Identification of transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88) as a dishevelled-binding protein.
ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling pathways are involved in embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl/Dsh) protein is one of key components in Wnt signaling and plays essential roles in regulating these pathways through protein-protein interactions. Identifying and characterizing Dvl-binding proteins are key steps toward understanding biological functions. Given that the tripeptide VWV (Val-Trp-Val) binds to the PDZ domain of Dvl, we searched publically available databases to identify proteins containing the VWV motif at the C terminus that could be novel Dvl-binding partners. On the basis of the cellular localization and expression patterns of the candidates, we selected for further study the TMEM88 (target protein transmembrane 88), a two-transmembrane-type protein. The interaction between the PDZ domain of Dvl and the C-terminal tail of TMEM88 was confirmed by using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, in HEK293 cells, TMEM88 attenuated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced by Wnt-1 ligand in a dose-dependent manner, and TMEM88 knockdown by RNAi increased Wnt activity. In Xenopus, TMEM88 protein is sublocalized at the cell membrane and inhibits Wnt signaling induced by Xdsh but not β-catenin. In addition, TMEM88 protein inhibits the formation of a secondary axis normally induced by Xdsh. The findings suggest that TMEM88 plays a role in regulating Wnt signaling. Indeed, analysis of microarray data revealed that the expression of the Tmem88 gene was strongly correlated with that of Wnt signaling-related genes in embryonic mouse intestines. Together, we propose that TMEM88 associates with Dvl proteins and regulates Wnt signaling in a context-dependent manner.
Project description:Transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88) is a potential 2-transmembrane-type protein that interacts with the PDZ domain of Dishevelled-1 (DVL-1), a crucial component of Wnt signalling pathway through its C-terminal Val-Trp-Val (VWV) motif in Xenopus embryo cells. Since the significant function of ?-catenin in liver fibrosis, it is urgent to study the TMEM88 mechanism in liver fibrosis. The current research was for evaluating the function of TMEM88 in the process of the liver fibrosis and clarifying the inherent mechanism. The study found that TMEM88 is decreased in human fibrotic liver tissues. Functionally, TMEM88 significantly reduced the expression levels of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen type I (Col.I) and repressed extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation by restoring the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and TIMPs (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases). TMEM88 inhibited HSCs proliferation and evaluated the apoptosis of activated LX-2 cells by regulating Wnt3a, Wnt2b and ?-catenin of Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-708 particularly targeted TMEM88 3'-UTR regions and down-regulated the expression level of TMEM88 in TGF-?1-stimulated LX-2 cells. MiR-708 promoted the generation of ECM and cell activation in activated LX-2 cells. These results determined that miR-708 could promote HSCs activation and enhance ECM accumulation via direct targeting TMEM88 by Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. This will provide a potential target for future research in the process of liver fibrosis.
Project description:Wnt/?-catenin signaling is regulated in a bimodal fashion during cardiogenesis. Signaling is initially required to promote generation of precardiac mesoderm, but subsequently must be repressed for cardiac progenitor specification. TMEM88 was discovered recently as a negative regulator during the later phase of cardiac progenitor specification, but how TMEM88 functions was unknown. Based on a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, TMEM88 was proposed to act by targeting the PDZ domain of Dishevelled, the positive Wnt signaling mediator. However, we discovered that TMEM88 acts downstream of the ?-catenin destruction complex and can inhibit Wnt signaling independent of Dishevelled. TMEM88 requires the PDZ-binding motif for trafficking from Golgi to the plasma membrane and is also found in the multivesicular body (MVB) associated with the endocytosed Wnt signalosome. Expression of Tmem88 promotes association of the Wnt signalosome including ?-catenin to the MVB, leading to reduced accumulation of nuclear ?-catenin and repression of Wnt signaling.
Project description:In attempting to clarify the roles of Dvl in the Wnt signaling pathway, we identified a novel protein which binds to the PDZ domain of Dvl and named it Idax (for inhibition of the Dvl and Axin complex). Idax and Axin competed with each other for the binding to Dvl. Immunocytochemical analyses showed that Idax was localized to the same place as Dvl in cells and that expression of Axin inhibited the colocalization of Dvl and Idax. Further, Wnt-induced accumulation of beta-catenin and activation of T-cell factor in mammalian cells were suppressed by expression of Idax. Expression of Idax in Xenopus embryos induced ventralization with a reduction in the expression of siamois, a Wnt-inducible gene. Idax inhibited Wnt- and Dvl- but not beta-catenin-induced axis duplication. It is known that Dvl is a positive regulator in the Wnt signaling pathway and that the PDZ domain is important for this activity. Therefore, these results suggest that Idax functions as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by directly binding to the PDZ domain of Dvl.
Project description:Bone growth and remodeling depend upon the opposing rates of bone formation and resorption. These functions are regulated by intrinsic seven transmembrane-spanning receptors, the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) and frizzled (FZD), through their respective ligands, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Wnt. FZD activation of canonical beta-catenin signaling requires the adapter protein Dishevelled (Dvl). We identified a Dvl-binding motif in the PTH1R. Here, we report that the PTH1R activates the beta-catenin pathway by directly recruiting Dvl, independent of Wnt or LRP5/6. PTH1R coimmunoprecipitated with Dvl. Deleting the carboxyl-terminal PTH1R PDZ-recognition domain did not abrogate PTH1R-Dvl interactions; nor did truncating the receptor at position 480. However, further deletion eliminating the putative Dvl recognition domain abolished PTH1R interactions with Dvl. PTH activated beta-catenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and translocated beta-catenin to the nucleus. beta-Catenin activation was inhibited by Dvl2 dominant negatives and by short hairpin RNA sequences targeted against Dvl2. PTH-induced osteoclastogenesis was also inhibited by Dvl2 dominant negative mutants. These findings demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptors other than FZD directly activate beta-catenin signaling, thereby mimicking many of the functions of the canonical Wnt-FZD pathway. The distinct modes whereby FZD and PTH1R activate beta-catenin control convergent or divergent effects on osteoblast differentiation, and osteoclastogenesis may arise from PTH1R-induced second messenger phosphorylation.
Project description:Dishevelled (Dvl) is a key intracellular signaling molecule that mediates the activation of divergent Wnt pathways. It contains three highly conserved domains known as DIX, PDZ, and DEP, the functions of which have been well characterized in ?-catenin-dependent canonical and ?-catenin-independent noncanonical Wnt signaling. The C-terminal region is also highly conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. However, its function in regulating the activation of different Wnt signals remains unclear. We reported previously that Dvl conformational change triggered by the highly conserved PDZ-binding C terminus is important for the pathway specificity. Here we provide further evidence demonstrating that binding of the C terminus to the PDZ domain results in Dvl autoinhibition in the Wnt signaling pathways. Therefore, the forced binding of the C terminus to the PDZ domain reduces the activity of Dvl in noncanonical Wnt signaling, whereas obstruction of this interaction releases Dvl autoinhibition, impairs its functional interaction with LRP6 in canonical Wnt signaling, and increases its specificity in noncanonical Wnt signaling, which is closely correlated with an enhanced Dvl membrane localization. Our findings highlight the importance of the C terminus in keeping Dvl in an appropriate autoinhibited state, accessible for regulation by other partners to switch pathway specificity. Particularly, the C-terminally tagged Dvl fusion proteins that have been widely used to study the function and cellular localization of Dvl may not truly represent the wild-type Dvl because those proteins cannot be autoinhibited.
Project description:Genetic regulation of the cell fate transition from lateral plate mesoderm to the specification of cardiomyocytes requires suppression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, but the mechanism for this is not well understood. By analyzing gene expression and chromatin dynamics during directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we identified a suppressor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), as a potential regulator of cardiovascular progenitor cell (CVP) specification. During the transition from mesoderm to the CVP, TMEM88 has a chromatin signature of genes that mediate cell fate decisions, and its expression is highly upregulated in advance of key cardiac transcription factors in vitro and in vivo. In early zebrafish embryos, tmem88a is expressed broadly in the lateral plate mesoderm, including the bilateral heart fields. Short hairpin RNA targeting of TMEM88 during hESC cardiac differentiation increases Wnt/?-catenin signaling, confirming its role as a suppressor of this pathway. TMEM88 knockdown has no effect on NKX2.5 or GATA4 expression, but 80% of genes most highly induced during CVP development have reduced expression, suggesting adoption of a new cell fate. In support of this, analysis of later stage cell differentiation showed that TMEM88 knockdown inhibits cardiomyocyte differentiation and promotes endothelial differentiation. Taken together, TMEM88 is crucial for heart development and acts downstream of GATA factors in the pre-cardiac mesoderm to specify lineage commitment of cardiomyocyte development through inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for proper embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. The phosphoprotein dishevelled (Dvl) is an integral part of Wnt signaling and has recently been shown to interact with the multifunctional scaffolding protein beta-arrestin. Using Dvl deletion constructs, we found that beta-arrestin binds a region N-terminal of the PDZ domain of Dvl, which contains casein kinase 1 (CK1) phosphorylation sites. Inhibition of Wnt signaling by CK1 inhibitors reduced the binding of beta-arrestin to Dvl. Moreover, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking beta-arrestins were able to phosphorylate LRP6 in response to Wnt-3a but decreased the activation of Dvl and blocked beta-catenin signaling. In addition, we found that beta-arrestin can bind axin and forms a trimeric complex with axin and Dvl. Furthermore, treatment of Xenopus laevis embryos with beta-arrestin morpholinos reduced the activation of endogenous beta-catenin, decreased the expression of the beta-catenin target gene, Xnr3, and blocked axis duplication induced by X-Wnt-8, CK1epsilon, or DshDeltaDEP, but not by beta-catenin. Thus, our results identify beta-arrestin as a necessary component for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, linking Dvl and axin, and open a vast array of signaling avenues and possibilities for cross-talk with other beta-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways.
Project description:Dishevelled (DVL) proteins, three of which have been identified in humans, are highly conserved components of canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. These multifunctional proteins, originally discovered in the fruit fly, through their different domains mediate complex signal transduction: DIX (dishevelled, axin) and PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) domains serve for canonical beta-catenin signaling, while PDZ and DEP (dishevelled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domains serve for non-canonical signaling. In canonical or beta-catenin signaling, DVL forms large molecular supercomplexes at the plasma membrane consisting of Wnt-Fz-LRP5/6-DVL-AXIN. This promotes the disassembly of the beta-catenin destruction machinery, beta-catenin accumulation, and consequent activation of Wnt signaling. Therefore, DVLs are considered to be key regulators that rescue cytoplasmic beta-catenin from degradation. The potential medical importance of DVLs is in both human degenerative disease and cancer. The overexpression of DVL has been shown to potentiate the activation of Wnt signaling and it is now apparent that up-regulation of DVLs is involved in several types of cancer.
Project description:Wnt signaling is critical to many aspects of development, and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway can cause cancer. Dishevelled (Dvl) protein plays a central role in this pathway by transducing the signal from the Wnt receptor complex to the beta-catenin destruction complex. Dvl also plays a pivotal role in the planar cell polarity pathway that involves the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). How functions of Dvl are regulated in these two distinct pathways is not clear. We show that deleting the C-terminal two-thirds of Dvl, which includes the PDZ and DEP domains and is essential for Dvl-induced JNK activation, rendered the molecule a much more potent activator of the beta-catenin pathway. We also found that casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon), a previously identified positive regulator of Wnt signaling, stimulated Dvl activity in the Wnt pathway, but dramatically inhibited Dvl activity in the JNK pathway. Consistent with this, overexpression of CKIepsilon in Drosophila melanogaster stimulated Wnt signaling and disrupted planar cell polarity. We also observed a correlation between the localization and the signaling activity of Dvl in the beta-catenin pathway and the JNK pathway. Furthermore, by using RNA interference, we demonstrate that the Drosophila CKIepsilon homologue Double time positively regulates the beta-catenin pathway through Dvl and negatively regulates the Dvl-induced JNK pathway. We suggest that CKIepsilon functions as a molecular switch to direct Dvl from the JNK pathway to the beta-catenin pathway, possibly by altering the conformation of the C terminus of Dvl.
Project description:The Wnt ?-catenin pathway controls numerous cellular processes including cell differentiation and cell-fate decisions. Wnt ligands engage Frizzled receptors and the low-density-lipoprotein-related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) receptor complex leading to the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Axin1 to the plasma membrane. Axin1 has a regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain that binds adenomatous polyposis coli and G? subunits, thereby providing a mechanism by which G? subunits can affect ?-catenin levels. Here we show that Wnt signaling enhances the expression of another RGS domain-containing protein, PDZ-RGS3. Reducing PDZ-RGS3 levels impaired Wnt3a-induced activation of the canonical pathway. PDZ-RGS3 bound GSK3? and decreased its catalytic activity toward ?-catenin. PDZ-RGS3 overexpression enhanced Snail1 and led to morphological and biochemical changes reminiscent of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). These results indicate that PDZ-RGS3 can enhance signals generated by the Wnt canonical pathway and that plays a pivotal role in EMT.