New clues in the allosteric activation of DNA cleavage by SgrAI: structures of SgrAI bound to cleaved primary-site DNA and uncleaved secondary-site DNA.
ABSTRACT: SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits allosteric self-activation with expansion of DNA-sequence specificity. The three-dimensional crystal structures of SgrAI bound to cleaved primary-site DNA and Mg²(+) and bound to secondary-site DNA with either Mg²(+) or Ca²(+) are presented. All three structures show a conformation of enzyme and DNA similar to the previously determined dimeric structure of SgrAI bound to uncleaved primary-site DNA and Ca²(+) [Dunten et al. (2008), Nucleic Acids Res. 36, 5405-5416], with the exception of the cleaved bond and a slight shifting of the DNA in the SgrAI/cleaved primary-site DNA/Mg²(+) structure. In addition, a new metal ion binding site is located in one of the two active sites in this structure, which is consistent with proposals for the existence of a metal-ion site near the 3'-O leaving group.
Project description:SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3'-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA.
Project description:The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the 'rare cutting' type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to cognate DNA is presented. SgrAI forms a dimer bound to one duplex of DNA. Two Ca(2+) bind in the enzyme active site, with one ion at the interface between the protein and DNA, and the second bound distal from the DNA. These sites are differentially occupied by Mn(2+), with strong binding at the protein-DNA interface, but only partial occupancy of the distal site. The DNA remains uncleaved in the structures from crystals grown in the presence of either divalent cation. The structure of the dimer of SgrAI is similar to those of Cfr10I, Bse634I and NgoMIV, however no tetrameric structure of SgrAI is observed. DNA contacts to the central CCGG base pairs of the SgrAI canonical target sequence (CR|CCGGYG, | marks the site of cleavage) are found to be very similar to those in the NgoMIV/DNA structure (target sequence G|CCGGC). Specificity at the degenerate YR base pairs of the SgrAI sequence may occur via indirect readout using DNA distortion. Recognition of the outer GC base pairs occurs through a single contact to the G from an arginine side chain located in a region unique to SgrAI.
Project description:SgrAI is a type IIF restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits self-modulation of DNA cleavage activity and sequence specificity. Previous studies have shown that SgrAI forms large oligomers when bound to particular DNA sequences and under the same conditions where SgrAI exhibits accelerated DNA cleavage kinetics. However, the detailed structure and stoichiometry of the SgrAI-DNA complex as well as the basic building block of the oligomers have not been fully characterized. Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) was employed to analyze SgrAI-DNA complexes and show that the basic building block of the oligomers is the DNA-bound SgrAI dimer (DBD) with one SgrAI dimer bound to two precleaved duplex DNA molecules each containing one-half of the SgrAI primary recognition sequence. The oligomers contain variable numbers of DBDs with as many as 19 DBDs. Observation of the large oligomers shows that nanoelectrospray ionization (nano-ESI) can preserve the proposed activated form of an enzyme. Finally, the collision cross section of the SgrAI-DNA oligomers measured by IM-MS was found to have a linear relationship with the number of DBDs in each oligomer, suggesting a regular, repeating structure.
Project description:Filament or run-on oligomer formation by enzymes is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon with potentially unique enzyme regulatory properties and biological roles. SgrAI is an allosteric type II restriction endonuclease that forms run-on oligomeric filaments with activated DNA cleavage activity and altered DNA sequence specificity. In this two-part work, we measure individual steps in the run-on oligomer filament mechanism to address specific questions of cooperativity, trapping, filament growth mechanisms, and sequestration of activity using fluorophore-labeled DNA, kinetic FRET measurements, and reaction modeling with global data fitting. The final models and rate constants show that the assembly step involving association of SgrAI-DNA complexes into the run-on oligomer filament is relatively slow (3-4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion limited) and rate-limiting at low to moderate concentrations of SgrAI-DNA. The disassembly step involving dissociation of complexes of SgrAI-DNA from each other in the run-on oligomer filament is the next slowest step but is fast enough to limit the residence time of any one copy of SgrAI or DNA within the dynamic filament. Further, the rate constant for DNA cleavage is found to be 4 orders of magnitude faster in the run-on oligomer filament than in isolated SgrAI-DNA complexes and faster than dissociation of SgrAI-DNA complexes from the run-on oligomer filament, making the reaction efficient in that each association into the filament likely leads to DNA cleavage before filament dissociation.
Project description:SgrAI is a type IIF restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits allosteric self-modulation of cleavage activity and sequence specificity. Previous studies have shown that DNA bound dimers of SgrAI oligomerize into an activated form with higher DNA cleavage rates, although previously determined crystal structures of SgrAI bound to DNA show only the DNA bound dimer. A new crystal structure of the type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to DNA and Ca(2+) is now presented, which shows the close association of two DNA bound SgrAI dimers. This tetrameric form is unlike those of the homologous enzymes Cfr10I and NgoMIV and is formed by the swapping of the amino-terminal 24 amino acid residues. Two mutations predicted to destabilize the swapped form of SgrAI, P27W and P27G, have been made and shown to eliminate both the oligomerization of the DNA bound SgrAI dimers as well as the allosteric stimulation of DNA cleavage by SgrAI. A mechanism involving domain swapping is proposed to explain the unusual allosteric properties of SgrAI via association of the domain swapped tetramer of SgrAI bound to DNA into higher order oligomers.
Project description:Filament formation by enzymes is increasingly recognized as an important phenomenon with potentially unique regulatory properties and biological roles. SgrAI is an allosterically regulated type II restriction endonuclease that forms filaments with enhanced DNA cleavage activity and altered sequence specificity. Here, we present the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the filament of SgrAI in its activated configuration. The structural data illuminate the mechanistic origin of hyperaccelerated DNA cleavage activity and suggests how indirect DNA sequence readout within filamentous SgrAI may enable recognition of substantially more nucleotide sequences than its low-activity form, thereby altering and partially relaxing its DNA sequence specificity. Together, substrate DNA binding, indirect readout, and filamentation simultaneously enhance SgrAI's catalytic activity and modulate substrate preference. This unusual enzyme mechanism may have evolved to perform the specialized functions of bacterial innate immunity in rapid defense against invading phage DNA without causing damage to the host DNA.
Project description:Filament or run-on oligomer formation by metabolic enzymes is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon having potentially unique enzyme regulatory properties and biological roles, and its dysfunction is implicated in human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. SgrAI is a bacterial allosteric type II restriction endonuclease that binds to invading phage DNA, may protect the host DNA from off-target cleavage activity, and forms run-on oligomeric filaments with enhanced DNA-cleavage activity and altered DNA sequence specificity. However, the mechanisms of SgrAI filament growth, cooperativity in filament formation, sequestration of enzyme activity, and advantages over other filament mechanisms remain unknown. In this first of a two-part series, we developed methods and models to derive association and dissociation rate constants of DNA-bound SgrAI in run-on oligomers and addressed the specific questions of cooperativity and filament growth mechanisms. We show that the derived rate constants are consistent with the run-on oligomer sizes determined by EM analysis and are most consistent with a noncooperative growth mode of the run-on oligomer. These models and methods are extended in the accompanying article to include the full DNA-cleavage pathway and address specific questions related to the run-on oligomer mechanism including the sequestration of DNA-cleavage activity and trapping of products.
Project description:Uninterpretable electron-density maps were obtained using either MIRAS phases or MR phases in attempts to determine the structure of the type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to DNA. While neither solution strategy was particularly promising (map correlation coefficients of 0.29 and 0.22 with the final model, respectively, for the MIRAS and MR phases and Phaser Z scores of 4.0 and 4.3 for the rotation and translation searches), phase combination followed by density modification gave a readily interpretable map. MR with a distantly related model located a dimer in the asymmetric unit and provided the correct transformation to use in averaging electron density between SgrAI subunits. MIRAS data sets with low substitution and MR solutions from only distantly related models should not be ignored, as poor-quality starting phases can be significantly improved. The bootstrapping strategy employed to improve the initial MIRAS phases is described.
Project description:SgrAI is a sequence specific DNA endonuclease that functions through an unusual enzymatic mechanism that is allosterically activated 200- to 500-fold by effector DNA, with a concomitant expansion of its DNA sequence specificity. Using single-particle transmission electron microscopy to reconstruct distinct populations of SgrAI oligomers, we show that in the presence of allosteric, activating DNA, the enzyme forms regular, repeating helical structures characterized by the addition of DNA-binding dimeric SgrAI subunits in a run-on manner. We also present the structure of oligomeric SgrAI at 8.6 Å resolution, demonstrating the conformational state of SgrAI in its activated form. Activated and oligomeric SgrAI displays key protein-protein interactions near the helix axis between its N termini, as well as allosteric protein-DNA interactions that are required for enzymatic activation. The hybrid approach reveals an unusual mechanism of enzyme activation that explains SgrAI's oligomerization and allosteric behavior.
Project description:Five new structures of the Q138F HincII enzyme bound to a total of three different DNA sequences and three different metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+)) are presented. While previous structures were produced from soaking Ca(2+) into preformed Q138F HincII/DNA crystals, the new structures are derived from cocrystallization with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Mn(2+). The Mn(2)(+)-bound structure provides the first view of a product complex of Q138F HincII with cleaved DNA. Binding studies and a crystal structure show how Ca(2+) allows trapping of a Q138F HincII complex with noncognate DNA in a catalytically incompetent conformation. Many Q138F HincII/DNA structures show asymmetry, despite the binding of a symmetric substrate by a symmetric enzyme. The various complexes are fit into a model describing the different conformations of the DNA-bound enzyme and show how DNA conformational energetics determine DNA-cleavage rates by the Q138F HincII enzyme.