Method for the synthesis of mono-ADP-ribose conjugated peptides.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation is an important post-translational modification involved in processes including cellular replication, DNA repair, and cell death. Despite these roles, the functions of ADP-ribosylation, in particular mono-ADP-ribosylation, remain poorly understood. The development of a technique to generate large amounts of site-specific, ADP-ribosylated peptides would provide a useful tool for deconvoluting the biochemical roles of ADP-ribosylation. Here we demonstrate that synthetic histone H2B tail peptides, incorporating aminooxy or N-methyl aminooxy functionalized amino acids, can be site-specifically conjugated to ADP-ribose. These peptides are recognized as substrates by the ADP-ribosylation biochemical machinery (PARP1), can interact with the ADP-ribose binding proteins macroH2A1.1 and PARP9, and demonstrate superior enzymatic and chemical stability when compared to ester-linked ADP-ribose. In addition, the incorporation of benzophenone photo-cross-linkers into these peptides is demonstrated to provide a means to probe for and enrich ADP-ribose binding proteins.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that, until recently, has remained elusive to study at the cellular level. Previously dependent on radioactive tracers to identify ADP-ribosylation targets, several advances in mass spectrometric workflows now permit global identification of ADP-ribosylated substrates. In this study, we capitalized on two ADP-ribosylation enrichment strategies, and multiple activation methods performed on the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, to identify IFN-?-induced ADP-ribosylation substrates in macrophages. The ADP-ribosyl binding protein, Af1521, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated peptides, and the antipoly-ADP-ribosyl antibody, 10H, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated proteins. ADP-ribosyl-specific mass spectra were further enriched by an ADP-ribose product ion triggered EThcD and HCD activation strategy, in combination with multiple acquisitions that segmented the survey scan into smaller ranges. HCD and EThcD resulted in overlapping and unique ADP-ribosyl peptide identifications, with HCD providing more peptide identifications but EThcD providing more reliable ADP-ribosyl acceptor sites. Our acquisition strategies also resulted in the first ever characterization of ADP-ribosyl on three poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD10/PARP10, and ARTD8/PARP14. IFN-? increased the ADP-ribosylation status of ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD8/PARP14, and proteins involved in RNA processes. This study therefore summarizes specific molecular pathways at the intersection of IFN-? and ADP-ribosylation signaling pathways.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is essential for cell function, yet there is a dearth of methods for detecting this post-translational modification in cells. Here, we describe a clickable aminooxy alkyne (AO-alkyne) probe that can detect cellular ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids following Cu-catalyzed conjugation to an azide-containing reporter. Using AO-alkyne, we show that PARP10 and PARP11 are auto-ADP-ribosylated in cells. We also demonstrate that AO-alkyne can be used to monitor stimulus-induced ADP-ribosylation in cells. Functional studies using AO-alkyne support a previously unknown mechanism for ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids, wherein a glutamate or aspartate at the initial C1'-position of ADP-ribose transfers to the C2' position. This new mechanism for ADP-ribosylation has important implications for how glutamyl/aspartyl-ADP-ribose is recognized by proteins in cells.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation of proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism. Depending on the family member, ADP-ribosyltransferases either conjugate a single ADP-ribose to a target or generate ADP-ribose chains. Here we characterize Parp9, a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase reported to be enzymatically inactive. Parp9 undergoes heterodimerization with Dtx3L, a histone E3 ligase involved in DNA damage repair. We show that the Dtx3L/Parp9 heterodimer mediates NAD+-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin, exclusively in the context of ubiquitin processing by E1 and E2 enzymes. Dtx3L/Parp9 ADP-ribosylates the carboxyl group of Ub Gly76. Because Gly76 is normally used for Ub conjugation to substrates, ADP-ribosylation of the Ub carboxyl terminus precludes ubiquitylation. Parp9 ADP-ribosylation activity therefore restrains the E3 function of Dtx3L. Mutation of the NAD+ binding site in Parp9 increases the DNA repair activity of the heterodimer. Moreover, poly(ADP-ribose) binding to the Parp9 macrodomains increases E3 activity. Dtx3L heterodimerization with Parp9 enables NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) regulation of E3 activity.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation refers to the post-translational modification of protein substrates with monomers or polymers of the small molecule ADP-ribose. ADP-ribosylation is enzymatically regulated and plays roles in cellular processes including DNA repair, nucleic acid metabolism, cell death, cellular stress responses, and antiviral immunity. Recent advances in the field of ADP-ribosylation have led to the development of proteomics approaches to enrich and identify endogenous ADP-ribosylated peptides by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A number of these methods rely on reverse-phase solid-phase extraction as a critical step in preparing cellular peptides for further enrichment steps in proteomics workflows. The anionic ion-pairing reagent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is typically used during reverse-phase solid-phase extraction to promote retention of tryptic peptides. Here we report that TFA and other carboxylate ion-pairing reagents are inefficient for reverse-phase solid-phase extraction of ADP-ribosylated peptides. Substitution of TFA with cationic ion-pairing reagents, such as triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), improves recovery of ADP-ribosylated peptides. We further demonstrate that substitution of TFA with TEAA in a proteomics workflow specific for identifying ADP-ribosylated peptides increases identification rates of ADP-ribosylated peptides by LC-MS/MS.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that, until recently, has remained elusive to study at the cellular level. Previously dependent on radioactive tracers to identify ADP-ribosylation targets, several advances in mass spectrometric workflows now permit global identification of ADP-ribosylated substrates. In this study, we capitalized on two ADP-ribosylation enrichment strategies, and multiple activation methods performed on the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, to identify IFN--induced ADP-ribosylation substrates in macrophages. The ADP-ribosyl binding protein, Af1521, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated peptides, and the anti-poly-ADP-ribosyl antibody, 10H, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated proteins. ADP-ribosyl-specific mass spectra were further enriched by an ADP-ribose product ion triggered EThcD and HCD activation strategy, in combination with multiple acquisitions that segmented the survey scan into smaller ranges. HCD and EThcD resulted in overlapping and unique ADP-ribosyl peptide identifications, with HCD providing more peptide identifications but EThcD providing more reliable ADP-ribosyl acceptor sites. Our acquisition strategies also resulted in the first ever characterization of ADP-ribosyl on three poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD10/PARP10, and ARTD8/PARP14. IFN- increased the ADP-ribosylation status of ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD8/PARP14, and proteins involved in RNA processes. This study therefore summarizes specific molecular pathways at the intersection of IFN- and ADP-ribosylation signaling pathways.
Project description:Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) appeared to be ADP-ribosylated on the surface of adult bovine aortic arch endothelial and human hepatoma cells. Further characterization of this reaction with cells expressing an arginine-specific, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase demonstrated that FGF-2 is ADP-ribosylated on arginine. Incubation of transformed cells with FGF-2 and [adenylate-32P]nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) resulted in the rapid incorporation of [32P]ADP-ribose into FGF-2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with labelling averaging 3 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of FGF-2. Excess ADP-ribose had no effect on these reactions, whereas excess NAD inhibited the ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2, consistent with an enzymic rather than a non-enzymic ADP-ribosylation reaction. Heparin also inhibited the ADP-ribosylation reaction, whereas a neutralizing polyclonal anti-peptide antibody had no effect. Furthermore, the addition of putative receptor binding domain peptide analogues of FGF-2 reduced the maximal ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2. These results identify the cell-surface ADP-ribosylation of FGF-2 as a potentially ubiquitous event.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification generated by members of the superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases, known as the Parp enzymes. Depending on the superfamily member, Parp enzymes can mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylate a protein substrate. Parp superfamily members confer regulation to a variety of biological processes that include cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription, and stress responses. Here, we describe biochemical methods for detection of ADP-ribose conjugated to the androgen receptor (AR) using the archaeal macrodomain, AF1521, from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The utility of AF1521 is based on its highly selective recognition of ADP-ribose conjugated to protein. AF1521 immobilized on beads can be used to enrich for ADP-ribosylated proteins, which in our application results in recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR from prostate cancer cell extracts. We engineered tandem AF1521 macrodomains and found this improves the recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR under native conditions, and it enabled development of an assay for detection of ADP-ribosylation on blots. Thus, AF1521 can be used to query ADP-ribosylation of protein under both native and denaturing conditions. Our assays should prove useful for understanding how ADP-ribosylation regulates AR function.
Project description:Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-<i>p</i>-dioxin poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/ARTD14/PARP7), which is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transcription. We found that the nuclear localization of TIPARP was dependent on a short N-terminal sequence and its zinc finger domain. Deletion and <i>in vitro</i> ADP-ribosylation studies identified amino acids 400-657 as the minimum catalytically active region, which retained its ability to mono-ADP-ribosylate AHR. However, the ability of TIPARP to ADP-ribosylate and repress AHR in cells was dependent on both its catalytic activity and zinc finger domain. The catalytic activity of TIPARP was resistant to meta-iodobenzylguanidine but sensitive to iodoacetamide and hydroxylamine, implicating cysteines and acidic side chains as ADP-ribosylated target residues. Mass spectrometry identified multiple ADP-ribosylated peptides in TIPARP and AHR. Electron transfer dissociation analysis of the TIPARP peptide <sup>33</sup>ITPLKTCFK<sup>41</sup> revealed cysteine 39 as a site for mono-ADP-ribosylation. Mutation of cysteine 39 to alanine resulted in a small, but significant, reduction in TIPARP autoribosylation activity, suggesting that additional amino acid residues are modified, but loss of cysteine 39 did not prevent its ability to repress AHR. Our findings characterize the subcellular localization and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of TIPARP, identify cysteine as a mono-ADP-ribosylated residue targeted by this enzyme, and confirm the TIPARP-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of other protein targets, such as AHR.
Project description:Purified Drosophila indirect-flight-muscle actin and arthrin, an actin-ubiquitin conjugate, were ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Phalloidin treatment inhibited the ADP-ribosylation of Drosophila actin and arthrin. Like actin, the ADP-ribose-arthrin linkage was sensitive towards hydroxylamine treatment, indicating arginine as the amino acid acceptor. Actin translated in vitro from the indirect-flight-muscle-specific gene Act88F was ADP-ribosylated by C. botulinum C2 toxin and C. perfringens iota toxin. Actin from the R177Q mutant of Act88F translated in vivo was not ADP-ribosylated confirming Arg-177 as the ADP-ribose acceptor. Mutant L176M actin was modified by both toxins, indicating that amino acid 176 of actin does not define the substrate specificity of C. botulinum C2 toxin. Whereas the gene products of various C-terminal mutants of Act88F translated in vitro (E334K, V339I, E364K, G368E, R372H) were substrates for ADP-ribosylation by C. botulinum C2 toxin and by C. perfringens iota toxin, neither toxin modified the N-terminal O-12 deletion mutant.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose groups onto proteins. The attached ADP-ribose monomers or polymers, commonly known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), modulate the activities of the modified substrates or their binding affinities to other proteins. However, progress in this area is hindered by a lack of tools to investigate this protein modification. Here, we describe a new method named ELTA (enzymatic labeling of terminal ADP-ribose) for labeling free or protein-conjugated ADP-ribose monomers and polymers at their 2'-OH termini using the enzyme OAS1 and dATP. When coupled with various dATP analogs (e.g., radioactive, fluorescent, affinity tags), ELTA can be used to explore PAR biology with techniques routinely used to investigate DNA or RNA function. We demonstrate that ELTA enables the biophysical measurements of protein binding to PAR of a defined length, detection of PAR length from proteins and cells, and enrichment of sub-femtomole amounts of ADP-ribosylated peptides from cell lysates.