Amantadine for dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dyskinesias are some of the major motor complications that impair quality of life for patients with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of amantadine in Parkinson's disease patients suffering from dyskinesias. METHODS: In this multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, 36 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesias were randomized, and 62 interventions, which included amantadine (300 mg/day) or placebo treatment for 27 days, were analyzed. At 15 days after washout, the treatments were crossed over. The primary outcome measure was the changes in the Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale (RDRS) during each treatment period. The secondary outcome measures were changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part IVa (UPDRS-IVa, dyskinesias), part IVb (motor fluctuations), and part III (motor function). RESULTS: RDRS improved in 64% and 16% of patients treated with amantadine or placebo, respectively, with significant differences between treatments. The adjusted odds-ratio for improvement by amantadine was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 31.5). UPDRS-IVa was improved to a significantly greater degree in amantadine-treated patients [mean (SD) of 1.83 (1.56)] compared with placebo-treated patients [0.03 (1.51)]. However, there were no significant effects on UPDRS-IVb or III scores. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study demonstrated that amantadine exhibited efficacious effects against dyskinesias in 60-70% of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry UMIN000000780.
Project description:Amantadine is an antiviral drug available in oral and intravenous forms. Oral amantadine is used to treat the motor symptoms of early Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ameliorate dyskinesia in late-stage disease. However, the long-term influence of intravenous amantadine on motor symptoms and dyskinesias in PD has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effect of repeated boosts of intravenous amantadine in patients with PD with and without response fluctuations and dyskinesias. Twelve patients diagnosed with PD, six with levodopa intolerance or insufficient response to antiparkinson medications, and six with response fluctuations and dyskinesias, were treated with intravenous amantadine for 6 months: three sequential infusions over 3 days in the first month followed by five once-monthly infusions. Changes in motor function and involuntary movements were evaluated with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS; dyskinesia group). A significant immediate improvement in motor scores was documented in both groups after amantadine infusion. However, the difference in mean UPDRS motor score from before the first infusion to after 6 months of treatment was not statistically significant. In patients with dyskinesias, there was a significant improvement in AIMS scores between the first and the last visits (6.3 ± 2.7 vs. 1.6 ± 1.3; P = 0.014). In conclusion, continuous treatment with intravenous amantadine can be useful in patients with PD for immediate relief of motor symptoms and in patients with dyskinesias for progressive reduction of involuntary movements.
Project description:Background:ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended release capsules (GOCOVRI™) are a treatment for dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). ADS-5102 reduced dyskinesia and OFF time in phase 3 controlled trials of up to six months. Amantadine immediate release (IR) is used for dyskinesia, but suboptimal durability and tolerability limit its clinical utility. Methods:In an ongoing, open-label, phase 3 study in the US and Western Europe (NCT02202551), patients with PD received 274 mg of ADS-5102 (equivalent to 340 mg amantadine HCl) once daily at bedtime for up to two years. Study outcomes included safety and assessment of motor complications, as measured by the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part IV. This manuscript focuses on those patients switched to ADS-5102 from amantadine IR. Results in two groups of patients who previously completed a randomized controlled trial (EASE LID or EASE LID 3) are also presented according to use of ADS-5102 or placebo in that study before enrollment in the open-label study. Results:Change in MDS-UPDRS Part IV at week 8 was -0.3 in the previous ADS-5102 subgroup (n = 61), -3.4 in the previous placebo subgroup (n = 79), and -3.4 in the previous amantadine IR subgroup (n = 32). Effects were maintained to week 64. In the previous amantadine IR subgroup (mean treatment duration, 2.5 years), mean amantadine IR dose was 221 mg. Safety data were consistent with previous randomized controlled trials of ADS-5102. Conclusion:These open-label data suggest ADS-5102 provides incremental reduction from baseline in MDS-UDPRS Part IV score in patients switched directly from amantadine IR, without exacerbating adverse events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinsonism. Open-label studies have suggested that intravenous (IV) amantadine is effective against FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the efficacy of IV amantadine on FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study on IV amantadine. The placebo (normal saline) and amantadine (400 mg/day) were injected for 2 days with a 52-hour washout period. The instruments for the outcome measures were the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Unified Parkinson's disease rating Scale (UPDRS), and the duration of the 4×10 m walking test. The placebo arm was compared to the amantadine arm. Ten patients were enrolled but two patients withdrew, one from each arm. The FOGQ and UPDRS scores and the duration of the 4×10 m walking test improved in both arms compared to the baseline (P<0.05 in all). However, there were no differences in these values between the amantadine arm and placebo arm (P = 0.368, P = 0.583, P = 0.206, respectively). Follow-up measures 2 weeks after discharge in an open-label study showed the beneficial effects of an amantadine tablet on FOG (FOGQ, P = 0.018; UPDRS, P = 0.012 respectively).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This double blind, placebo-controlled study did not show the efficacy of IV amantadine on FOG when compared with the placebo. This study provides Class II evidence due to small sample size for the lack of benefit of IV amantadine on FOG resistant to dopaminergic therapy<h4>Trial registration</h4>Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01313819.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a well-established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) insufficiently controlled with medical therapies. This study presents the long-term outcomes of patients with PD treated with STN-DBS using an MRI-guided/MRI-verified approach without microelectrode recording.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 41 patients who underwent STN-DBS were followed for a minimum period of 5?years, with a subgroup of 12 patients being followed for 8-11?years. Motor status was evaluated using part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III), in on- and off-medication/on-stimulation conditions. Preoperative and postoperative assessments further included activities of daily living (UPDRS-II), motor complications (UPDRS-IV), neuropsychological and speech assessments, as well as evaluation of quality of life. Active contacts localisation was calculated and compared with clinical outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>STN-DBS significantly improved the off-medication UPDRS-III scores, compared with baseline. However, UPDRS scores increased over time after DBS. Dyskinesias, motor fluctuations and demands in dopaminergic medication remained significantly reduced in the long term. Conversely, UPDRS-III on-medication scores deteriorated at 5 and 8?years, mostly driven by axial and bradykinesia subscores. Quality of life, as well as depression and anxiety scores, did not significantly change at long-term follow-up compared with baseline. In our series, severe cognitive decline was observed in 17.1% and 16.7% of the patients at 5 and 8?years respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data confirm that STN-DBS, using an MRI-guided/MRI-verified technique, remains an effective treatment for motor 'off' symptoms of PD in the long term with low morbidity.
Project description:The use of adjunct rasagiline in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations is supported by findings from large-scale clinical studies. This study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of adjunct rasagiline in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease, as a product registration study.This 16-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of rasagiline 1 mg/day included levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change from baseline in total daily OFF time over 16 weeks. Secondary endpoints were Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I), and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Activities of daily living (ADL) and Motor scores. Patient well-being (EQ-5D), and the frequency of adverse events were also assessed.In total, 324 levodopa-treated patients were randomized to rasagiline 1 mg/day (n = 165) or placebo (n = 159). Over 16 weeks, rasagiline statistically significantly reduced the mean [95% confidence interval] total daily OFF time versus placebo (- 0.5 h [- 0.92, - 0.07]; p = 0.023). There were also statistically significant improvements versus placebo in CGI-I (- 0.4 points [- 0.61, - 0.22]; p < 0.001), UPDRS-ADL OFF (- 1.0 points [- 1.75, - 0.27]; p = 0.008), and UPDRS-Motor ON (- 1.6 points [- 3.05, - 0.14]; p = 0.032) scores, as well as the EQ-5D utility index (p < 0.05). Rasagiline was safe and well tolerated.In levodopa-treated Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations, adjunct rasagiline 1 mg/day statistically significantly reduced OFF time, and improved daily function and overall well-being, versus placebo. Consistent with findings in other countries, adjunct rasagiline was proven efficacious and well tolerated in Chinese patients.NCT01479530. Registered 22 November 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules are approved for the treatment of dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving levodopa-based therapy. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of Gocovri in patients with PD experiencing levodopa-induced dyskinesia. METHODS:In this 2-year open-label trial, patients completing double-blind Gocovri clinical trials or excluded from prior trials because of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) received Gocovri 274?mg once daily at bedtime. The primary objective was to evaluate long-term safety and tolerability. In addition, dyskinesia and OFF time were assessed using Part IV (Motor Complications) scores on the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). RESULTS:Among 223 enrolled patients (mean PD duration, 11.7 years; mean levodopa use, 9.3 years), 75.8% completed 1 year of treatment and 57.8% completed the trial, with a median treatment duration of 1.9 years. Common adverse events were fall (32.7%), hallucination (24.2%), peripheral edema (16.1%), constipation (13.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.3%); 31 patients (13.9%) discontinued because of adverse events considered related to study drug. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS Part IV scores were lower for patients continuing Gocovri (mean, 6.5 points) than for previous placebo (9.4) or DBS groups (10.5) but were similar for all groups by week 8 (6.3, 6.2, 6.4, respectively), and remained low for the duration of the trial (at week 100: 6.9, 7.3, 7.0, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with PD, Gocovri showed long-term safety and tolerability consistent with double-blind trial findings, and durable reduction in motor complications (dyskinesia and OFF time).
Project description:Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debitlitating, chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder without modifying therapy. Here, we aimed to evaluate the available evidence of herbal medicine (HM) formulas for patients with PD according to randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials. Methods: HM formulas for PD were searched in eight main databases from their inception to February 2018. The methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: Fourteen trials with Seventeen comparisons comprising 1,311 patients were identified. Compared with placebo groups, HM paratherapy (n = 16 comparisons) showed significant better effects in the assessments of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (WMD: -5.43, 95% CI:-8.01 to -2.86; P < 0.0001), UPDRS I (WMD: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.06; P = 0.02), UPDRS II (WMD: -2.21, 95% CI: -3.19 to -1.22; P < 0.0001), UPDRS III (WMD: -3.26, 95% CI:-4.36 to -2.16; P < 0.00001), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (p < 0.01) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (WMD: -7.65, 95% CI: -11.46 to -3.83; p < 0.0001), Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire (p < 0.01) and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (WMD: -9.19, 95% CI: -13.11 to -5.28; P < 0.00001), Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (WMD: 10.69, 95% CI: 8.86 to 12.53; P < 0.00001), and Hamilton depression rating scale (WMD: -5.87, 95% CI: -7.06 to -4.68; P < 0.00001). The efficiency of HM monotherapy (n = 1 comparison) was not superior to the placebo according to UPDRS II, UPDRS III and total UPDRS score in PD patients who never received levodopa treatment, all P > 0.05. HM formulas paratherapy were generally safe and well tolerated for PD patients (RR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.80; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings of present study supported the complementary use of HM paratherapy for PD patients, whereas the question on the efficacy of HM monotherapy in alleviating PD symptoms is still open.
Project description:Objective: Determine if NC001, an oral formulation of nicotine that reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in MPTP-Parkinson monkeys, could reduce falls, freezing of gait (FOG), and LIDs in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Methods: Previously collected data from a study analyzing the effects of NC001 on LIDs in PD patients were reanalyzed. Because indirect-acting cholinergic drugs are sometimes helpful in reducing falls, we hypothesized that NC001, a direct-acting cholinergic agonist, could reduce falls in PD. The original 12-center, double-blind, randomized trial enrolled 65 PD patients. NC001 or placebo was administered 4 times per day for 10 weeks, beginning at 4 mg/day and escalating to 24 mg/day. Assessments included the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) and Parts II-III of the original Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Results: Randomization (1:1) resulted in 35 patients on NC001 and 30 on placebo at baseline. Thirty and 27 patients, respectively, had data available for an intent-to-treat analysis. NC001 was safe and well-tolerated. After 10 weeks, NC001 patients (14/30) had a significant reduction in falls vs. placebo patients (3/27) (p = 0.0041) as assessed by UPDRS Part II. NC001 patients (12/30) also had significantly reduced FOG vs. placebo patients (4/27) (p = 0.0043). NC001 patients, compared with placebo patients, had a significant improvement (p = 0.01) in UDysRS ambulation subtest (40% vs. 3%, respectively). Although NC001 patients had a greater reduction in dyskinesias on the UDysRS than placebo patients (30% vs. 19%, respectively), this was not significant (p = 0.09). Conclusions: NC001 significantly improved two refractory symptoms of PD, falls and FOG. The reduction in falls and FOG is attributed to selective stimulation of nicotinic receptors. Clinical Trial Registration: Conducted under IND 105, 268, serial number 0000. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00957918.
Project description:In a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00474058), 287 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and unsatisfactory early-morning motor symptom control were randomized 2:1 to receive rotigotine (2-16 mg/24 hr [n = 190]) or placebo (n = 97). Treatment was titrated to optimal dose over 1-8 weeks with subsequent dose maintenance for 4 weeks. Early-morning motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbance were assessed as coprimary efficacy endpoints using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III (Motor Examination) measured in the early morning prior to any medication intake and the modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2) (mean change from baseline to end of maintenance [EOM], last observation carried forward). At EOM, mean UPDRS Part III score had decreased by -7.0 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 29.6 [standard deviation (SD) 12.3] and by -3.9 points with placebo (baseline 32.0 [13.3]). Mean PDSS-2 total score had decreased by -5.9 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 19.3 [SD 9.3]) and by -1.9 points with placebo (baseline 20.5 [10.4]). This represented a significantly greater improvement with rotigotine compared with placebo on both the UPDRS Part III (treatment difference: -3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) -5.37, -1.73]; P = 0.0002) and PDSS-2 (treatment difference: -4.26 [95% CI -6.08, -2.45]; P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (placebo, 9%; rotigotine, 21%), application site reactions (placebo, 4%; rotigotine, 15%), and dizziness (placebo, 6%; rotigotine 10%). Twenty-four-hour transdermal delivery of rotigotine to PD patients with early-morning motor dysfunction resulted in significant benefits in control of both motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbances.