Investigating neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis with label-free comparative proteomics.
ABSTRACT: Patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Although UC patients generally undergo lifelong colonoscopic surveillance to detect dysplasia or cancer in the colon, detection of cancer in this manner is expensive and invasive. An objective biomarker of dysplasia would vastly improve the clinical management of cancer risk in UC patients. In the current study, accurate mass and time methods with ion intensity-based label-free proteomics are applied to profile individual rectal and colon samples from UC patients with dysplasia or cancer (UC progressors) compared to rectal samples from patients that are dysplasia/cancer free (UC nonprogressors) to identify a set of proteins in the rectum mucosa that differentiate the two groups. In addition to the identification of proteins in UC dysplastic colon tissue, we for the first time identified differentially expressed proteins in nondysplastic rectal tissue from UC progressors. This provides a candidate pool of biomarkers for dysplasia/cancer that could be detected in a random nondysplastic rectal biopsy. Mitochondrial proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, RAS superfamily, proteins relating to apoptosis and metabolism were important protein clusters differentially expressed in the nondysplastic and dysplastic tissues of UC progressors, suggesting their importance in the early stages of UC neoplastic progression. Among the differentially expressed proteins, immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that TRAP1 displayed increased IHC staining in UC progressors, in both dysplastic and nondysplastic tissue, and CPS1 showed a statistically significant difference in IHC staining between the nonprogressor and progressor groups. Furthermore, rectal CPS1 staining could be used to predict dysplasia or cancer in the colon with 87% sensitivity and 45% specificity, demonstrating the feasibility of using surrogate biomarkers in rectal biopsies to predict dysplasia and/or cancer in the colon.
Project description:Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Because UC tumorigenesis is associated with genomic field defects that can extend throughout the entire colon, including the non-dysplastic mucosa; we hypothesized that the same field defect will include abnormally expressed proteins. Here we applied proteomics to study the protein expression of UC neoplastic progression. The protein profiles of colonic epithelium were compared from 1) UC patients without dysplasia (non-progressors); 2) none-dysplastic colonic tissue from UC patient with high-grade dysplasia or cancer (progressors); 3) high-grade dysplastic tissue from UC progressors and 4) normal colon. We identified protein differential expression associated with UC neoplastic progression. Proteins relating to mitochondria, oxidative activity, calcium-binding proteins were some of interesting classes of these proteins. Network analysis discovered that Sp1 and c-myc proteins may play roles in UC early and late stages of neoplastic progression, respectively. Two over-expressed proteins in the non-dysplastic tissue of UC progressors, CPS1 and S100P, were further confirmed by IHC analysis. Our study provides insight into the molecular events associated with UC neoplastic progression, which could be exploited for the development of protein biomarkers in fields of non-dysplastic mucosa that identify a patient's risk for UC dysplasia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The role of mitochondria in cancer is poorly understood. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that predisposes to colorectal cancer and is an excellent model to study tumor progression. Our goal was to characterize mitochondrial alterations in UC tumorigenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>Nondysplastic colon biopsies from UC patients with high-grade dysplasia or cancer (progressors; n = 9) and UC patients dysplasia free (nonprogressors; n = 9) were immunostained for cytochrome C oxidase (COX), a component of the electron transport chain, and were quantified by multispectral imaging. For six additional progressors, nondysplastic and dysplastic biopsies were stained for COX and additional mitochondrial proteins including PGC1?, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Generalized estimating equations with two-sided tests were used to account for correlation of measurements within individuals.<h4>Results</h4>Nondysplastic biopsies of UC progressors showed statistically significant COX loss compared with UC nonprogressors by generalized estimating equation (-18.5 units, 95% confidence interval = -12.1 to -24.9; P < .001). COX intensity progressively decreased with proximity to dysplasia and was the lowest in adjacent to dysplasia and dysplastic epithelium. Surprisingly, COX intensity was statistically significantly increased in cancers. This bimodal pattern was observed for other mitochondrial proteins, including PGC1?, and was confirmed by mtDNA copy number.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Mitochondrial loss precedes the development of dysplasia, and it could be used to detect and potentially predict cancer. Cancer cells restore mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondria are needed for further proliferation. This bimodal pattern might be driven by transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by PGC1?.
Project description:Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at risk of developing colorectal cancer. We have previously reported that cancer progression is associated with the presence of clonal expansions and shorter telomeres in nondysplastic mucosa. We sought to validate these findings in an independent case-control study.This study included 33 patients with UC: 14 progressors (patients with high-grade dysplasia or cancer) and 19 nonprogressors. For each patient, a mean of 5 nondysplastic biopsies from proximal, mid, and distal colon were assessed for clonal expansions, as determined by clonal length altering mutations in polyguanine tracts, and telomere length, as measured by quantitative PCR. Both parameters were compared with individual clinicopathological characteristics.Clonal expansions and shorter telomeres were more frequent in nondysplastic biopsies from UC progressors than nonprogressors, but only for patients with early-onset of UC (diagnosis at younger than 50 years of age). Late-onset progressor patients had very few or no clonal expansions and longer telomeres. A few nonprogressors exhibited clonal expansions, which were associated with older age and shorter telomeres. In progressors, clonal expansions were associated with proximity to dysplasia. The mean percentage of clonally expanded mutations distinguished early-onset progressors from nonprogressors with 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity.Early-onset progressors develop cancer in a field of clonally expanded epithelium with shorter telomeres. The detection of these clones in a few random nondysplastic colon biopsies is a promising cancer biomarker in early-onset UC. Curiously, patients with late-onset UC seem to develop cancer without the involvement of such fields.
Project description:Inflammation plays a role in the progression to cancer and it is linked to the presence of senescent cells. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predisposes to colorectal cancer. Tumorigenesis in this setting is associated with telomere shortening that can be observed in the nondysplastic epithelium of UC patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (UC progressors). We hypothesized that a preneoplastic field of inflammation, telomere shortening, and senescence underlies tumor progression in UC progressors. Multiple biopsies of varying histologic grade were collected along the colon of nine UC progressors and analyzed for telomere length, DNA damage, senescence, p53, p16, and chronic and acute inflammation. Twenty biopsies from four UC nonprogressors and twenty-one biopsies from control individuals without UC were also analyzed. Short telomeres and increased DNA damage, senescence, and infiltrating leukocytes were observed in biopsies located less than 10 cm from HGD or cancer. Low-grade dysplasia (LGD) had the shortest telomeres along with the highest levels of senescence and infiltrating leukocytes, whereas HGD biopsies showed the opposite pattern. The expression of p16 and p53 was low in nondysplastic biopsies but progressively increased in LGD and HGD. In addition, high levels of infiltrating leukocytes were associated with telomere shortening, senescence, and reduced p53 expression. These results suggest that dysplasia arises in a preneoplastic field of chronic inflammation, which leads to telomere shortening, DNA damage, and senescence. Our findings argue that senescence acts as a tumor suppressor mechanism that is abrogated during the transition from LGD to HGD in UC.
Project description:BAC arrays were used to evaluate genomic instability along the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Genomic instability increases with disease progression and biopsies more proximal to dysplasia showed increased instability. Pan-colonic field copy number gain or loss involving small (<1Mb) regions were detected in most patients and were particularly apparent in the UC progressor patients who had dysplasia or cancer. Chromosomal copy gains or losses affecting large regions were mainly restricted to dysplastic biopsies. Areas of significant chromosomal losses were detected in the UC progressors on chromosomes 2q36, 3q25, 3p21, 4q34, 4p16.2, 15q22, and 16p13 (p-value?0.04). These results extend our understanding of the dynamic nature of pan-colonic genomic instability in this disease.
Project description:As mechanisms of neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) remain poorly understood, we sought to identify pathways of carcinogenesis in this high-risk population.MicroRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression was examined in nondysplastic rectosigmoid mucosa from UC patients with (n = 19) or without remote colon neoplasia (n = 23). We developed a method to identify miRNA-regulated pathways based on differentially expressed miRNAs and their putative mRNAs targets in the same samples. One key pathway identified in the analysis, miR-4728-3p regulation of focal adhesion signaling was further evaluated in vitro and through examination of expression in UC-cancers.There were 101 significantly up-regulated and 98 down-regulated miRNAs (adjusted P < 0.05) in the rectal mucosa of UC patients harboring proximal neoplasia. Bioinformatic analysis identified miR-4728-3p as a regulator of 3 proteins involved in focal adhesion signaling, CAV1, THBS2, and COL1A2. Real-time PCR validated down-regulation of miR-4728-3p in nondysplastic tissue remote from UC-neoplasia and in UC-associated colon cancers. miR-4728-3p transfection into colon cancer cells down-regulated expression levels and decreased luciferase activities in cells expressing a wild type 3' untranslated region compared with a mutant 3' untranslated region for all 3 genes. Exogenous transfected miR-4728-3p also delayed wound healing and decreased formation of focal adhesion complexes.Patients with long-standing UC who harbor neoplasia can be identified based on miRNA and mRNA profiles in nondysplastic tissue. Using a method to analyze miRNA and mRNA expression from the same tissues, we identified that miR-4728-3p is likely an important tumor suppressor in UC-associated colon carcinogenesis.
Project description:Individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The standard method of surveillance for neoplasia in UC by colonoscopy is invasive and can miss flat lesions. We sought to identify a gene expression signature in nondysplastic mucosa without active inflammation that could serve as a marker for remote neoplastic lesions.Gene expression was analyzed by complementary DNA microarray in 5 normal controls, 4 UC patients without dysplasia, and 11 UC patients harboring remote neoplasia. Common gene ontology pathways of significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Expression of genes which were progressively and significantly upregulated from controls to UC without neoplasia, to UC with remote neoplasia were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Several gene products were also examined by immunohistochemistry.Four hundred and sixty-eight genes were significantly upregulated, and 541 genes were significantly downregulated in UC patients with neoplasia compared with UC patients without neoplasia. Nine genes (ACSL1, BIRC3, CLC, CREM, ELTD1, FGG, S100A9, THBD, and TPD52L1) were progressively and significantly upregulated from controls to nondysplastic UC to UC with neoplasia. Immunostaining of proteins revealed increased expression of S100A9 and REG1? in UC-associated cancer and in nondysplastic tissue from UC patients harboring remote neoplasia compared with UC patients without neoplasia and controls.Gene expression changes occurring as a field effect in the distal colon of patients with chronic UC identify patients harboring remote neoplastic lesions. These markers may lead to a more accurate and less invasive method of detection of neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) the cumulative risk of colon cancer is lower than the actual rate of dysplasia suggesting an efficient immune surveillance mechanism. Since the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 is overexpressed in dysplastic colonic mucosa of UC patients and T-cell activation entails effective costimulation, we aimed to evaluate the functional implication of CD80 signaling in colonic UC-associated carcinogenesis. In humans, we observed that the percentage of CD80+ and HLA-A+ IEC was increased in the dysplastic colonic mucosa of UC patients. In vitro, IEC activated CD8+ T-cells through a CD80-dependent pathway. Finally, in the AOM/DSS-induced colonic adenocarcinoma model CD80 signaling inhibition significantly increased the frequency and extension of high-grade dysplasia, whereas enhancing CD80 activity with an anti-CTLA4 antibody significantly decreased colonic dysplasia. In conclusion, CD80 signaling between IEC and T-cells represents a key factor controlling the progression from low to high grade dysplasia in inflammatory colonic carcinogenesis.
Project description:Background and aims:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a higher background risk of dysplasia and/or neoplasia due to chronic inflammation. There exist few biomarkers for identification of patients with dysplasia, and targeted biopsies in this group of patients are inaccurate in reliably identifying dysplasia. We aimed to examine the epigenome of UC dysplasia and to identify and validate potential biomarkers. Methods:Colonic samples from patients with UC-associated dysplasia or neoplasia underwent epigenome-wide analysis on the Illumina 450K methylation array. Markers were validated by bisulphite pyrosequencing on a secondary validation cohort and accuracy calculated using logistic regression and receiver-operator curves. Results:Twelve samples from 4 patients underwent methylation array analysis and 6 markers (GNG7, VAV3, KIF5C, PIK3R5, TUBB6, and ZNF583) were taken forward for secondary validation on a cohort of 71 colonic biopsy samples consisting of normal uninflamed mucosa from control patients, acute and chronic colitis, "field" mucosa in patients with dysplasia/neoplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. Methylation in the beta-tubulin TUBB6 correlated with the presence of dysplasia (P < 0.0001) and accurately discriminated between dysplasia and nondysplastic tissue, even in the apparently normal field mucosa downstream from dysplastic lesions (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.81-0.87). Conclusions:Methylation in TUBB6 is a potential biomarker for UC- associated dysplasia. Further validation is needed and is ongoing as part of the ENDCAP-C study.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have a greater risk of developing colorectal cancer through inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence of transformation. The histopathological diagnosis of dysplasia is therefore of critical clinical relevance, but dysplasia may be difficult to distinguish from inflammatory changes. A proteomic pilot study on 5 UC colorectal dysplastic patients highlighted proteins differentially distributed between paired dysplastic, inflammatory and normal tissues. The best candidate marker was selected and immunohistochemistry confirmation was performed on AOM/DSS mouse model lesions, 37 UC dysplasia, 14 UC cancers, 23 longstanding UC, 35 sporadic conventional adenomas, 57 sporadic serrated lesions and 82 sporadic colorectal cancers. Differential proteomics found 11 proteins significantly more abundant in dysplasia compared to inflammation, including Solute carrier family 12 member 2 (SLC12A2) which was confidently identified with 8 specific peptides and was below the limit of quantitation in both inflammatory and normal colon. SLC12A2 immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the discrimination of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions from inflammatory lesions in mice, UC and in sporadic contexts. A specific SLC12A2 staining pattern termed “loss of gradient” reached 89% sensitivity, 95% specificity and 92% accuracy for UC-dysplasia diagnosis together with an inter-observer agreement of 95.24% (multirater κfree of 0.90; IC95%: 0.78 – 1.00). Such discrimination could not be obtained by Ki67 staining. This specific pattern was also associated with sporadic colorectal adenomas and cancers. We found a specific SLC12A2 immunohistochemical staining pattern in precancerous and cancerous colonic UC-lesions which could be helpful for diagnosing dysplasia and cancer in UC and non-UC patients.