Mutations in mitochondrial complex III uniquely affect complex I in Caenorhabditis elegans.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial supercomplexes containing complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain are now regarded as an established entity. Supercomplex I·III·IV has been theorized to improve respiratory chain function by allowing quinone channeling between complexes I and III. Here, we show that the role of the supercomplexes extends beyond channeling. Mutant analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans reveals that complex III affects supercomplex I·III·IV formation by acting as an assembly or stabilizing factor. Also, a complex III mtDNA mutation, ctb-1, inhibits complex I function by weakening the interaction of complex IV in supercomplex I·III·IV. Other complex III mutations inhibit complex I function either by decreasing the amount of complex I (isp-1), or decreasing the amount of complex I in its most active form, the I·III·IV supercomplex (isp-1;ctb-1). ctb-1 suppresses a nuclear encoded complex III defect, isp-1, without improving complex III function. Allosteric interactions involve all three complexes within the supercomplex and are necessary for maximal enzymatic activities.
Project description:Functional oxidative phosphorylation requires appropriately assembled mitochondrial respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes formed mainly of complexes I, III and IV. BCS1L is the chaperone needed to incorporate the catalytic subunit, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, into complex III at the final stage of its assembly. In cell culture studies, this subunit has been considered necessary for supercomplex formation and for maintaining the stability of complex I. Our aim was to assess the importance of fully assembled complex III for supercomplex formation in intact liver tissue. We used our transgenic mouse model with a homozygous c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l leading to decreased expression of BCS1L and progressive decrease of Rieske iron-sulfur protein in complex III, resulting in hepatopathy. We studied supercomplex formation at different ages using blue native gel electrophoresis and complex activity using high-resolution respirometry. In isolated liver mitochondria of young and healthy homozygous mutant mice, we found similar supercomplexes as in wild type. In homozygotes aged 27-29 days with liver disorder, complex III was predominantly a pre-complex lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein. However, the main supercomplex was clearly detected and contained complex III mainly in the pre-complex form. Oxygen consumption of complex IV was similar and that of complex I was twofold compared with controls. These complexes in free form were more abundant in homozygotes than in controls, and the mRNA of complex I subunits were upregulated. In conclusion, when complex III assembly is deficient, the pre-complex without Rieske iron-sulfur protein can participate with available fully assembled complex III in supercomplex formation, complex I function is preserved, and respiratory chain stability is maintained.
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I, III, and IV associate into a variety of supramolecular structures known as supercomplexes and respirasomes. While COX7A2L was originally described as a supercomplex-specific factor responsible for the dynamic association of complex IV into these structures to adapt MRC function to metabolic variations, this role has been disputed. Here, we further examine the functional significance of COX7A2L in the structural organization of the mammalian respiratory chain. As in the mouse, human COX7A2L binds primarily to free mitochondrial complex III and, to a minor extent, to complex IV to specifically promote the stabilization of the III2+IV supercomplex without affecting respirasome formation. Furthermore, COX7A2L does not affect the biogenesis, stabilization, and function of the individual oxidative phosphorylation complexes. These data show that independent regulatory mechanisms for the biogenesis and turnover of different MRC supercomplex structures co-exist.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous human disorders involving tissues with high energy demand. Murine models are widely used to elucidate genetic determinants of phenotypes relevant to human disease, with recent studies of C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2) and B6xD2 populations implicating naturally occurring genetic variation in mitochondrial function/dysfunction. Using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblots and in-gel activity analyses of complexes I, II, III, IV and V, our studies are the first to assess abundance, organization and catalytic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and supercomplexes in mouse brain. Remarkable strain differences in supercomplex assembly and associated activity are evident, without differences in individual complexes I, II, III or IV. Supercomplexes I1 III2 IV2-3 exhibit robust complex III immunoreactivity and activities of complexes I and IV in D2, but with little detected in B6 for I1 III2 IV2 , and I1 III2 IV3 is not detected in B6. I1 III2 IV1 and I1 III2 are abundant and catalytically active in both strains, but significantly more so in B6. Furthermore, while supercomplex III2 IV1 is abundant in D2, none is detected in B6. In aggregate, these results indicate a shift toward more highly assembled supercomplexes in D2. Respiratory supercomplexes are thought to increase electron flow efficiency and individual complex stability, and to reduce electron leak and generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results provide a framework to begin assessing the role of respiratory complex suprastructure in genetic vulnerability and treatment for a wide variety of mitochondrial-related disorders.
Project description:The complexes of the electron transport chain associate into large macromolecular assemblies, which are believed to facilitate efficient electron flow. We have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, named respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1-Yml030w), that is required for the normal assembly of respiratory supercomplexes. We demonstrate that Rcf1 stably and independently associates with both Complex III and Complex IV of the electron transport chain. Deletion of the RCF1 gene caused impaired respiration, probably as a result of destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes. Consistent with the hypothetical function of these respiratory assemblies, loss of RCF1 caused elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. Finally, we show that knockdown of HIG2A, a mammalian homolog of RCF1, causes impaired supercomplex formation. We suggest that Rcf1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved protein family that acts to promote respiratory supercomplex assembly and activity.
Project description:Here we present for the first time a three-dimensional cryo-EM map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiratory supercomplex composed of dimeric complex III flanked on each side by one monomeric complex IV. A precise fit of the existing atomic x-ray structures of complex III from yeast and complex IV from bovine heart into the cryo-EM map resulted in a pseudo-atomic model of the three-dimensional structure for the supercomplex. The distance between cytochrome c binding sites of complexes III and IV is about 6 nm, which supports proposed channeling of cytochrome c between the individual complexes. The opposing surfaces of complexes III and IV differ considerably from those reported for the bovine heart supercomplex as determined by cryo-EM. A closer association between the individual complex domains at the aqueous membrane interface and larger spaces between the membrane-embedded domains where lipid molecules may reside are also demonstrated. The supercomplex contains about 50 molecules of cardiolipin (CL) with a fatty acid composition identical to that of the inner membrane CL pool, consistent with CL-dependent stabilization of the supercomplex.
2012-01-01 | S-EPMC3391107 | BioStudies
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV can associate into larger structures termed supercomplexes or respirasomes, thereby generating structural interdependences among the individual complexes yet to be understood. In patients, nonsense mutations in complex IV subunit genes cause severe encephalomyopathies randomly associated with pleiotropic complex I defects. Using complexome profiling and biochemical analyses, we have explored the structural rearrangements of the respiratory chain in human cell lines depleted of the catalytic complex IV subunits COX1 or COX2. In the absence of a functional complex IV holoenzyme, several supercomplex I+III2 species coexist, which differ in their content of COX subunits and COX7A2L/HIGD2A assembly factors. The incorporation of an atypical COX1-HIGD2A submodule attenuates supercomplex I+III2 turnover rate, indicating an unexpected molecular adaptation for supercomplexes stabilization that relies on the presence of COX1 independently of holo-complex IV formation. Our data set the basis for complex I structural dependence on complex IV, revealing the co-existence of alternative pathways for the biogenesis of 'supercomplex-associated' versus individual complex IV, which could determine physiological adaptations under different stress and disease scenarios.
Project description:Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) plays a central role in ATP synthesis, and its dysfunction is associated with human diseases. Recent studies revealed that individual ETC complexes are assembled into supercomplexes. The main supercomplex, respirasome composed of complexes I, III, and IV has been suggested to improve electron channeling and control ROS production, maintain the structural integrity of ETC complexes and prevent protein aggregation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, many questions related to the structural organization of the respirasome, particularly, a possible role of complexes I and II in respirasome formation remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether genetic and pharmacological inhibition of complexes I and II affect respirasome assembly in cardioblast cells and isolated cardiac mitochondria. Pharmacological inhibition of the enzymatic activity of complexes I and II stimulated disruption of the respirasome. Likewise, knockdown of the complex I subunit NDUFA11 stimulated dissociation of respirasome and reduced the activity of complexes I, III, and IV. However, silencing of the membrane-anchored SDHC subunit of complex II had no effect on the respirasome assembly but reduced the activity of complexes II and IV. Downregulation of NDUFA11 or SDHC reduced ATP production and increased mitochondrial ROS production. Overall, these studies, for the first time, provide biochemical evidence that the complex I activity, and the NDUFA11 subunit are important for assembly and stability of the respirasome. The SDHC subunit of complex II is not involved in the respirasome however the complex may play a regulatory role in respirasome formation.
Project description:The proper arrangement of protein components within the respiratory electron transport chain is nowadays a matter of intense debate, since altering it leads to cell aging and other related pathologies. Here, we discuss three current views-the so-called solid, fluid and plasticity models-which describe the organization of the main membrane-embedded mitochondrial protein complexes and the key elements that regulate and/or facilitate supercomplex assembly. The soluble electron carrier cytochrome c has recently emerged as an essential factor in the assembly and function of respiratory supercomplexes. In fact, a 'restricted diffusion pathway' mechanism for electron transfer between complexes III and IV has been proposed based on the secondary, distal binding sites for cytochrome c at its two membrane partners recently discovered. This channeling pathway facilitates the surfing of cytochrome c on both respiratory complexes, thereby tuning the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and diminishing the production of reactive oxygen species. The well-documented post-translational modifications of cytochrome c could further contribute to the rapid adjustment of electron flow in response to changing cellular conditions.
Project description:Respiratory supercomplexes are large protein structures formed by various enzyme complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Using native gel electrophoresis and activity staining, differential regulation of complex activity within the supercomplexes was investigated. During prolonged hypoxia, complex I activity within supercomplexes diminished, whereas the activity of the individual complex I-monomer increased. Concomitantly, an increased activity was observed during hypoxia for complex IV in the smaller supercomplexes that do not contain complex I. These changes in complex activity within supercomplexes reverted again during recovery from the hypoxic treatment. Acidification of the mitochondrial matrix induced similar changes in complex activity within the supercomplexes. It is suggested that the increased activity of the small supercomplex III(2)+IV can be explained by the dissociation of complex I from the large supercomplexes. This is discussed to be part of a mechanism regulating the involvement of the alternative NADH dehydrogenases, known to be activated by low pH, and complex I, which is inhibited by low pH. It is concluded that the activity of complexes within supercomplexes can be regulated depending on the oxygen status and the pH of the mitochondrial matrix.
Project description:Here we identified a hydrophobic 6.4kDa protein, Cox26, as a novel component of yeast mitochondrial supercomplex comprising respiratory complexes III and IV. Multi-dimensional native and denaturing electrophoretic techniques were used to identify proteins interacting with Cox26. The majority of the Cox26 protein was found non-covalently bound to the complex IV moiety of the III-IV supercomplexes. A population of Cox26 was observed to exist in a disulfide bond partnership with the Cox2 subunit of complex IV. No pronounced growth phenotype for Cox26 deficiency was observed, indicating that Cox26 may not play a critical role in the COX enzymology, and we speculate that Cox26 may serve to regulate or support the Cox2 protein. Respiratory supercomplexes are assembled in the absence of the Cox26 protein, however their pattern slightly differs to the wild type III-IV supercomplex appearance. The catalytic activities of complexes III and IV were observed to be normal and respiration was comparable to wild type as long as cells were cultivated under normal growth conditions. Stress conditions, such as elevated temperatures resulted in mild decrease of respiration in non-fermentative media when the Cox26 protein was absent.