Quantitative Determination of High Charge Density Polyanion Contaminants in Biomedical Heparin Preparations Using Potentiometric Polyanion Sensors.
ABSTRACT: Quantification of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in biomedical heparin preparations is achieved using a recently described potentiometric polyanion sensor-based approach operated in a kinetic mode of analysis. This is accomplished by adjusting the concentration of the test sample to a range where the OSCS level is low enough for the sensor not to achieve a full and rapid equilibrium phase boundary potential change at the membrane/sample interface upon exposure to the heparin sample. Using this method, the OSCS wt% determined within heparin samples containing OSCS are shown to be in good agreement with those determined by an accepted NMR method.
Project description:A very simple and inexpensive method to detect oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) or other high-charge density polyanionic structures as contaminants in heparin products using potentiometric polyanion sensors is described. In the potentiometric measurement, a greater change in the phase boundary equilibrium potential of polymeric membranes formulated with tridodecylmethylammonium (TDMA) anion exchange sites is observed for the contaminated heparin than for the untainted heparin due to the higher charge density of OSCS or other impurities compared to that of porcine heparin. Detection of 0.5 wt % OSCS impurity is readily achieved using only 1 mg/mL of final polyion concentration. Even lower detection limits for OSCS contamination may be possible if higher final concentrations of heparin preparations can be employed in the test procedure.
Project description:Nowadays, pharmaceutical heparin is purified from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa. In the past decade there has been an ongoing concern about the safety of heparin, since in 2008, adverse effects associated with the presence of an oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) were observed in preparations of pharmaceutical porcine heparin, which led to the death of patients, causing a global public health crisis. However, it has not been clarified whether OSCS has been added to the purified heparin preparation, or whether it has already been introduced during the production of the raw heparin. Using a combination of different analytical methods, we investigate both crude and final heparin products and we are able to demonstrate that the sulfated contaminants are intentionally introduced in the initial steps of heparin preparation. Furthermore, the results show that the oversulfated compounds are not structurally homogeneous. In addition, we show that these contaminants are able to bind to cells in using well known heparin binding sites. Together, the data highlights the importance of heparin quality control even at the initial stages of its production.
Project description:The first fully reversible polymeric membrane-based sensor for the anticoagulant heparin and other polyanions using a pulsed chronopotentiometry (pulstrode) measurement mode is reported. Polymeric membranes containing a lipophilic inert salt of the form R(+)R(-) (where R(+) and R(-) are tridodecylmethylammonium (TDMA(+)) and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (DNNS(-)), respectively) are used to suppress unwanted spontaneous ion extractions under zero-current equilibrium conditions. An anodic galvanostatic current pulse applied across the membrane perturbs the equilibrium lipophilic ion distribution within the membrane phase in such a way that anions/polyanions are extracted into the membrane from the sample. The membrane is then subjected to an open-circuit zero current state for a short period, and finally a 0 V vs reference electrode potentiostatic pulse is applied to restore the membrane to its initial full equilibrium condition. Potentials are sampled as average values during the last 10% of the 0.5 s open circuit phase of the measurement cycle. Fully reversible and reproducible electromotive force (emf) responses are observed for heparin, pentosan polysulfate (PPS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), with the magnitude of the potentiometric response proportional to charge density of the polyanions. The sensor provides an emf response related to heparin concentrations in the range of 1-20 U/mL. The responses to variations in heparin levels and toward other polyanions of the pulstrode configuration are analogous to the already established single-use, nonreversible potentiometric polyion sensors based on membranes doped only with the lipophilic anion exchanger TDMA(+).
Project description:Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. Recently, a contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), was discovered within heparin preparations. The presence of OSCS within heparin likely led to clinical manifestations, most prevalently, hypotension and abdominal pain leading to the deaths of several dozens of patients. Given the biological effects of OSCS, one continuing item of concern is the ability for existing methods to identify other persulfonated polysaccharide compounds that would also have anticoagulant activity and would likely elicit a similar activation of the contact system. To complete a more extensive analysis of the ability for NMR and capillary electrophoresis (CE) to capture a broader array of potential contaminants within heparin, we completed a systematic study of NMR, both mono- and bidimensional, and CE to detect both various components of sidestream heparin and their persulfonated derivatives. We show that given the complexity of heparin samples, and the requirement to ensure their purity and safety, use of orthogonal analytical techniques is effective at detecting an array of potential contaminants that could be present.
Project description:Heparin is a critically important anticoagulant drug that was contaminated with a persulfonated polysaccharide in 2008, resulting in a number of severe adverse reactions, some leading to death. Controversy remains as to the precise composition of the 2008 contaminant, and new information suggests that heparin may now be subject to adulteration with a new, difficult to detect, contaminant, N-sulfo oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. This study synthesizes this new potential contaminant and describes the use of radical depolymerization followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect N-sulfo oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and to confirm the structure of the 2008 contaminant as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and not oversulfated heparan sulfate.
Project description:There is an urgent need to determine whether oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a compound contaminating heparin supplies worldwide, is the cause of the severe anaphylactoid reactions that have occurred after intravenous heparin administration in the United States and Germany.Heparin procured from the Food and Drug Administration, consisting of suspect lots of heparin associated with the clinical events as well as control lots of heparin, were screened in a blinded fashion both for the presence of OSCS and for any biologic activity that could potentially link the contaminant to the observed clinical adverse events. In vitro assays for the activation of the contact system and the complement cascade were performed. In addition, the ability of OSCS to recapitulate key clinical manifestations in vivo was tested in swine.The OSCS found in contaminated lots of unfractionated heparin, as well as a synthetically generated OSCS reference standard, directly activated the kinin-kallikrein pathway in human plasma, which can lead to the generation of bradykinin, a potent vasoactive mediator. In addition, OSCS induced generation of C3a and C5a, potent anaphylatoxins derived from complement proteins. Activation of these two pathways was unexpectedly linked and dependent on fluid-phase activation of factor XII. Screening of plasma samples from various species indicated that swine and humans are sensitive to the effects of OSCS in a similar manner. OSCS-containing heparin and synthetically derived OSCS induced hypotension associated with kallikrein activation when administered by intravenous infusion in swine.Our results provide a scientific rationale for a potential biologic link between the presence of OSCS in suspect lots of heparin and the observed clinical adverse events. An assay to assess the amidolytic activity of kallikrein can supplement analytic tests to protect the heparin supply chain by screening for OSCS and other highly sulfated polysaccharide contaminants of heparin that can activate the contact system.
Project description:Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation.
Project description:Polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (polyquaterniums) have found increasing use in industrial and cosmetic applications in recent years. More specifically, polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10) is routinely used in cosmetic applications as a conditioner in personal care product formulations. Herein, we demonstrate the use of potentiometric polyion-sensitive polymeric membrane-based electrodes to quantify PQ-10 levels. Mixtures containing both PQ-10 and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) are used as model samples to illustrate this new method. SLS is often present in cosmetic samples that contain PQ-10 (e.g., shampoos, etc.) and this surfactant species interferes with the polyion sensor detection chemistry. However, it is shown here that SLS can be readily separated from the PQ-10/SLS mixture by use of an anion-exchange resin and that the PQ-10 can then be titrated with dextran sulphate (DS). This titration is monitored by potentiometric polyanion sensors to provide equivalence points that are directly proportional to PQ-10 concentrations.
Project description:Heparin and the low molecular weight heparins are extensively used as medicinal products to prevent and treat the formation of venous and arterial thrombi. In early 2008, administration of some heparin lots was associated with the advent of severe adverse effects, indicative of an anaphylactoid-like response. Application of orthogonal analytical tools enabled detection and identification of the contaminant as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was reported in our earlier report. Herein, we investigate whether enzymatic depolymerization using the bacterially derived heparinases, given the structural understanding of their substrate specificity, can be used to identify the presence of OSCS in heparin. We also extend this analysis to examine the effect of other persulfonated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the action of the heparinases. We find that all persulfonated GAGs examined were effective inhibitors of heparinase I, with IC(50) values ranging from approximately 0.5-2 ?g/mL. Finally, using this biochemical understanding, we develop a rapid, simple assay to assess the purity of heparin using heparinase digestion followed by size-exclusion HPLC analysis to identify and quantify digestion products. In the context of the assay, we demonstrate that less than 0.1% (w/w) of OSCS (and other persulfonated polysaccharides) can routinely be detected in heparin.
Project description:Activation of kinin-kallikrein and complement pathways by oversulfated-chondroitin-sulfate (OSCS) has been linked with recent heparin-associated adverse clinical events. Given the fact that the majority of patients who received contaminated heparin did not experience an adverse event, it is of particular importance to determine the circumstances that increase the risk of a clinical reaction. In this study, we demonstrated by both the addition and affinity depletion of C1inh from normal human plasma, that the level of C1inh in the plasma has a great impact on the OSCS-induced kallikrein activity and its kinetics. OSCS-induced kallikrein activity was dramatically increased after C1inh was depleted, while the addition of C1inh completely attenuated kallikrein activity. In addition, actual clinical infection can lead to increased C1inh levels. Plasma from patients with sepsis had higher average levels of functional C1inh and decreased OSCS-induced kallikrein activity. Lastly, descriptive data on adverse event reports suggest cases likely to be associated with contaminated heparin are inversely correlated with infection. Our data suggest that low C1inh levels can be a risk factor and high levels can be protective. The identification of risk factors for contact system-mediated adverse events may allow for patient screening and clinical development of prophylaxis and treatments.