From an electrophoretic mobility shift assay to isolated transcription factors: a fast genomic-proteomic approach.
ABSTRACT: Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is a filamentous ascomycete of industrial importance due to its hydrolases (e.g., xylanases and cellulases). The regulation of gene expression can influence the composition of the hydrolase cocktail, and thus, transcription factors are a major target of current research. Here, we design an approach for identifying a repressor of a xylanase-encoding gene.We used streptavidin affinity chromatography to isolate the Xylanase promoter-binding protein 1 (Xpp1). The optimal conditions and templates for the chromatography step were chosen according to the results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed under repressing conditions, which yielded a DNA-protein complex specific to the AGAA-box (the previously identified, tetranucleotide cis-acting element). After isolating AGAA-box binding proteins, the eluted proteins were identified with Nano-HPLC/tandem MS-coupled detection. We compared the identified peptides to sequences in the H. jecorina genome and predicted in silico the function and DNA-binding ability of the identified proteins. With the results from these analyses, we eliminated all but three candidate proteins. We verified the transcription of these candidates and tested their ability to specifically bind the AGAA-box. In the end, only one candidate protein remained. We generated this protein with in vitro translation and used an EMSA to demonstrate the existence of an AGAA-box-specific protein-DNA complex. We found that the expression of this gene is elevated under repressing conditions relative to de-repressing or inducing conditions.We identified a putative transcription factor that is potentially involved in repressing xylanase 2 expression. We also identified two additional potential regulatory proteins that bind to the xyn2 promoter. Thus, we succeeded in identifying novel, putative transcription factors for the regulation of xylanase expression in H. jecorina.
Project description:In Hypocrea jecorina, Xyr1 (xylanase regulator 1) is the main transcription activator of hydrolase-encoding genes, such as xyn1, xyn2, bxl1, cbh1, cbh2, egl1, and bgl1. Even though Xyr1 mediates the induction signal for all these genes derived from various inducing carbon sources and compounds, xyr1 transcription itself is not inducible by any of these substances. However, cultivation on glucose as the carbon source provokes carbon catabolite repression of xyr1 transcription mediated by Cre1. In addition, xyr1 transcription is repressed by the specific transcription factor Ace1. Moreover, Xyr1 is permanently available in the cell, and no de novo synthesis of this factor is needed for a first induction of xyn1 transcription. The constitutive expression of xyr1 leads to a significant elevation/deregulation of the xyn1, xyn2, and bxl1 transcription compared to what is seen for the parental strain. Overall, the corresponding xylanolytic enzyme activities are clearly elevated in a constitutively xyr1-expressing strain, emphasizing this factor as an auspicious target for genetically engineered strain improvement.
Project description:Two major xylanases (XYN I and XYN II) of the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) are simultaneously expressed during growth on xylan but respond differently to low-molecular-weight inducers. In vivo footprinting analysis of the xylanase1 (xyn1) promoter revealed three different nucleotide sequences (5'-GGCTAAATGCGACATCTTAGCC-3' [an inverted repeat of GGCTAA spaced by 10 bp], 5'-CCAAT-3', and 5'-GGGGTCTAGACCCC-3' [equivalent to a double Cre1 site]) used to bind proteins. Binding to the Cre1 site is only observed under repressed conditions, whereas binding to the two other motifs is constitutive. Applying heterologously expressed components of the H. jecorina cellulase regulators Ace1 and Ace2 and the xylanase regulator Xyr1 suggests that Ace1 and Xyr1 but not Ace2 contact both GGCTAA motifs. H. jecorina transformants containing mutated versions of the xyn1 promoter, leading to elimination of protein binding to the left or the right GGCTAA box revealed either strongly reduced or completely eliminated induction of transcription. Elimination of Cre1 binding to its target released the basal transcriptional level from glucose repression but did not influence the inducibility of xyn1 expression. Mutation of the CCAAT box prevents binding of the Hap2/3/5 complex in vitro and is partially compensating for the loss of transcription caused by the mutation of the right GGCTAA box. Finally, evidence for a competition of Ace1 and Xyr1 for the right GGCTAA box is given. These data prompted us to hypothesize that xyn1 regulation is based on the interplay of Cre1 and Ace1 as a general and specific repressor with Xyr1 as transactivator.
Project description:Xyr1 (xylanase regulator 1) of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was recently demonstrated to play an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of the xyn1 (xylanase 1-encoding) gene expression. Consequently, this study reports on the deletion of the xyr1 gene from the H. jecorina genome. Comparative studies of the growth behavior of the different mutant strains (deleted and retransformed xyr1) grown on various carbon sources pointed to the strongly reduced ability of the xyr1 deletion strain to utilize D-xylose and xylan. Transcriptional analysis of the xyl1 (D-xylose reductase 1-encoding) gene as well as measurements of corresponding enzymatic activities gave evidence that Xyr1 takes part in the control of the fungal D-xylose pathway, in particular in the regulation of D-xylose reductase. It could be demonstrated that the uptake of D-xylose into the fungal cell is uninfluenced in the Deltaxyr1 strain. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation of the major hydrolytic enzyme-encoding genes xyn1 and xyn2 (xylanases 1 and 2), cbh1 and cbh2 (cellobiohydrolases 1 and 2), and egl1 (endoglucanase 1) is strictly dependent on Xyr1. Regulation of the respective genes via Xyr1 is not affected by the substances mediating induction (xylose, xylobiose, and sophorose) and is indispensable for all modes of gene expression (basal, derepressed, and induced). Moreover, Xyr1, it was revealed, activated transcriptional regulation of inducer-providing enzymes such as beta-xylosidase BXLI and beta-glucosidase BGLI but was not shown to be involved in the regulation of BGLII.
Project description:The XYN2 gene encoding the main Trichoderma reesei QM 6a endo-beta-1,4-xylanase was amplified by PCR from first-strand cDNA synthesized on mRNA isolated from the fungus. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA fragment was verified to contain a 699-bp open reading frame that encodes a 223-amino-acid propeptide. The XYN2 gene, located on URA3-based multicopy shuttle vectors, was successfully expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH2) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) gene promoters and terminators, respectively. The 33-amino-acid leader peptide of the Xyn2 beta-xylanase was recognized and cleaved at the Kex2-like Lys-Arg residues, enabling the efficient secretion and glycosylation of the heterologous beta-xylanase. The molecular mass of the recombinant beta-xylanase was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 27 kDa. The construction of fur1 ura3 S. cerevisiae strains allowed for the autoselection of the URA3-based XYN2 shuttle vectors in nonselective complex medium. These autoselective S. cerevisiae strains produced 1,200 and 160 nkat of beta-xylanase activity per ml under the control of the ADH2 and PGK1 promoters in rich medium, respectively. The recombinant enzyme showed highest activity at pH 6 and 60 degrees C and retained more than 90% of its activity after 60 min at 50 degrees C.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is widely utilized in industry for cellulase production, but its xylanase activity must be improved to enhance the accessibility of lignocellulose to cellulases. Several transcription factors play important roles in this progress; however, nearly all the reported transcription factors typically target both cellulase and hemi-cellulase genes. Specific xylanase transcription factor would be useful to regulate xylanase activity directly.In this study, a novel zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor (jgi|Trire2|123881) was found to repress xylanase activity, but not cellulase activity, and was designated as SxlR (specialized xylanase regulator). Further investigations using real-time PCR and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that SxlR might bind the promoters of GH11 xylanase genes (xyn1, xyn2, and xyn5), but not those of GH10 (xyn3) and GH30 (xyn4) xylanase genes, and thus regulate their transcription and expression directly. We also identified the binding consensus sequence of SxlR as 5'- CATCSGSWCWMSA-3'. The deletion of SxlR in T. reesei RUT-C30 to generate the mutant ?sxlr strain resulted in higher xylanase activity as well as higher hydrolytic efficiency on pretreated rice straw.Our study characterizes a novel specific transcriptional repressor of GH11 xylanase genes, which adds to our understanding of the regulatory system for the synthesis and secretion of cellulase and hemi-cellulase in T. reesei. The deletion of SxlR may also help to improve the hydrolytic efficiency of T. reesei for lignocellulose degradation by increasing the xylanase-to-cellulase ratio.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In recent years, xylanases have attracted considerable research interest because of their potential in various industrial applications. The yeast Pichia pastoris can neither utilize nor degrade xylan, but it possesses many attributes that render it an attractive host for the expression and production of industrial enzymes. RESULTS: The Xyn2 gene, which encodes the main Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanase was cloned into the pPICZalphaA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The selected P. pastoris strains produced as 4,350 nkat/ml beta-xylanase under the control of the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. The secreted recombinant Xyn2 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 21 kDa. The activity of the recombinant Xyn2 was highest at 60 degrees C and it was active over a broad range of pH (3.0-8.0) with maximal activity at pH 6.0. The enzyme was quite stable at 50 degrees C and retained more than 94% of its activity after 30 mins incubation at this temperature. Using Birchwood xylan, the determined apparent Km and kcat values were 2.1 mg/ml and 219.2 S-1, respectively. The enzyme was highly specific towards xylan and analysis of xylan hydrolysis products confirmed as expected that the enzyme functions as endo-xylanase with xylotriose as the main hydrolysis products. The produced xylanase was practically free of cellulolytic activity. CONCLUSION: The P. pastoris expression system allows a high level expression of xylanases. Xylanase was the main protein species in the culture supernatant, and the functional tests indicated that even the non-purified enzyme shows highly specific xylanase activity that is free of cellulolytic side acitivities. Therefore, P pastoris is a very useful expression system when the goal is highly specific and large scale production of glycosyl hydrolases.
Project description:Xylanases isolated from microorganisms such as the Trichoderma reesei have attracted considerable research interest because of their potential in various industrial applications. However, naturally isolated xylanases cannot withstand harsh conditions such as high temperature and basic pH. In this study, we performed structural analysis of the major T. reesei xylanase (Xyn2), and novel flexible regions of the enzyme were identified based on B-factor, a molecular dynamics (MD) parameter. To improve thermostability of the Xyn2, disulfide bonds were introduced into the unstable flexible region by using site-directed mutagenesis and two recombinant xylanases, XM1 (Xyn2Cys12-52) and XM2 (Xyn2Cys59-149) were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Secreted recombinant Xyn2 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 24 kDa. Interestingly, the half-lives of XM1 and XM2 at 60°C were 2.5- and 1.8- fold higher, respectively than those of native Xyn2. The XM1 also exhibited improved pH stability and maintained more than 60% activity over pH values ranging from 2.0 to 10.0. However, the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of XM1 was decreased as compared to those of XM2 and native Xyn2. Our results will assist not only in elucidating of the interactions between protein structure and function, but also in rational target selection for improving the thermostability of enzymes.
Project description:The beta-xylosidase-encoding xlnD gene of Aspergillus niger 90196 was amplified by the PCR technique from first-strand cDNA synthesized on mRNA isolated from the fungus. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA fragment was verified to contain a 2,412-bp open reading frame that encodes a 804-amino-acid propeptide. The 778-amino-acid mature protein, with a putative molecular mass of 85.1 kDa, was fused in frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor alpha1 signal peptide (MFalpha1(s)) to ensure correct posttranslational processing in yeast. The fusion protein was designated Xlo2. The recombinant beta-xylosidase showed optimum activity at 60 degrees C and pH 3.2 and optimum stability at 50 degrees C. The K(i(app)) value for D-xylose and xylobiose for the recombinant beta-xylosidase was determined to be 8.33 and 6.41 mM, respectively. The XLO2 fusion gene and the XYN2 beta-xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei, located on URA3-based multicopy shuttle vectors, were successfully expressed and coexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene (ADH2) promoter and terminator. These recombinant S. cerevisiae strains produced 1,577 nkat/ml of beta-xylanase activity when expressing only the beta-xylanase and 860 nkat/ml when coexpressing the beta-xylanase with the beta-xylosidase. The maximum beta-xylosidase activity was 5.3 nkat/ml when expressed on its own and 3.5 nkat/ml when coexpressed with the beta-xylanase. Coproduction of the beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase enabled S. cerevisiae to degrade birchwood xylan to D-xylose.
Project description:The T-box family of transcription factors, defined by a conserved DNA binding domain called the T-box, regulate various aspects of embryogenesis by activating and/or repressing downstream genes. In spite of the biological significance of the T-box proteins, how they regulate transcription remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the Groucho/TLE-associated protein Ripply converts T-box proteins from activators to repressors. In cultured cells, zebrafish Ripply1, an essential component in somite segmentation, and its structural relatives, Ripply2 and -3, suppress the transcriptional activation mediated by the T-box protein Tbx24, which is coexpressed with ripply1 during segmentation. Ripply1 associates with Tbx24 and converts it to a repressor. Ripply1 also antagonizes the transcriptional activation of another T-box protein, No tail (Ntl), the zebrafish ortholog of Brachyury. Furthermore, injection of a high dosage of ripply1 mRNA into zebrafish eggs causes defective development of the posterior trunk, similar to the phenotype observed in homozygous mutants of ntl. A mutant form of Ripply1 defective in association with Tbx24 also lacks activity in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that the intrinsic transcriptional property of T-box proteins is controlled by Ripply family proteins, which act as specific adaptors that recruit the global corepressor Groucho/TLE to T-box proteins.
Project description:Knowing which regions of a gene are targeted by transcription factors during induction or repression is essential for understanding the mechanisms responsible for regulation. Therefore, we re-designed the traditional in vivo footprinting method to obtain a highly sensitive technique, which allows identification of the cis elements involved in condition-dependent gene regulation. Data obtained through DMS methylation, HCl DNA cleavage and optimized ligation-mediated PCR using fluorescent labelling followed by capillary gel electrophoresis are analysed by ivFAST. In this work we have developed this command line-based program, which is designed to ensure automated and fast data processing and visualization. The new method facilitates a quantitative, high-throughput approach because it enables the comparison of any number of in vivo footprinting results from different conditions (e.g. inducing, repressing, de-repressing) to one another by employing an internal standard. For validation of the method the well-studied upstream regulatory region of the Trichoderma reesei xyn1 (endoxylanase 1) gene was used. Applying the new method we could identify the motives involved in condition-dependent regulation of the cbh2 (cellobiohydrolase 2) and xyn2 (endoxylanase 2) genes.