Differential regulation of human papillomavirus type 8 by interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7.
ABSTRACT: The genus ? human papillomavirus (HPV) type 8 is associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and evidence for its protumorigenic potential in the general population increases. To date, strategies to suppress genus ? HPV infections are limited. Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 play key roles in the activation of the innate immune response to viral infections. In this study, we show for the first time that both IRF-3 and IRF-7 regulate transcription of a papillomavirus, but with opposing effects. IRF-7, expressed in the suprabasal layers of human epidermis, increased HPV8 late promoter activity via direct binding to viral DNA. UV-B light-induced activation of the HPV8 promoter involved IRF-7 as a downstream effector. In contrast, IRF-3, expressed in all layers of human epidermis, induced strong HPV8 suppression in primary keratinocytes. IRF-3-mediated suppression prevailed over IRF-7-induced HPV8 transcription. Unlike the E6 oncoprotein of the mucosal high-risk HPV16, the HPV8 E6 protein did not bind to IRF-3 and only weakly antagonized its activity. Strong antiviral activity was also observed, when keratinocytes were treated with potent IRF-3 activators, poly(I:C) or RNA bearing 5' phosphates. In conclusion, we show that IRF-3 activation induces a state of cell-autonomous immunity against HPV in primary human keratinocytes. Our study suggests that local application of IRF-3-activating compounds might constitute an attractive novel therapeutic strategy against HPV8-associated diseases, particularly in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients.
Project description:Persistent genus ?-HPV (human papillomavirus) infection is a major co-factor for non-melanoma skin cancer in patients suffering from the inherited skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Malignant EV lesions are particularly associated with HPV type 5 or 8. There is clinical and molecular evidence that HPV8 actively suppresses epithelial immunosurveillance by interfering with the recruitment of Langerhans cells, which may favor viral persistence. Mechanisms how persistent HPV8 infection promotes the carcinogenic process are, however, less well understood. In various tumor types chronic inflammation has a central role in tumor progression. The calprotectin complex consisting of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins has recently been identified as key driver of chronic and tumor promoting inflammation in skin carcinogenesis. It induces chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes and modulates inflammatory as well as immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that skin lesions of EV-patients are massively infiltrated by inflammatory cells, including CD15+ granulocytes. At the same time we observed a very strong expression of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in lesional keratinocytes, which was mostly confined to the suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Both proteins were hardly detected in non-lesional skin. Further experiments revealed that the HPV8 oncoproteins E6 and E7 were not involved in S100A8/A9 up-regulation. They rather suppressed differentiation-induced S100A8/A9 expression. In contrast, the viral transcription factor E2 strongly enhanced PMA-mediated S100A8/A9 up-regulation in primary human keratinocytes. Similarly, a tremendous up-regulation of both S100 proteins was observed, when minute amounts of the PMA-inducible CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?), which is expressed at low levels in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis, were co-expressed together with HPV8 E2. This confirmed our previous observation that C/EBP? interacts and functionally synergizes with the HPV8 E2 protein in differentiation-dependent gene expression. Potent synergistic up-regulation of S100A8/A9 was seen at transcriptional and protein levels. S100A8/A9 containing supernatants from keratinocytes co-expressing HPV8 E2 and C/EBP? significantly induced chemotaxis of granulocytes in migration assays supporting the relevance of our finding. In conclusion, our data suggest that the HPV8 E2 protein actively contributes to the recruitment of myeloid cells into EV skin lesions, which may support chronic inflammation and progression to skin cancer.
Project description:Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-? signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis. A recently identified papillomavirus, MmuPV1, infects laboratory mouse strains and causes cutaneous skin warts that can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. To determine whether MmuPV1 may be an appropriate model to mechanistically dissect the molecular contributions of cutaneous HPV infections to skin carcinogenesis, we investigated whether MmuPV1 E6 shares biological and biochemical activities with HPV8 E6. We report that the HPV8 and MmuPV1 E6 proteins share the ability to bind to the MAML1 and SMAD2/SMAD3 transcriptional cofactors of NOTCH and TGF-beta signaling, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrate that these cutaneous papillomavirus E6 proteins inhibit these two tumor suppressor pathways and that this ability is linked to delayed differentiation and sustained proliferation of differentiating keratinocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ability of MmuPV1 E6 to bind MAML1 is necessary for papilloma formation in experimentally infected mice. Our results, therefore, suggest that experimental MmuPV1 infection in mice will be a robust and useful experimental system to model key aspects of cutaneous HPV infection, pathogenesis and carcinogenesis.
Project description:Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions. We provide evidence that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), a differentiation-regulating transcription factor and suppressor of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis, directly binds the miR-203 gene within its hairpin region and thereby induces miR-203 transcription. Our data further demonstrate that the HPV8 E6 protein significantly suppresses this novel C/EBP?/mir-203-pathway. As a consequence, the miR-203 target ?Np63?, a proliferation-inducing transcription factor, is up-regulated, while the differentiation factor involucrin is suppressed. HPV8 E6 specifically down-regulates C/EBP? but not C/EBP? expression at the transcriptional level. As shown in knock-down experiments, C/EBP? is regulated by the acetyltransferase p300, a well-described target of cutaneous E6 proteins. Notably, p300 bound significantly less to the C/EBP? regulatory region in HPV8 E6 expressing keratinocytes than in control cells as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In situ analysis confirmed congruent suprabasal expression patterns of C/EBP? and miR-203 in non-lesional skin of EV-patients. In HPV8-positive EV-lesions both factors are potently down-regulated in vivo further supporting our in vitro data. In conclusion our study has unraveled a novel p300/C/EBP?/mir-203-dependent mechanism, by which the cutaneous HPV8 E6 protein may expand p63-positive cells in the epidermis of EV-patients and disturbs fundamental keratinocyte functions. This may drive HPV-mediated pathogenesis and may potentially also pave the way for skin carcinogenesis in EV-patients.
Project description:Infection with genus beta human papillomaviruses (HPV) is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and 8 in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a genetic skin disease. So far, it has been unknown how these viruses overcome cutaneous immune control allowing their persistence in lesional epidermis of these patients. Here we demonstrate that Langerhans cells, essential for skin immunosurveillance, are strongly reduced in HPV8-positive lesional epidermis from EV patients. Interestingly, the same lesions were largely devoid of the important Langerhans cells chemoattractant protein CCL20. Applying bioinformatic tools, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and functional studies we identified the differentiation-associated transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) as a critical regulator of CCL20 gene expression in normal human keratinocytes. The physiological relevance of this finding is supported by our in vivo studies showing that the expression patterns of CCL20 and nuclear C/EBP? converge spatially in the most differentiated layers of human epidermis. Our analyses further identified C/EBP? as a novel target of the HPV8 E7 oncoprotein, which co-localizes with C/EBP? in the nucleus, co-precipitates with it and interferes with its binding to the CCL20 promoter in vivo. As a consequence, the HPV8 E7 but not E6 oncoprotein suppressed C/EBP?-inducible and constitutive CCL20 gene expression as well as Langerhans cell migration. In conclusion, our study unraveled a novel molecular mechanism central to cutaneous host defense. Interference of the HPV8 E7 oncoprotein with this regulatory pathway allows the virus to disrupt the immune barrier, a major prerequisite for its epithelial persistence and procarcinogenic activity.
Project description:?-Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause near ubiquitous latent skin infection within long-lived hair follicle (HF) keratinocyte stem cells. In patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, ?-HPV viral replication is associated with skin keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. To determine the role of HF keratinocyte stem cells in ?-HPV-induced skin carcinogenesis, we utilized a transgenic mouse model in which the keratin 14 promoter drives expression of the entire HPV8 early region (HPV8tg). HPV8tg mice developed thicker skin in comparison with wild-type littermates consistent with a hyperproliferative epidermis. HF keratinocyte proliferation was evident within the Lrig1+ keratinocyte stem cell population (69 vs. 55%, P < 0.01, n = 7), and not in the CD34+, LGR5+, and LGR6+ keratinocyte stem cell populations. This was associated with a 2.8-fold expansion in Lrig1+ keratinocytes and 3.8-fold increased colony-forming efficiency. Consistent with this, we observed nuclear p63 expression throughout this population and the HF infundibulum and adjoining interfollicular epidermis, associated with a switch from p63 transcriptional activation isoforms to ?Np63 isoforms in HPV8tg skin. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis keratosis and in some cases actinic keratoses demonstrated similar histology associated with ?-HPV reactivation and nuclear p63 expression within the HF infundibulum and perifollicular epidermis. These findings would suggest that ?-HPV field cancerization arises from the HF junctional zone and predispose to squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPV) replicate their DNA in the suprabasal layer of the infected mucosa or skin. In order to create a suitable environment for vegetative viral DNA replication HPV delay differentiation and sustain keratinocyte proliferation that can lead to hyperplasia. The mechanism underlying cell growth stimulation is not well characterized. Here, we show that the E6 oncoprotein of the βHPV type 8 (HPV8), which infects the cutaneous skin and is associated with skin cancer in Epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients and immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients, binds to the protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 (PTPH1), which resulted in increased protein expression and phosphatase activity of PTPH1. Suppression of PTPH1 in immortalized keratinocytes reduced cell proliferation as well as the level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, we report that HPV8E6 expressing keratinocytes have increased level of active, GTP-bound Ras. This effect was independent of PTPH1. Therefore, HPV8E6-mediated targeting of PTPH1 might result in higher level of EGFR and enhanced keratinocyte proliferation. The HPV8E6-mediated stimulation of Ras may be an additional step to induce cell growth. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanism how βHPVE6 proteins support proliferation of infected keratinocytes, thus creating an environment with increased risk of development of skin cancer particularly upon UV-induced DNA mutations.
Project description:The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus alpha contain a short peptide sequence at the carboxy-terminus, the PDZ binding domain, with which they interact with the corresponding PDZ domain of cellular proteins. Interestingly, E6 proteins from papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV) do not encode a comparable PDZ binding domain. Irrespective of this fact, we previously showed that the E6 protein of HPV8 (betaPV type) could circumvent this deficit by targeting the PDZ protein Syntenin-2 through transcriptional repression (Lazic et al., 2012). Despite its high binding affinity to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), very little is known about Syntenin-2. This study aimed to extend the knowledge on Syntenin-2 and how its expression is controlled. We now identified that Syntenin-2 is expressed at high levels in differentiating and in lower amounts in keratinocytes cultured in serum-free media containing low calcium concentration. HPV8-E6 led to a further reduction of Syntenin-2 expression only in cells cultured in low calcium. In the skin of patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, who are predisposed to betaPV infection, Syntenin-2 was expressed in differentiating keratinocytes of non-lesional skin, but was absent in virus positive squamous tumors. Using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, Syntenin-2 transcription was profoundly activated and fully restored in the absence and presence of HPV8-E6, implicating that E6 mediated repression of Syntenin-2 transcription is due to promoter hypermethylation. Since Syntenin-2 binds to PI(4,5)P2, we further tested whether the PI(4,5)P2 metabolic pathway might govern Syntenin-2 expression. PI(4,5)P2 is generated by the activity of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase type I (PIP5KI) or phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase type II (PIP4KII) isoforms ?, ? and ?. Phosphatidylinositide kinases have recently been identified as regulators of gene transcription. Surprisingly, transfection of siRNAs directed against PIP5KI and PIP4KII resulted in higher Syntenin-2 expression with the highest effect mediated by siPIP5KI?. HPV8-E6 was able to counteract siPIP4KII?, siPIP4KII? and siPIP5KI? mediated Syntenin-2 re-expression but not siPIP5KI?. Finally, we identified Syntenin-2 as a key factor regulating PIP5KI? expression. Collectively, our data demonstrates that Syntenin-2 is regulated through multiple mechanisms and that downregulation of Syntenin-2 expression may contribute to E6 mediated dedifferentiation of infected skin cells.
Project description:The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins.This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the potential connection between some beta HPVs and cancer.
Project description:Biallelic mutations in the ITK gene cause a T-cell primary immunodeficiency with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-lymphoproliferative disorders. We describe a novel association of a homozygous ITK mutation with ?-human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Thus, loss of function in ITK can result in broad dysregulation of T-cell responses to oncogenic viruses, including ?-HPV and EBV.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. Homeostasis of these constantly renewing, stratified epithelia is maintained by balanced keratinocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation. Instructions from the extracellular matrix engaging integrins strongly regulate these keratinocyte functions. The papillomavirus life cycle parallels the differentiation program of stratified epithelia, and viral progeny is produced only in terminally differentiating keratinocytes. Whereas papillomavirus oncoproteins can inhibit keratinocyte differentiation, the viral transcription factor E2 seems to counterbalance the impact of oncoproteins. In this study we show that high expression of HPV type 8 (HPV8) E2 in cultured primary keratinocytes leads to strong down-regulation of beta4-integrin expression levels, partial reduction of beta1-integrin, and detachment of transfected keratinocytes from underlying structures. Unlike HPV18 E2-expressing keratinocytes, HPV8 E2 transfectants did not primarily undergo apoptosis. HPV8 E2 partially suppressed beta4-integrin promoter activity by binding to a specific E2 binding site leading to displacement of at least one cellular DNA binding factor. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that specific E2 binding contributes to regulation of a cellular promoter. In vivo, decreased beta4-integrin expression is associated with detachment of keratinocytes from the underlying basement membrane and their egress from the basal to suprabasal layers. In papillomavirus disease, beta4-integrin down-regulation in keratinocytes with higher E2 expression may push virally infected cells into the transit-amplifying compartment and ensure their commitment to the differentiation process required for virus replication.