Dot1a-AF9 complex mediates histone H3 Lys-79 hypermethylation and repression of ENaCalpha in an aldosterone-sensitive manner.
ABSTRACT: Aldosterone is a major regulator of epithelial Na(+) absorption and acts in large part through induction of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene in the renal collecting duct. We previously identified Dot1a as an aldosterone early repressed gene and a repressor of ENaCalpha transcription through mediating histone H3 Lys-79 methylation associated with the ENaCalpha promoter. Here, we report a novel aldosterone-signaling network involving AF9, Dot1a, and ENaCalpha. AF9 and Dot1a interact in vitro and in vivo as evidenced in multiple assays and colocalize in the nuclei of mIMCD3 renal collecting duct cells. Overexpression of AF9 results in hypermethylation of histone H3 Lys-79 at the endogenous ENaCalpha promoter at most, but not all subregions examined, repression of endogenous ENaCalpha mRNA expression and acts synergistically with Dot1a to inhibit ENaCalpha promoter-luciferase constructs. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AF9 causes the opposite effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that overexpressed FLAG-AF9, endogenous AF9, and Dot1a are each associated with the ENaCalpha promoter. Aldosterone negatively regulates AF9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus, Dot1a-AF9 modulates histone H3 Lys-79 methylation at the ENaCalpha promoter and represses ENaCalpha transcription in an aldosterone-sensitive manner. This mechanism appears to be more broadly applicable to other aldosterone-regulated genes because overexpression of AF9 alone or in combination with Dot1a inhibited mRNA levels of three other known aldosterone-inducible genes in mIMCD3 cells.
Project description:We previously reported that Dot1a.AF9 complex represses transcription of the epithelial Na(+) channel subunit alpha (alpha-ENaC) gene in mouse inner medullary collecting duct mIMCD3 cells and mouse kidney. Aldosterone relieves this repression by down-regulating the complex through various mechanisms. Whether these mechanisms are sufficient and conserved in human cells or can be applied to other aldosterone-regulated genes remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that human embryonic kidney 293T cells express the three ENaC subunits and all of the ENaC transcriptional regulators examined. These cells respond to aldosterone and display benzamil-sensitive Na(+) currents, as measured by whole-cell patch clamping. We also show that AF17 and AF9 competitively bind to the same domain of Dot1a in multiple assays and have antagonistic effects on expression of an alpha-ENaC promoter-luciferase construct. Overexpression of Dot1a or AF9 decreased mRNA expression of the ENaC subunits and their transcriptional regulators and reduced benzamil-sensitive Na(+) currents. AF17 overexpression caused the opposite effects, accompanied by redirection of Dot1a from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and reduction in histone H3 K79 methylation. The nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B blocked the effect of AF17 overexpression on H3 K79 hypomethylation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AF17 yielded nuclear enrichment of Dot1a and histone H3 K79 hypermethylation. As with AF9, AF17 displays nuclear and cytoplasmic co-localization with Sgk1. Therefore, AF17 competes with AF9 to bind Dot1a, decreases Dot1a nuclear expression by possibly facilitating its nuclear export, and relieves Dot1a.AF9-mediated repression of alpha-ENaC and other target genes.
Project description:Aldosterone plays a major role in the regulation of salt balance and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Many aldosterone-regulated genes--including that encoding the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), a key arbiter of Na+ transport in the kidney and other epithelia--have been identified, but the mechanisms by which the hormone modifies chromatin structure and thus transcription remain unknown. We previously described the basal repression of ENaCalpha by a complex containing the histone H3 Lys79 methyltransferase disruptor of telomeric silencing alternative splice variant a (Dot1a) and the putative transcription factor ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 (Af9) as well as the release of this repression by aldosterone treatment. Here we provide evidence from renal collecting duct cells and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (Sgk1) WT and knockout mice that Sgk1 phosphorylated Af9, thereby impairing the Dot1a-Af9 interaction and leading to targeted histone H3 Lys79 hypomethylation at the ENaCalpha promoter and derepression of ENaCalpha transcription. Thus, Af9 is a physiologic target of Sgk1, and Sgk1 negatively regulates the Dot1a-Af9 repressor complex that controls transcription of ENaCalpha and likely other aldosterone-induced genes.
Project description:Aldosterone is a major regulator of Na(+) absorption and acts primarily by controlling the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function at multiple levels including transcription. ENaC consists of ?, ?, and ? subunits. In the classical model, aldosterone enhances transcription primarily by activating mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). However, how aldosterone induces chromatin alternation and thus leads to gene activation or repression remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that Dot1a-Af9 complex plays an important role in repression of ?ENaC by directly binding and modulating targeted histone H3 K79 hypermethylation at the specific subregions of ?ENaC promoter. Aldosterone impairs Dot1a-Af9 formation by decreasing expression of Dot1a and Af9 and by inducing Sgk1, which, in turn, phosphorylates Af9 at S435 to weaken Dot1a-Af9 interaction. MR counterbalances Dot1a-Af9 action by competing with Dot1a for binding Af9. Af17 derepresses ?ENaC by competitively interacting with Dot1a and facilitating Dot1a nuclear export. Consistently, MR(-/-) mice have impaired ENaC expression at day 5 after birth, which may contribute to progressive development of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 in a later stage. Af17(-/-) mice have decreased ENaC expression, renal Na(+) retention, and blood pressure. In contrast, Dot1l(AC) mice have increased ?ENaC expression, despite a 20% reduction of the principal cells. This chapter reviews these findings linking aldosterone action to ENaC transcription through chromatin modification. Future direction toward the understanding the role of Dot1a-Af9 complex beyond ENaC regulation, in particular, in renal fibrosis is also briefly discussed.
Project description:Aldosterone is a major regulator of Na(+) absorption and acts by activating the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to stimulate the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). MR(-/-) mice exhibited pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, salt wasting, and high levels of aldosterone) and died around postnatal day 10. However, if and how MR regulates ENaC transcription remain incompletely understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that aldosterone activates ?ENaC transcription by reducing expression of Dot1a and Af9 and by impairing Dot1a-Af9 interaction. Most recently, we reported identification of a major Af9 binding site in the ?ENaC promoter and upregulation of ?ENaC mRNA expression in mouse kidneys lacking Dot1a. Despite these findings, the putative antagonism between the MR/aldosterone and Dot1a-Af9 complexes has never been addressed. The molecular defects leading to PHA-1 in MR(-/-) mice remain elusive. Here, we report that MR competes with Dot1a to bind Af9. MR/aldosterone and Dot1a-Af9 complexes mutually counterbalance ENaC mRNA expression in inner medullary collecting duct 3 (IMCD3) cells. Real-time RT-quantitative PCR revealed that 5-day-old MR(-/-) vs. MR(+/+) mice had significantly lower ?ENaC mRNA levels. This change was associated with an increased Af9 binding and H3 K79 hypermethylation in the ?ENaC promoter. Therefore, this study identified MR as a novel binding partner and regulator of Af9 and a novel mechanism coupling MR-mediated activation with relief of Dot1a-Af9-mediated repression via MR-Af9 interaction. Impaired ENaC expression due to failure to inhibit Dot1a-Af9 may play an important role in the early stages of PHA-1 (before postnatal day 8) in MR(-/-) mice.
Project description:Our previous work in 293T cells and AF17(-/-) mice suggests that AF17 upregulates expression and activity of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), possibly by relieving Dot1a-AF9-mediated repression. However, whether and how AF17 directly regulates Dot1a cellular distribution and ENaC function in renal collecting duct cells remain unaddressed. Here, we report our findings in mouse cortical collecting duct M-1 cells that overexpression of AF17 led to preferential distribution of Dot1a in the cytoplasm. This effect could be blocked by nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. siRNA-mediated depletion of AF17 caused nuclear accumulation of Dot1a. AF17 overexpression elicited multiple effects that are reminiscent of aldosterone action. These effects include 1) increased mRNA and protein expression of the three ENaC subunits (?, ? and ?) and serum- and glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1, as revealed by real-time RT-qPCR and immunoblotting analyses; 2) impaired Dot1a-AF9 interaction and H3 K79 methylation at the ?ENaC promoter without affecting AF9 binding to the promoter, as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation; and 3) elevated ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport, as analyzed by measurement of benzamil-sensitive intracellular [Na(+)] and equivalent short circuit current using single-cell fluorescence imaging and an epithelial Volt-ohmmeter, respectively. Knockdown of AF17 elicited opposite effects. However, combination of AF17 overexpression or depletion with aldosterone treatment did not cause an additive effect on mRNA expression of the ENaC subunits. Taken together, we conclude that AF17 promotes Dot1a nuclear export and upregulates basal, but not aldosterone-stimulated ENaC expression, leading to an increase in ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport in renal collecting duct cells.
Project description:We have previously reported that Dot1a is located in the cytoplasm and nucleus (Reisenauer MR, Anderson M, Huang L, Zhang Z, Zhou Q, Kone BC, Morris AP, Lesage GD, Dryer SE, Zhang W. J Biol Chem 284: 35659-35669, 2009), widely expressed in the kidney as detected by its histone H3K79 methyltransferase activity (Zhang W, Hayashizaki Y, Kone BC. Biochem J 377: 641-651, 2004), and involved in transcriptional control of the epithelial Na(+) channel subunit-alpha gene (alphaENaC) (Zhang W, Xia X, Jalal DI, Kuncewicz T, Xu W, Lesage GD, Kone BC. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290: C936-C946, 2006). Aldosterone releases repression of alphaENaC by reducing expression of Dot1a and its partner AF9 (Zhang W, Xia X, Reisenauer MR, Hemenway CS, Kone BC. J Biol Chem 281: 18059-18068, 2006) and by impairing Dot1a-AF9 interaction via Sgk1-mediated AF9 phosphorylation (Zhang W, Xia X, Reisenauer MR, Rieg T, Lang F, Kuhl D, Vallon V, Kone BC. J Clin Invest 117: 773-783, 2007). This network also appears to regulate transcription of several other aldosterone target genes. Here, we provide evidence showing that Dot1a contains at least three potential nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Deletion of these NLSs causes green fluorescent protein-fused Dot1a fusions to localize almost exclusively in the cytoplasm of 293T cells as revealed by confocal microscopy. Deletion of NLSs abolished Dot1a-mediated repression of alphaENaC-promoter luciferase construct in M1 cells. AF9 is widely expressed in mouse kidney. Similar to alphaENaC, the mRNA levels of betaENaC, gammaENaC, and Sgk1 are also downregulated by Dot1a and AF9 overexpression. Small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of Dot1a and AF9 or aldosterone treatment leads to an opposite effect. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging or equivalent short-circuit current in IMCD3 and M1 cells, we show that observed transcriptional alterations correspond to changes in ENaC and Sgk1 protein levels as well as benzamil-sensitive Na(+) transport. In brief, Dot1a and AF9 downregulate Na(+) transport, most likely by regulating ENaC mRNA and subsequent protein expression and ENaC activity.
Project description:The apical membrane epithelial Na(+) channel subunit (ENaC) in series with the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase mediates collecting duct Na(+) reabsorption. Aldosterone induces ?ENaC gene transcription, which appears to be rate limiting for ENaC activity in this segment. Although this response has long been assumed to be solely the result of liganded nuclear hormone receptors trans-activating ?ENaC, epigenetic controls of basal and aldosterone-induced transcription of ?ENaC in the collecting duct recently were described. These epigenetic pathways involve dynamic nuclear repressor complexes targeted to specific subregions of the ?ENaC promoter and consisting of the histone methyltransferase disrupter of telomeric silencing (Dot)1a together with the transcriptional factor Af9 or the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirt1, key co-regulatory proteins, including serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 and the putative transcription factor Af17, and targeted chromatin modifications. The complexes, through the action of Dot1a, maintain chromatin associated with the ?ENaC promoter in a stable hypermethylated state, constraining ?ENaC transcription under basal conditions. Aldosterone and serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1, itself, activate ?ENaC transcription in large part by disrupting or diminishing the Dot1a-Af9 and Dot1a-Sirt1 complexes and their effects on chromatin. Mouse models indicate potential roles of the Dot1a pathways in renal salt excretion and hypertension.
Project description:The amino-terminal histone tails are subject to covalent post-translational modifications such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. In the histone code hypothesis, these exposed and unstructured histone tails are accessible to a repertoire of regulatory factors that specifically recognize the various modified histones, thereby generating altered chromatin structures that mediate specific biological responses. Here, we report that lysine (Lys) 79 of histone H3, which resides in the globular domain, is methylated in eukaryotic organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lys 79 of histone H3 is methylated by Dot1, a protein shown previously to play a role in telomeric silencing. Mutations of Lys 79 of histone H3 and mutations that abolish the catalytic activity of Dot1 impair telomeric silencing, suggesting that Dot1 mediates telomeric silencing largely through methylation of Lys 79. This defect in telomeric silencing might reflect an interaction between Sir proteins and Lys 79, because dot1 and Lys 79 mutations weaken the interaction of Sir2 and Sir3 with the telomeric region in vivo. Our results indicate that histone modifications in the core globular domain have important biological functions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The progression rate of CKD varies substantially among patients. The genetic and epigenetic contributions that modify how individual patients respond to kidney injury are largely unknown. Emerging evidence has suggested that histone H3 K79 methyltransferase Dot1l has an antifibrotic effect by repressing <i>Edn1</i>, which encodes endothelin 1 in the connecting tubule/collecting duct.<h4>Methods</h4>To determine if deletion of the <i>Dot1l</i> gene is a genetic and epigenetic risk factor through regulating <i>Edn1,</i> we studied four groups of mice: wild-type mice, connecting tubule/collecting duct-specific <i>Dot1l</i> conditional knockout mice (<i>Dot1l<sup>AC</sup></i> ), <i>Dot1l</i> and <i>Edn1</i> double-knockout mice (<i>DE<sup>AC</sup></i> ), and <i>Edn1</i> connecting tubule/collecting duct-specific conditional knockout mice (<i>Edn1<sup>AC</sup></i> ), under three experimental conditions (streptozotocin-induced diabetes, during normal aging, and after unilateral ureteral obstruction). We used several approaches (colocalization, glutathione S-transferase pulldown, coimmunoprecipitation, yeast two-hybrid, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays) to identify and confirm interaction of Dot1a (the major <i>Dot1l</i> splicing variant in the mouse kidney) with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), as well as the function of the Dot1a-HDAC2 complex in regulating <i>Edn1</i> transcription.<h4>Results</h4>In each case, <i>Dot1l<sup>AC</sup></i> mice developed more pronounced kidney fibrosis and kidney malfunction compared with wild-type mice. These <i>Dot1l<sup>AC</sup></i> phenotypes were ameliorated in the double-knockout <i>DE<sup>AC</sup></i> mice. The interaction between Dot1a and HDAC2 prevents the Dot1a-HDAC2 complex from association with DNA, providing a counterbalancing mechanism governing <i>Edn1</i> transcription by modulating H3 K79 dimethylation and H3 acetylation at the <i>Edn1</i> promoter.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study confirms <i>Dot1l</i> to be a genetic and epigenetic modifier of kidney fibrosis, reveals a new mechanism regulating <i>Edn1</i> transcription by Dot1a and HDAC2, and reinforces endothelin 1 as a therapeutic target of kidney fibrosis.
Project description:Histone proteins contain epigenetic information that is encoded both in the relative abundance of core histones and variants and particularly in the post-translational modification of these proteins. We determined the presence of such variants and covalent modifications in seven tissue types of the anuran Xenopus laevis, including oocyte, egg, sperm, early embryo equivalent (pronuclei incubated in egg extract), S3 neurula cells, A6 kidney cells, and erythrocytes. We first developed a new robust method for isolating the stored, predeposition histones from oocytes and eggs via chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, whereas we isolated chromatinized histones via conventional acid extraction. We identified two previously unknown H1 isoforms (H1fx and H1B.Sp) present on sperm chromatin. We immunoblotted this global collection of histones with many specific post-translational modification antibodies, including antibodies against methylated histone H3 on Lys(4), Lys(9), Lys(27), Lys(79), Arg(2), Arg(17), and Arg(26); methylated histone H4 on Lys(20); methylated H2A and H4 on Arg(3); acetylated H4 on Lys(5), Lys(8), Lys(12), and Lys(16) and H3 on Lys(9) and Lys(14); and phosphorylated H3 on Ser(10) and H2A/H4 on Ser(1). Furthermore, we subjected a subset of these histones to two-dimensional gel analysis and subsequent immunoblotting and mass spectrometry to determine the global remodeling of histone modifications that occurs as development proceeds. Overall, our observations suggest that each metazoan cell type may have a unique histone modification signature correlated with its differentiation status.