Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%), Typhimurium (15.0%) and Heidelberg (1.7%). We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.
Project description:Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, is less commonly isolated from ill humans. The multidrug-resistant isolate S. Kentucky CVM29188, isolated from a chicken breast sample in 2003, contains three plasmids (146,811 bp, 101,461 bp, and 46,121 bp), two of which carry resistance determinants (pCVM29188_146 [strAB and tetRA] and pCVM29188_101 [bla(CMY-2) and sugE]). Both resistance plasmids were transferable by conjugation, alone or in combination, to S. Kentucky, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, and Escherichia coli recipients. pCVM29188_146 shares a highly conserved plasmid backbone of 106 kb (>90% nucleotide identity) with two virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (pAPEC-O1-ColBM and pAPEC-O2-ColV). Shared avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) virulence factors include iutA iucABCD, sitABCD, etsABC, iss, and iroBCDEN. PCR analyses of recent (1997 to 2005) S. Kentucky isolates from food animal, retail meat, and human sources revealed that 172 (60%) contained similar APEC-like plasmid backbones. Notably, though rare in human- and cattle-derived isolates, this plasmid backbone was found at a high frequency (50 to 100%) among S. Kentucky isolates from chickens within the same time span. Ninety-four percent of the APEC-positive isolates showed resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Together, our findings of a resistance-conferring APEC virulence plasmid in a poultry-derived S. Kentucky isolate and of similar resistance/virulence plasmids in most recent S. Kentucky isolates from chickens and, to lesser degree, from humans and cattle highlight the need for additional research in order to examine the prevalence and spread of combined virulence and resistance plasmids in bacteria in agricultural, environmental, and clinical settings.
Project description:In the United States, serovar Kentucky has become one of the most frequently isolated Salmonella enterica serovars from chickens. The reasons for this prevalence are not well understood. Phenotypic comparisons of poultry Salmonella isolates belonging to various serovars demonstrated that serovar Kentucky isolates differed from those of most other serovars in their response to acid. Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed with aerated exponentially growing poultry isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R), exposed for 10?min to tryptic soy broth (TSB) adjusted to pH 4.5 with HCl and to pH 5.5 with HCl or acetic acid. Data obtained by microarray analysis indicated that more genes were up- or down-regulated in strain Kentucky 3795 than in Enteritidis Nal(R) under acidic conditions. Acid exposure in general caused up-regulation of energy metabolism genes and down-regulation of protein synthesis genes, particularly of ribosomal protein genes. Both strains appear to similarly utilize the lysine-based pH homeostasis system, as up-regulation of cadB was observed under the acidic conditions. Expression of regulatory genes (rpoS, fur, phoPQ) known to be involved in the acid response showed similar trends in both isolates. Differences between Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R) were observed with respect to the expression of the hdeB-like locus SEN1493 (potentially encoding a chaperone important to acid response), and some differences in the expression of other genes such as those involved in citrate utilization and motility were noted. It appears that the early stages of the transcriptional response to acid by isolates Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R) are similar, but differences exist in the scope and in some facets of the response. Possibly, the quantitative differences observed might lead to differences in protein levels that could explain the observed differences in the acid phenotype of serovar Kentucky and other Salmonella serovars.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, associated with different foods including poultry products, are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S. enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of 25 S. enterica serovars isolated from broiler chicken farms to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING:The genomes of 25 S. enterica isolates covering five serovars (ten Typhimurium including three monophasic 4,,12:i:, four Enteritidis, three Hadar, four Heidelberg and four Kentucky) were sequenced. Most serovars were clustered in strongly supported phylogenetic clades, except for isolates of serovar Enteritidis that were scattered throughout the tree. Plasmids of varying sizes were detected in several isolates independently of serovars. Genes associated with the IncF plasmid and the IncI1 plasmid were identified in twelve and four isolates, respectively, while genes associated with the IncQ plasmid were found in one isolate. The presence of numerous genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) was also confirmed. Components of the type III and IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS) varied in different isolates, which could explain in part, differences of their pathogenicity in humans and/or persistence in broilers. Conserved clusters of genes in the T3SS were detected that could be used in designing effective strategies (diagnostic, vaccination or treatments) to combat Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance genes (CMY, aadA, ampC, florR, sul1, sulI, tetAB, and srtA) and class I integrons were detected in resistant isolates while all isolates carried multidrug efflux pump systems regardless of their antibiotic susceptibility profile. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study showed that the predominant Salmonella serovars in broiler chickens harbor genes encoding adhesins, flagellar proteins, T3SS, iron acquisition systems, and antibiotic and metal resistance genes that may explain their pathogenicity, colonization ability and persistence in chicken. The existence of mobile genetic elements indicates that isolates from a given serovar could acquire and transfer genetic material. Conserved genes in the T3SS and T4SS that we have identified are promising candidates for identification of diagnostic, antimicrobial or vaccine targets for the control of Salmonella in broiler chickens.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, temporal trends, seasonal patterns, and temporal clustering of <i>Salmonella enterica</i> isolated from fluff samples from poultry hatcheries in Ontario between 2009 and 2018. A scan statistic was used to identify clusters of common serovars and those of human health concern. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify factors (poultry commodity, year, season) associated with <i>S. enterica</i> presence. The period prevalence of <i>S. enterica</i> was 7.5% in broiler hatcheries, 1.6% in layer hatcheries, 7.6% in turkey hatcheries, 29.7% in waterfowl hatcheries, and 13.8% in game-bird hatcheries. An overall increasing trend in <i>S. enterica</i> prevalence was identified in waterfowl and game-bird hatcheries, while a decreasing trend was identified in broiler and turkey hatcheries. Overall, the most common <i>S. enterica</i> serovars were Kentucky, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Senftenberg. <i>Salmonella enterica</i> ser. Enteritidis was the most common serovar in waterfowl hatcheries. Temporal clusters were identified for all poultry commodities. Seasonal effects varied by commodity, with the highest odds of <i>S. enterica</i> occurring in the summer and fall. Our study offers information on the prevalence and temporality of <i>S. enterica</i> serovars that might guide prevention and control programs at the hatchery level.
Project description:Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar, Kentucky, Virchow, Schwarzengrund, and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- were examined for mutations within the quinolone resistance target genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and for plasmid-mediated resistance genes. Differences were observed among the serovars. A novel variant of qnrD, qnrD2, was detected in an S. Hadar isolate.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that both STs are more closely related to other Salmonella serovars than they are to each other. Additionally, there was strong evidence of an evolutionary divergence between the poultry-associated and bovine-associated ST152 isolates that was due to polymorphisms in four core genome genes. The ST198 isolates recovered from dairy farms in the United States were phylogenetically distinct from those collected from human clinical cases with 66 core genome SNPs differentiating the two groups, but more isolates are needed to determine the significance of this distinction. Identification of S. Kentucky ST198 from dairy animals in the United States suggests that the presence of this pathogen should be monitored in food-producing animals.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica has been deemed a high-priority pathogen by the World Health Organization. Two hundred and sixty-four Salmonella enterica isolates recovered over a 16-year period (2000 to 2016) from the poultry and swine production chains, in Brazil, were investigated by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Most international lineages belonging to 28 serovars, including, S. enterica serovars S. Schwarzengrund ST96, S. Typhimurium ST19, S. Minnesota ST548, S. Infantis ST32, S. Heidelberg ST15, S. Newport ST45, S. Brandenburg ST65 and S. Kentucky ST198 displayed MDR and virulent genetic backgrounds. In this regard, resistome analysis revealed presence of qnrE1 (identified for the first time in S. Typhimurium from food chain), qnrB19, qnrS1, blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-2 and blaCMY-2 genes, as well as gyrA mutations; whereas ColpVC, IncHI2A, IncHI2, IncFIA, Incl1, IncA/C2, IncR, IncX1 and po111 plasmids were detected. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple independent lineages such as S. enterica serovars S. Infantis, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Minnesota, S. Kentucky and S. Brandenburg. In brief, ocurrence and persistence of international lineages of S. enterica serovars in food production chain is supported by conserved genomes and wide virulome and resistome.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has become the most frequently isolated serovar from poultry in the United States over the past decade. Despite its prevalence in poultry, it causes few human illnesses in the United States. The dominance of S. Kentucky in poultry does not appear to be due to single introduction of a clonal strain, and its reduced virulence appears to correlate with the absence of virulence genes grvA, sseI, sopE, and sodC1. S. Kentucky's prevalence in poultry is possibly attributable to its metabolic adaptation to the chicken cecum. While there were no difference in the growth rate of S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium grown microaerophilically in cecal contents, S. Kentucky persisted longer when chickens were coinfected with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo advantage that S. Kentucky has over S. Typhimurium appears to be due to differential regulation of core Salmonella genes via the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS. Microarray analysis of Salmonella grown in cecal contents in vitro identified several metabolic genes and motility and adherence genes that are differentially activated in S. Kentucky. The contributions of four of these operons (mgl, prp, nar, and csg) to Salmonella colonization in chickens were assessed. Deletion of mgl and csg reduced S. Kentucky persistence in competition studies in chickens infected with wild-type or mutant strains. Subtle mutations affecting differential regulation of core Salmonella genes appear to be important in Salmonella's adaptation to its animal host and especially for S. Kentucky's emergence as the dominant serovar in poultry.
Project description:AIM:The aim was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolated from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of virulence genes invasion (invA) and Salmonella plasmid virulence C (spvC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two strains of Salmonella serovar Gallinarum isolates used in this study were obtained from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in backyard Vanaraja fowl. PCR technique was used for detection of invA and spvC genes using standard methodology. The invA PCR product from one representative isolate was sequenced and compared with other related Salmonella serovars in GenBank data. RESULTS:Salmonella Gallinarum produced expected amplicons of invA and spvC gene products. Nucleotide sequence of 285 bp invA gene was deposited in GenBank with accession no. KX788214. Sequence analysis of invA gene was found conserved in Salmonella serovars and demonstrated 100% homology with closely related serovars of Salmonella. CONCLUSION:Invasion gene (invA) was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella Gallinarum and highly similar with closely related serovars. The isolates also contained plasmid-mediated spvC gene indicating possession of virulence plasmid.
Project description:<i>Salmonella enterica</i> is represented by >2,600 serovars that can differ in routes of transmission, host colonization, and in resistance to antimicrobials. <i>S. enterica</i> is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with well-established detection methodology. Current surveillance protocols rely on the characterization of a few colonies to represent an entire sample; thus, minority serovars remain undetected. <i>Salmonella</i> contains two CRISPR loci, CRISPR1 and CRISPR2, and the spacer contents of these can be considered serovar specific. We exploited this property to develop an amplicon-based and multiplexed sequencing approach, CRISPR-SeroSeq (<u>sero</u>typing by <u>seq</u>uencing of the CRISPR loci), to identify multiple serovars present in a single sample. Using mixed genomic DNA from two <i>Salmonella</i> serovars, we were able to confidently detect a serovar that constituted 0.01% of the sample. Poultry is a major reservoir of <i>Salmonella</i> spp., including serovars that are frequently associated with human illness, as well as those that are not. Numerous studies have examined the prevalence and diversity of <i>Salmonella</i> spp. in poultry, though these studies were limited to culture-based approaches and therefore only identified abundant serovars. CRISPR-SeroSeq was used to investigate samples from broiler houses and a processing facility. Ninety-one percent of samples harbored multiple serovars, and there was one sample in which four different serovars were detected. In another sample, reads for the minority serovar comprised 0.003% of the total number of <i>Salmonella</i> spacer reads. The most abundant serovars identified were <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovars Montevideo, Kentucky, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. CRISPR-SeroSeq also differentiated between multiple strains of some serovars. This high resolution of serovar populations has the potential to be utilized as a powerful tool in the surveillance of <i>Salmonella</i> species.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> <i>Salmonella enterica</i> is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States and is represented by over 2,600 distinct serovars. Some of these serovars are pathogenic in humans, while others are not. Current surveillance for this pathogen is limited by the detection of only the most abundant serovars, due to the culture-based approaches that are used. Thus, pathogenic serovars that are present in a minority remain undetected. By exploiting serovar-specific differences in the CRISPR arrays of <i>Salmonella</i> spp., we have developed a high-throughput sequencing tool to be able to identify multiple serovars in a single sample and tested this in multiple poultry samples. This novel approach allows differences in the dynamics of individual <i>Salmonella</i> serovars to be measured and can have a significant impact on understanding the ecology of this pathogen with respect to zoonotic risk and public health.