Scaling up the 2010 World Health Organization HIV Treatment Guidelines in resource-limited settings: a model-based analysis.
ABSTRACT: The new 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) HIV treatment guidelines recommend earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (CD4<350 cells/µl instead of CD4<200 cells/µl), multiple sequential ART regimens, and replacement of first-line stavudine with tenofovir. This paper considers what to do first in resource-limited settings where immediate implementation of all of the WHO recommendations is not feasible.We use a mathematical model and local input data to project clinical and economic outcomes in a South African HIV-infected cohort (mean age?=?32.8 y, mean CD4?=?375/µl). For the reference strategy, we assume that all patients initiate stavudine-based ART with WHO stage III/IV disease and receive one line of ART (stavudine/WHO/one-line). We rank-in survival, cost-effectiveness, and equity terms-all 12 possible combinations of the following: (1) stavudine replacement with tenofovir, (2) ART initiation (by WHO stage, CD4<200 cells/µl, or CD4<350 cells/µl), and (3) one or two regimens, or lines, of available ART. Projected life expectancy for the reference strategy is 99.0 mo. Considering each of the guideline components separately, 5-y survival is maximized with ART initiation at CD4<350 cells/µl (stavudine/<350/µl/one-line, 87% survival) compared with stavudine/WHO/two-lines (66%) and tenofovir/WHO/one-line (66%). The greatest life expectancies are achieved via the following stepwise programmatic additions: stavudine/<350/µl/one-line (124.3 mo), stavudine/<350/µl/two-lines (177.6 mo), and tenofovir/<350/µl/two-lines (193.6 mo). Three program combinations are economically efficient: stavudine/<350/µl/one-line (cost-effectiveness ratio, US$610/years of life saved [YLS]), tenofovir/<350/µl/one-line (US$1,140/YLS), and tenofovir/<350/µl/two-lines (US$2,370/YLS).In settings where immediate implementation of all of the new WHO treatment guidelines is not feasible, ART initiation at CD4<350 cells/µl provides the greatest short- and long-term survival advantage and is highly cost-effective.
Project description:There is debate over using tenofovir or zidovudine alongside lamivudine in second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following stavudine failure. We analysed outcomes in cohorts from South Africa, Zambia and ZimbabwePatients aged ?16 years who switched from a first-line regimen including stavudine to a ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based second-line regimen with lamivudine or emtricitabine and zidovudine or tenofovir in seven ART programmes in southern Africa were included. We estimated the causal effect of receiving tenofovir or zidovudine on mortality and virological failure using Cox proportional hazards marginal structural models. Its parameters were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weights. Baseline characteristics were age, sex, calendar year and country. CD4(+) T-cell count, creatinine and haemoglobin levels were included as time-dependent confounders.A total of 1,256 patients on second-line ART, including 958 on tenofovir, were analysed. Patients on tenofovir were more likely to have switched to second-line ART in recent years, spent more time on first-line ART (33 versus 24 months) and had lower CD4(+) T-cell counts (172 versus 341 cells/?l) at initiation of second-line ART. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing tenofovir with zidovudine was 1.00 (95% CI 0.59, 1.68) for virological failure and 1.40 (0.57, 3.41) for death.We did not find any difference in treatment outcomes between patients on tenofovir or zidovudine; however, the precision of our estimates was limited. There is an urgent need for randomized trials to inform second-line ART strategies in resource-limited settings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Temprano and START trials provided evidence to support early ART initiation recommendations. We projected long-term clinical and economic outcomes of immediate ART initiation in Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS:We used a mathematical model to compare three potential ART initiation criteria: 1) CD4 <350/?L (ART<350/?L); 2) CD4 <500/?L (ART<500/?L); and 3) ART at presentation (Immediate ART). Outcomes from the model included life expectancy, 10-year medical resource use, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in $/year of life saved (YLS), and 5-year budget impact. We simulated people with HIV (PWH) in care (mean CD4: 259/?L, SD 198/?L) and transmitted cases. Key input parameters to the analysis included first-line ART efficacy (80% suppression at 6 months) and ART cost ($90/person-year). We assessed cost-effectiveness relative to Côte d'Ivoire's 2017 per capita annual gross domestic product ($1,600). RESULTS:Immediate ART increased life expectancy by 0.34 years compared to ART<350/?L and 0.17 years compared to ART<500/?L. Immediate ART resulted in 4,500 fewer 10-year transmissions per 170,000 PWH compared to ART<350/?L. In cost-effectiveness analysis, Immediate ART had a 10-year ICER of $680/YLS compared to ART<350/?L, ranging from cost-saving to an ICER of $1,440/YLS as transmission rates varied. ART<500/?L was "dominated" (an inefficient use of resources), compared with Immediate ART. Immediate ART increased the 5-year HIV care budget from $801.9M to $812.6M compared to ART<350/?L. CONCLUSIONS:In Côte d'Ivoire, immediate compared to later ART initiation will increase life expectancy, decrease HIV transmission, and be cost-effective over the long-term, with modest budget impact. Immediate ART initiation is an appropriate, high-value standard of care in Côte d'Ivoire and similar settings.
Project description:The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined.A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load <50 copies/ml and CD4 T cell count >450 cells/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine), lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a) sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b) continuous ART (cART). Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count >350 cells(c)/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints.The proportions of CD4 counts >350 cells/µl were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: -0.16, 23.1). No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm.We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00100646.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accordance with WHO 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS) (substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN:Prospective cohort analysis (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Multiregional) including ART-naive, HIV-infected patients aged at least 16 years, initiating ART between January 2005 and December 2012. Before April 2010 (July 2007 in Zambia) national guidelines called for patients to initiate stavudine-based or zidovudine-based regimen, whereas thereafter tenofovir or zidovudine replaced stavudine in first-line ART. METHODS:We evaluated the frequency of stavudine use and SDS by calendar year 2004-2014. Competing risk regression was used to assess the association between nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use and SDS in the first 24 months on ART. RESULTS:In all, 33?441 (8.9%; 95% confience interval 8.7-8.9%) SDS occurred among 377?656 patients in the first 24 months on ART, close to 40% of which were amongst patients on stavudine. The decrease in SDS corresponded with the phasing out of stavudine. Competing risks regression models showed that patients on tenofovir were 20-95% less likely to require a SDS than patients on stavudine, whereas patients on zidovudine had a 75-85% decrease in the hazards of SDS when compared to stavudine. CONCLUSION:The decline in SDS in the first 24 months on treatment appears to be associated with phasing out stavudine for zidovudine or tenofovir in first-line ART in our study. Further efforts to decrease the cost of tenofovir and zidovudine for use in this setting is warranted to substitute all patients still receiving stavudine.
Project description:In a randomized clinical trial of early versus standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm³ in Haiti, early ART decreased mortality by 75%. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of early versus standard ART in this trial.Trial data included use of ART and other medications, laboratory tests, outpatient visits, radiographic studies, procedures, and hospital services. Medication, laboratory, radiograph, labor, and overhead costs were from the study clinic, and hospital and procedure costs were from local providers. We evaluated cost per year of life saved (YLS), including patient and caregiver costs, with a median of 21 months and maximum of 36 months of follow-up, and with costs and life expectancy discounted at 3% per annum. Between 2005 and 2008, 816 participants were enrolled and followed for a median of 21 months. Mean total costs per patient during the trial were US$1,381 for early ART and US$1,033 for standard ART. After excluding research-related laboratory tests without clinical benefit, costs were US$1,158 (early ART) and US$979 (standard ART). Early ART patients had higher mean costs for ART (US$398 versus US$81) but lower costs for non-ART medications, CD4 cell counts, clinically indicated tests, and radiographs (US$275 versus US$384). The cost-effectiveness ratio after a maximum of 3 years for early versus standard ART was US$3,975/YLS (95% CI US$2,129/YLS-US$9,979/YLS) including research-related tests, and US$2,050/YLS excluding research-related tests (95% CI US$722/YLS-US$5,537/YLS).Initiating ART in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm³ in Haiti, consistent with World Health Organization advice, was cost-effective (US$/YLS <3 times gross domestic product per capita) after a maximum of 3 years, after excluding research-related laboratory tests.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00120510.
Project description:In resource-limited settings, genotype testing at virologic failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) may identify patients with wild-type (WT) virus. After adherence counseling, these patients may safely and effectively continue first-line ART, thereby delaying more expensive second-line ART.We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications International model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease to simulate a South African cohort of HIV-infected adults at first-line ART failure. Two strategies were examined: no genotype vs genotype, assuming availability of protease inhibitor-based second-line ART. Model inputs at first-line ART failure were mean age 38 years, mean CD4 173/µL, and WT virus prevalence 20%; genotype cost was $300 per test and delay to results, 3 months. Outcomes included life expectancy, per-person costs (2010 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (dollars per years of life saved [YLS]).No genotype had a projected life expectancy of 106.1 months, which with genotype increased to 108.3 months. Per-person discounted lifetime costs were $16 360 and $16 540, respectively. Compared to no genotype, genotype was very cost-effective, by international guidance, at $900/YLS. The cost-effectiveness of genotype was sensitive to prevalence of WT virus (very cost-effective when prevalence ? 12%), CD4 at first-line ART failure, and ART efficacy. Genotype-associated delays in care ? 5 months decreased survival and made no genotype the preferred strategy. When the test cost was <$100, genotype became cost-saving.Genotype resistance testing at first-line ART failure is very cost-effective in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of this strategy will depend on prevalence of WT virus and timely response to genotype results.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tenofovir-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended globally. To evaluate the impact of its incorporation into the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, we examined treatment failure and drug resistance among a cohort of patients on tenofovir-based first-line ART at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, a large HIV treatment programme in western Kenya. METHODS:We determined viral load (VL), drug resistance and their correlates in patients on ?six months of tenofovir-based first-line ART. Based on enrolled patients' characteristics, we described these measures in those with (prior ART group) and without (tenofovir-only group) prior non-tenofovir-based first-line ART using Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS:Among 333 participants (55% female; median age 41 years; median CD4 336 cells/µL), detectable (>40 copies/mL) VL was found in 18%, and VL>1000 copies/mL (WHO threshold) in 10%. Virologic failure at both thresholds was significantly higher in 217 participants in the tenofovir-only group compared with 116 in the prior ART group using both cut-offs (24% vs. 7% with VL>40 copies/mL; 15% vs. 1% with VL>1000 copies/mL). Failure in the tenofovir-only group was associated with lower CD4 values and advanced WHO stage. In 35 available genotypes from 51 participants in the tenofovir-only group with VL>40 copies/mL (69% subtype A), any resistance was found in 89% and dual-class resistance in 83%. Tenofovir signature mutation K65R occurred in 71% (17/24) of the patients infected with subtype A. Patients with K65R had significantly lower CD4 values, higher WHO stage and more resistance mutations. CONCLUSIONS:In this Kenyan cohort, tenofovir-based first-line ART resulted in good (90%) virologic suppression including high suppression (99%) after switch from non-tenofovir-based ART. Lower virologic suppression (85%) and high observed resistance levels (89%) in the tenofovir-only group impact future treatment options, support recommendations for widespread VL monitoring in such resource limited settings to identify early treatment failure and suggest consideration of individualized resistance testing to design effective subsequent regimens.
Project description:Several cluster-randomized HIV prevention trials aim to demonstrate the population-level preventive impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines raising the ART initiation threshold to CD4 <500/µL could attenuate these trials' effect size by increasing ART usage in control clusters.We used a computational model to simulate strategies from a hypothetical cluster-randomized HIV prevention trial. The primary model outcome was the relative reduction in 24-month HIV incidence between control (ART offered with CD4 below threshold) and intervention (ART offered to all) strategies. We assessed this incidence reduction using the revised (CD4 <500/µL) and prior (CD4 <350/µL) control ART initiation thresholds. Additionally, we evaluated changes to trial characteristics that could bolster the incidence reduction.With a control ART initiation threshold of CD4 <350/µL, 24-month HIV incidence under control and intervention strategies was 2.46/100 person-years (PY) and 1.96/100 PY, a 21% reduction. Raising the threshold to CD4 <500/µL decreased the incidence reduction by more than one-third, to 12%. Using this higher threshold, moving to a 36-month horizon (vs 24-month), yearly control-strategy HIV screening (vs bian-nual), and intervention-strategy screening every 2 months (vs biannual), resulted in a 31% incidence reduction that was similar to effect size projections for ongoing trials. Alternate assumptions regarding cross-cluster contamination had the greatest influence on the incidence reduction.Implementing the 2013 WHO HIV treatment threshold could substantially diminish the incidence reduction in HIV population prevention trials. Alternative HIV testing frequencies and trial horizons can bolster this incidence reduction, but they could be logistically and ethically challenging. The feasibility of HIV population prevention trials should be reassessed as the implementation of treatment guidelines evolves.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In resource-limited settings, clinical parameters, including body weight changes, are used to monitor clinical response. Therefore, we studied body weight changes in patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in different regions of the world. METHODS:Data were extracted from the "International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS," a network of ART programmes that prospectively collects routine clinical data. Adults on ART from the Southern, East, West, and Central African and the Asia-Pacific regions were selected from the database if baseline data on body weight, gender, ART regimen, and CD4 count were available. Body weight change over the first 2 years and the probability of body weight loss in the second year were modeled using linear mixed models and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS:Data from 205,571 patients were analyzed. Mean adjusted body weight change in the first 12 months was higher in patients started on tenofovir and/or efavirenz; in patients from Central, West, and East Africa, in men, and in patients with a poorer clinical status. In the second year of ART, it was greater in patients initiated on tenofovir and/or nevirapine, and for patients not on stavudine, in women, in Southern Africa and in patients with a better clinical status at initiation. Stavudine in the initial regimen was associated with a lower mean adjusted body weight change and with weight loss in the second treatment year. CONCLUSIONS:Different ART regimens have different effects on body weight change. Body weight loss after 1 year of treatment in patients on stavudine might be associated with lipoatrophy.
Project description:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes.Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for ? 6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment modification were assessed.Data from 4662 eligible patients was analysed. Patients started ART in 2003-2006 (n = 1419), 2007-2010 (n = 2690) and 2011-2013 (n = 553). During the observation period, tenofovir, zidovudine and abacavir use largely replaced stavudine. Stavudine was prescribed to 5.8% of ART starters in 2012/13. Efavirenz use increased at the expense of nevirapine, although both continue to be used extensively (47.5% and 34.5% of patients in 2012/13, respectively). Protease inhibitor use dropped after 2004. The rate of treatment failure or modification declined over time (22.1 [95%CI 20.7-23.5] events per 100 patient/years in 2003-2006, 15.8 [14.9-16.8] in 2007-2010, and 11.6 [9.4-14.2] in 2011-2013). Adjustment for ART regimen had little impact on the temporal decline in treatment failure rates but substantially attenuated the temporal decline in rates of modification due to adverse event. In the final multivariate model, treatment modification due to adverse event was significantly predicted by earlier period of ART initiation (hazard ratio 0.52 [95%CI 0.33-0.81], p = 0.004 for 2011-2013 versus 2003-2006), older age (1.56 [1.19-2.04], p = 0.001 for ? 50 years versus <30 years), female sex (1.29 [1.11-1.50], p = 0.001 versus male), positive hepatitis C status (1.33 [1.06-1.66], p = 0.013 versus negative), and ART regimen (11.36 [6.28-20.54], p<0.001 for stavudine-based regimens versus tenofovir-based).The observed trends in first-line ART use in Asia reflect changes in drug availability, global treatment recommendations and prescriber preferences over the past decade. These changes have contributed to a declining rate of treatment modification due to adverse event, but not to reductions in treatment failure.