleolar and nucleoplasmic components, and provides insight into the post-translational regulation of its activity.
Project description:The nucleolus has shown to be integral for many processes related to cell growth and proliferation. Stem cells in particular are likely to depend upon nucleolus-based processes to remain in a proliferative state. A highly conserved nucleolar factor named nucleostemin is proposed to be a critical link between nucleolar function and stem-cell-specific processes. Currently, it is unclear whether nucleostemin modulates proliferation by affecting ribosome biogenesis or by another nucleolus-based activity that is specific to stem cells and/or highly proliferating cells. Here, we investigate nucleostemin (nst-1) in the nematode C. elegans, which enables us to examine nst-1 function during both proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Like mammalian nucleostemin, the NST-1 protein is localized to the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm; however, its expression is found in both differentiated and proliferating cells. Global loss of C. elegans nucleostemin (nst-1) leads to a larval arrest phenotype due to a growth defect in the soma, while loss of nst-1 specifically in the germ line causes germline stem cells to undergo a cell cycle arrest. nst-1 mutants exhibit reduced levels of rRNAs, suggesting defects in ribosome biogenesis. However, NST-1 is generally not present in regions of the nucleolus where rRNA transcription and processing occurs, so this reduction is likely secondary to a different defect in ribosome biogenesis. Transgenic studies indicate that NST-1 requires its N-terminal domain for stable expression and both its G1 GTPase and intermediate domains for proper germ line function. Our data support a role for C. elegans nucleostemin in cell growth and proliferation by promoting ribosome biogenesis.
Project description:Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been recognized as one of the key cellular organizing principles and was shown to be responsible for formation of membrane-less organelles such as nucleoli. Although nucleoli were found to behave like liquid droplets, many ramifications of LLPS including nucleolar dynamics and interactions with the surrounding liquid remain to be revealed. Here, we study the motion of human nucleoli in vivo, while monitoring the shape of the nucleolus-nucleoplasm interface. We reveal two types of nucleolar pair dynamics: an unexpected correlated motion prior to coalescence and an independent motion otherwise. This surprising kinetics leads to a nucleolar volume distribution, [Formula: see text], unaccounted for by any current theory. Moreover, we find that nucleolus-nucleoplasm interface is maintained by ATP-dependent processes and susceptible to changes in chromatin transcription and packing. Our results extend and enrich the LLPS framework by showing the impact of the surrounding nucleoplasm on nucleoli in living cells.
Project description:Nucleolar disassembly occurs during mitosis and nucleolar stress, releasing several MDM2-interactive proteins residing in the nucleolus that share the common activity of p53 stabilization. Here, we demonstrate that mobilization of nucleostemin, a nucleolar protein enriched in cancer and stem cells, has the opposite role of stabilizing MDM2 and suppressing p53 functions. Our results show that nucleostemin increases the protein stability and nucleoplasmic retention of MDM2, and competes with L23 for MDM2 binding. These activities were significantly elevated when nucleostemin is released into the nucleoplasm by mutations that abolish its nucleolar localization or by chemotherapeutic agents that disassemble the nucleoli. Nucleostemin depletion decreases MDM2 protein, increases transcription activity without affecting the level of p53 protein, and triggers G2-M arrest and cell death in U2OS cells but not in H1299 cells. This work reveals that nucleoplasmic relocation of nucleostemin during nucleolar disassembly safeguards the G2-M transit and survival of continuously dividing cells by MDM2 stabilization and p53 inhibition.
Project description:The nucleolus has begun to emerge as a subnuclear organelle capable of modulating the activities of nuclear proteins in a dynamic and cell type-dependent manner. It remains unclear whether one can extrapolate a rule that predicts the nucleolar localization of multiple proteins based on protein sequence. Here, we address this issue by determining the shared and unique mechanisms that regulate the static and dynamic distributions of a family of nucleolar GTP-binding proteins, consisting of nucleostemin (NS), guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (GNL3L), and Ngp1. The nucleolar residence of GNL3L is short and primarily controlled by its basic-coiled-coil domain, whereas the nucleolar residence of NS and Ngp1 is long and requires the basic and the GTP-binding domains, the latter of which functions as a retention signal. All three proteins contain a nucleoplasmic localization signal (NpLS) that prevents their nucleolar accumulation. Unlike that of the basic domain, the activity of NpLS is dynamically controlled by the GTP-binding domain. The nucleolar retention and the NpLS-regulating functions of the G domain involve specific residues that cannot be predicted by overall protein homology. This work reveals common and protein-specific mechanisms underlying the nucleolar movement of NS family proteins.
Project description:Nucleostemin (NS) is expressed in the nucleoli of adult and embryonic stem cells and in many tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, nucleostemin is recovered with the tumor suppressor p53, and more recently we have demonstrated that nucleostemin exerts its role in cell cycle progression via a p53-dependent pathway. Here, we report that in human osteosarcoma cells, nucleostemin interacts with nucleophosmin, a nucleolar protein believed to possess oncogenic potential. Nucleostemin (NS) and nucleophosmin (NPM) displayed an extremely high degree of colocalization in the granular component of the nucleolus during interphase, and both proteins associated with prenucleolar bodies in late mitosis before the reformation of nucleoli. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that NS and NPM co-reside in complexes, and yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed that they are interactive proteins, revealing the NPM-interactive region to be the 46-amino acid N-terminal domain of NS. In bimolecular fluorescence complementation studies, bright nucleolar signals were observed, indicating that these two proteins directly interact in the nucleolus in vivo. These results support the notion that cell cycle regulatory proteins congress and interact in the nucleolus, adding to the emerging concept that this nuclear domain has functions beyond ribosome production.
Project description:RNA-binding protein RBM28 (RBM28), as a nucleolar component of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, is involved in the nucleolar stress response. Whether and how RBM28 regulates tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we report that RBM28 is frequently overexpressed in various types of cancer and that its upregulation is associated with a poor prognosis. Functional and mechanistic assays revealed that RBM28 promotes the survival and growth of cancer cells by interacting with the DNA-binding domain of tumor suppressor p53 to inhibit p53 transcriptional activity. Upon treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., adriamycin), RBM28 is translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, which is likely mediated via phosphorylation of RBM28 at Ser122 by DNA checkpoint kinases 1 and 2 (Chk1/2), indicating that RBM28 may act as a nucleolar stress sensor in response to DNA damage stress. Our findings not only reveal RBM28 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for cancers but also provide mechanistic insights into how cancer cells convert stress signals into a cellular response linking the nucleolus to regulation of the tumor suppressor p53.
Project description:The protein kinase TOR (target of rapamycin) controls several steps of ribosome biogenesis, including gene expression of rRNA and ribosomal proteins, and processing of the 35S rRNA precursor, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we show that TOR also regulates late stages of ribosome maturation in the nucleoplasm via the nuclear GTP-binding protein Nog1. Nog1 formed a complex that included 60S ribosomal proteins and pre-ribosomal proteins Nop7 and Rlp24. The Nog1 complex shuttled between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm for ribosome biogenesis, but it was tethered to the nucleolus by both nutrient depletion and TOR inactivation, causing cessation of the late stages of ribosome biogenesis. Furthermore, after this, Nog1 and Nop7 proteins were lost, leading to complete cessation of ribosome maturation. Thus, the Nog1 complex is a critical regulator of ribosome biogenesis mediated by TOR. This is the first description of a physiological regulation of nucleolus-to-nucleoplasm translocation of pre-ribosome complexes.
Project description:Nucleostemin is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that is involved in stem cell proliferation, embryonic development, and ribosome biogenesis in mammals. Plant nucleostemin-like 1 (NSN1) plays a role in embryogenesis, and apical and floral meristem development. In this study, a nucleolar function of NSN1 in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis was identified. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NSN1 localized to the nucleolus, which was primarily determined by its N-terminal domain. Recombinant NSN1 and its N-terminal domain (NSN1-N) bound to RNA in vitro. Recombinant NSN1 expressed GTPase activity in vitro. NSN1 silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana led to growth retardation and premature senescence. NSN1 interacted with Pescadillo and EBNA1 binding protein 2 (EBP2), which are nucleolar proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, and with several ribosomal proteins. NSN1, NSN1-N, and EBP2 co-fractionated primarily with the 60S ribosomal large subunit in vivo. Depletion of NSN1 delayed 25S rRNA maturation and biogenesis of the 60S ribosome subunit, and repressed global translation. NSN1-deficient plants exhibited premature leaf senescence, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and senescence-related gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that NSN1 plays a crucial role in plant growth and senescence by modulating ribosome biogenesis.
Project description:The unique property of stem cells to self-renew suggests specific mechanisms that regulate their cell-cycle progression. In the present study, we identify a novel protein, nucleostemin, found in the nucleoli of CNS stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and several cancer cell lines and preferentially expressed by other stem cell-enriched populations. It contains an N-terminal basic domain and two GTP-binding motifs. When stem cells differentiate, nucleostemin expression decreases rapidly prior to cell-cycle exit both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion or overexpression of nucleostemin reduces cell proliferation in CNS stem cells and transformed cells. Mutation analysis indicates that excessive nucleostemin, particularly mutants that lack the GTP-regulatory domain, prevents cells from entering mitosis and causes apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. The N-terminal basic domain specifies nucleolar localization, the p53 interaction, and is required for the cell death caused by overexpression. This work describes a novel nucleolar mechanism that controls the cell-cycle progression in CNS stem cells and cancer cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein 1 (RSL1D1) is a nucleolar protein that is essential in cell proliferation. In the current opinion, RSL1D1 translocates to the nucleoplasm under nucleolar stress and inhibits the E3 ligase activity of HDM2 via direct interaction, thereby leading to stabilization of p53.<h4>Methods</h4>Gene knockdown was achieved in HCT116<sup>p53+/+</sup>, HCT116<sup>p53-/-</sup>, and HCT-8 human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells by siRNA transfection. A lentiviral expression system was used to establish cell strains overexpressing genes of interest. The mRNA and protein levels in cells were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were determined by MTT, PI staining, and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assays, respectively. The level of ubiquitinated p53 protein was assessed by IP. The protein-RNA interaction was investigated by RIP. The subcellular localization of proteins of interest was determined by IFA. Protein-protein interaction was investigated by GST-pulldown, BiFC, and co-IP assays. The therapeutic efficacy of RSL1D1 silencing on tumor growth was evaluated in HCT116 tumor-bearing nude mice.<h4>Results</h4>RSL1D1 distributed throughout the nucleus in human CRC cells. Silencing of RSL1D1 gene induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S and cell apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. RSL1D1 directly interacted with and recruited p53 to HDM2 to form a ternary RSL1D1/HDM2/p53 protein complex and thereby enhanced p53 ubiquitination and degradation, leading to a decrease in the protein level of p53. Destruction of the ternary complex increased the level of p53 protein. RSL1D1 also indirectly decreased the protein level of p53 by stabilizing HDM2 mRNA. Consequently, the negative regulation of p53 by RSL1D1 facilitated cell proliferation and survival and downregulation of RSL1D1 remarkably inhibited the growth of HCT116<sup>p53+/+</sup> tumors in a nude mouse model.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We report, for the first time, that RSL1D1 is a novel negative regulator of p53 in human CRC cells and more importantly, a potential molecular target for anticancer drug development.