Methylglyoxal scavengers attenuate endothelial dysfunction induced by methylglyoxal and high concentrations of glucose.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is a feature of hypertension and diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite of glucose and its levels are elevated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and in diabetic patients. We investigated if MG induces endothelial dysfunction and whether MG scavengers can prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by MG and high glucose concentrations.Endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley rats. We also used cultured rat aortic and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The MG was measured by HPLC and Western blotting and assay kits were used.Incubation of aortic rings with MG (30?µM) or high glucose (25?mM) attenuated endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-induced relaxation, which was restored by two different MG scavengers, aminoguanidine (100?µM) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (600?µM). Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with MG or high glucose increased cellular MG levels, effects prevented by aminoguanidine and NAC. In cultured endothelial cells, MG and high glucose reduced basal and bradykinin-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, cGMP levels, and serine-1177 phosphorylation and activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), without affecting threonine-495 and Akt phosphorylation or total eNOS protein. These effects of MG and high glucose were attenuated by aminoguanidine or NAC.Our results show for the first time that MG reduced serine-1177 phosphorylation, activity of eNOS and NO production. MG caused endothelial dysfunction similar to that induced by high glucose. Specific and safe MG scavengers have potential to prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by MG and high glucose concentrations.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and devastating disease characterized by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation leading to a narrowing of the vessels in the lung. The increased resistance in the lung and the higher pressures generated result in right heart failure. Nitric Oxide (NO) deficiency is considered a hallmark of IPAH and altered function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreases NO production. We recently demonstrated that glucose dysregulation results in augmented protein serine/threonine hydroxyl-linked N-Acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification in IPAH. In diabetes, dysregulated glucose metabolism has been shown to regulate eNOS function through inhibition of Ser-1177 phosphorylation. However, the link between O-GlcNAc and eNOS function remains unknown. Here we show that increased protein O-GlcNAc occurs on eNOS in PAH and Ser-615 appears to be a novel site of O-GlcNAc modification resulting in reduced eNOS dimerization. Functional characterization of Ser-615 demonstrated the importance of this residue on the regulation of eNOS activity through control of Ser-1177 phosphorylation. Here we demonstrate a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism of eNOS whereby the O-GlcNAc modification of Ser-615 results in reduced eNOS activity and endothelial dysfunction under conditions of glucose dysregulation.
Project description:Endothelial cell nitric-oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of NO in the vasculature, undergoes extensive post-translational modifications that modulate its activity. Here we have identified a novel eNOS interactor, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase interactor-1 (GIT1), which plays an unexpected role in GPCR stimulated NO signaling. GIT1 interacted with eNOS in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, and this robust association was associated with stimulatory eNOS phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), enzyme activation, and NO synthesis. GIT1 knockdown had the opposite effect. Additionally, GIT1 expression was reduced in sinusoidal endothelial cells after liver injury, consistent with previously described endothelial dysfunction in this disease. Re-expression of GIT1 after liver injury rescued the endothelial phenotype. These data emphasize the role of GPCR signaling partners in eNOS function and have fundamental implications for vascular disorders involving dysregulated eNOS.
Project description:Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal.Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and ?-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging.Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound.These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases.
Project description:Decreased endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production are critical contributors to the endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications observed in many diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Extracellular nucleotides activate eNOS and increase NO generation; however, the mechanism of this observation is not fully clarified.To elucidate the signaling pathway(s) leading to nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with several nucleotides, including ATP, UTP, and ADP, in the presence or absence of selective inhibitors. These experiments identified P2Y1, P2Y2, and possibly P2Y4 as the purinergic receptors involved in eNOS phosphorylation and demonstrated that this process was adenosine independent. Nucleotide-induced eNOS phosphorylation and activity were inhibited by BAPTA-AM (an intracellular free calcium chelator), rottlerin (a protein kinase Cdelta inhibitor), and protein kinase Cdelta siRNA. In contrast, blockade of AMP-activated protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase, serine/threonine protein kinase B, protein kinase A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not affect nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation.The present study indicates that extracellular nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation is calcium and protein kinase Cdelta dependent. This newly identified signaling pathway opens new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:Methylglyoxal (MG) is a potent inducer of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). MG, long considered a highly cytotoxic molecule with potential anticancer value, is now being re-evaluated to a protumorigenic agent in some malignancies. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an extremely aggressive and highly lethal cancer for which conventional therapies have proved ineffective. Successful therapeutic intervention in ATC is undermined by our poor understanding of its molecular etiology. In the attempt to understand the role of MG in ATC aggressiveness, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts in ATC and slow-growing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We detected a high level of MG adducts in ATC compared to PTC ones, suggesting a protumor role for MG-mediated dicarbonyl stress in ATC. Accordingly, MG adduct accumulation in ATC cells in vitro was associated with a marked mesenchymal phenotype and increased migration/invasion, which were both reversed by aminoguanidine (AG)-a scavenger of MG-and resveratrol-an activator of Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), the key metabolizing enzyme of MG. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG, via AGEs, acts as a tumor-promoting factor in ATC and suggests that MG scavengers and/or Glo1 activators merit investigations as potential therapeutic strategies for this malignancy.
Project description:Senescence of vascular endothelial cells is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of age-associated vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of antihypertensive agents on high glucose-induced cellular senescence in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to high glucose (22 mM) for 3 days increased senescence-associated- ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity, a senescence marker, and decreased telomerase activity, a replicative senescence marker. The calcium channel blocker nifedipine, but not the ?1-adrenergic blocking agent atenolol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril, reduced SA-?-gal positive cells and prevented a decrease in telomerase activity in a high-glucose environment. This beneficial effect of nifedipine was associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Thus, nifedipine prevented high glucose-induced ROS generation and increased basal eNOS phosphorylation level at Ser-1177. Treatment with N (G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) and transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting eNOS eliminated the anti-senscence effect of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that nifedipine can prevent endothelial cell senescence in an eNOS-dependent manner. The anti-senescence action of nifedipine may represent a novel mechanism by which it protects against atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endothelial-dependent atherosclerosis develops in a non-random pattern in regions of vessel bending and bifurcations, where blood flow exhibits disturbed flow (DF) patterns. In contrast, uniform flow (UF), normal endothelium, and healthy vessel walls co-exist within straight vessels. In clarifying how flow protectively or atherogenically regulates endothelial cell behavior, involvement of the endothelial surface glycocalyx has been suggested due to reduced expression in regions of atherosclerosis development. Here, we hypothesized that pro-atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction occurs as a result of DF-induced reduction in glycocalyx expression and subsequently impairs endothelial sensitivity to flow. Specifically, we propose that glycocalyx degradation can induce pro-atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction through decreased caveolin-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and localization. METHODS:We studied endothelial cells in atherosclerotic-prone DF and atherosclerotic-resistant UF conditions in parallel plate flow culture and in C57Bl/6 mice. The effects of flow conditioning on endothelial cell behavior were quantified using immunocytochemistry. The glycocalyx was fluorescently labeled for wheat germ agglutinin, which serves as a general glycocalyx label, and heparan sulfate, a major glycocalyx component. Additionally, mechanosensitivity was assessed by immunocytochemical fluorescence expression and function of caveolin-1, the protein that forms the mechanosignaling caveolar invaginations on the endothelial surface, total endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which synthesizes nitric oxide, and serine 1177 phosphorylated eNOS (eNOS-pS1177), which is the active form of eNOS. Caveolin function and eNOS expression and activation were correlated to glycocalyx expression. Heparinase III enzyme was used to degrade a major glycocalyx component, HS, to identify the role of the glycocalyx in caveoin-1 and eNOS-pS1177 regulation. RESULTS:Results confirmed that DF reduces caveolin-1 expression and abolishes most of its subcellular localization preferences, when compared to the effect of UF. DF down-regulates caveolin-1 mechanosignaling, as indicated by its reduced colocalization with serine 1177 phosphorylated endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-pS1177), a vasoregulatory signaling molecule whose activity is regulated by its residence in caveolae. As expected, DF inhibited glycocalyx expression compared to UF. In the absence of heparan sulfate, a major glycocalyx component, UF-conditioned endothelial cells exhibited near DF-like caveolin-1 expression, localization, and colocalization with eNOS-pS1177. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first demonstration of a flow-defined role of the glycocalyx in caveolae expression and function related to vasculoprotective endothelial mechanosensitivity that defends against atherosclerosis. The results suggest that a glycocalyx-based therapeutic targeted to areas of atherosclerosis development could prevent disease initiation and progression.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction of endothelial cells in hyperglycemia contributes to the development of vascular complications of diabetes where increased reactive glycating agent, methylglyoxal (MG), is involved. We assessed if increased MG glycation induced proteotoxic stress, identifying related metabolic drivers and protein targets. Human aortal endothelial cells (HAECs) were incubated in high glucose concentration (20 mM versus 5 mM control) in vitro for 3-6 days. Flux of glucose metabolism, MG formation and glycation and changes in cytosolic protein abundances, MG modification and proteotoxic responses were assessed. Similar studies were performed with human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells where similar outcomes were observed. HAECs exposed to high glucose concentration showed increased cellular concentration of MG (2.27 ± 0.21 versus 1.28 ± 0.03 pmol/106 cells, P < 0.01) and formation of MG-modified proteins (24.0 ± 3.7 versus 14.1 ± 3.2 pmol/106 cells/day; P < 0.001). In proteomics analysis, high glucose concentration increased proteins of the heat shock response - indicating activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) with downstream inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses. Proteins susceptible to MG modification were enriched in protein folding, protein synthesis, serine/threonine kinase signalling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. MG was increased in high glucose by increased flux of MG formation linked to increased glucose metabolism mediated by proteolytic stabilisation and increase of hexokinase-2 (HK-2); later potentiated by proteolytic down regulation of glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) - the major enzyme of MG metabolism. Silencing of Glo1, selectively increasing MG, activated the UPR similarly. Silencing of HK-2 prevented increased glucose metabolism and MG formation. trans-Resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP) corrected increased MG and glucose metabolism by increasing expression of Glo1 and decreasing expression of HK-2. Increased MG glycation activates the UPR in endothelial cells and thereby may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetic vascular disease where tRES-HESP may provide effective therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PPAR? enhances insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells, but its effects on insulin signalling in endothelial cells are not known. We analysed the effects of the PPAR?/? (PPAR?) agonists, GW0742 and L165041, on impaired insulin signalling induced by high glucose in HUVECs and aortic and mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Insulin-stimulated NO production, Akt-Ser(473) and eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were studied in HUVECs incubated in low- or high-glucose medium. Insulin-stimulated relaxations and protein phosphorylation in vessels from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were also analysed. KEY RESULTS: HUVECs incubated in high-glucose medium showed a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated production of NO. High glucose also reduced insulin-induced Akt-Ser(473) and eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, increased IRS-1-Ser(636) and ERK1/2-Thr(183) -Tyr(185) phosphorylation and increased ROS production. The co-incubation with the PPAR? agonists GW0742 or L165041 prevented all these effects induced by high glucose. In turn, the effects induced by the agonists were suppressed when HUVEC were also incubated with the PPAR? antagonist GSK0660, the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4 inhibitor dichloroacetate or after knockdown of both PPAR? and PDK4 with siRNA. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059, ROS scavenger catalase, inhibitor of complex II thenoyltrifluoroacetone or uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, also prevented glucose-induced insulin resistance. In STZ diabetic rats, oral GW0742 also improved insulin signalling and the impaired NO-mediated vascular relaxation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: PPAR? activation in vitro and in vivo restores the endothelial function, preserving the insulin-Akt-eNOS pathway impaired by high glucose, at least in part, through PDK4 activation.
Project description:As an energy-sensitive post-translational modification, O-GlcNAcylation plays a major role in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity regulation. However, effects of glucose deprivation on eNOS O-GlcNAcylation and the presence of novel O-GlcNAcylation sites of eNOS under glucose deprivation remain unknown. Hence, we aim to determine the effects of glucose deprivation on O-GlcNAcylation and novel O-GlcNAcylation sites of eNOS. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by glucose deprivation and their eNOS O-GlcNAcylation was subjected to immunoblotting. eNOS and transfected eNOS were purified by pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation respectively. Novel O-GlcNAcylation sites of eNOS were predicted by HPLC-MS and MS/MS Ion and determined by immunoblotting. eNOS activity was detected by Elisa and isotope labeling method. In BAECs and rat thoracic aorta, low glucose-associated activation of eNOS was accompanied by elevated O-GlcNAcylation, which did not affect O-linked serine phosphorylation at 1179/1177 residues. Changes in this post-translational modification were associated with increased O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression and were reversed by AMPK knockdown. Immunoblot analysis of cells expressing His-tagged wild-type human eNOS and human eNOS carrying a mutation at the Ser1177 phosphorylation site confirmed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation by glucose deprivation. A marked increase in O-GlcNAcylation indicated that eNOS contained novel O-GlcNAcylation sites that were activated by glucose deprivation. Immunoblot analysis of cells expressing His-tagged human eNOS carrying a mutation at Ser738 and Ser867 confirmed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation by glucose deprivation. Conversely, in His-tagged human eNOS carrying a mutation at Thr866, O-GlcNAcylation was unaffected by glucose deprivation. Differences in culture conditions were identified using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and unpaired Student's t-test. Glucose deprivation increases O-GlcNAcylation and activity of eNOS, potentially by the AMPK-OGT pathway, suggesting that Thr866 is a novel O-GlcNAcylation site involved in glucose-deprivation mediated eNOS activation.