Lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) is a major isoform in chondrocytes and is critically required for differentiation.
ABSTRACT: The lysyl oxidase family is made up of five members: lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like 1-4 (LOXL1-LOXL4). All members share conserved C-terminal catalytic domains that provide for lysyl oxidase or lysyl oxidase-like enzyme activity; and more divergent propeptide regions. LOX family enzyme activities catalyze the final enzymatic conversion required for the formation of normal biosynthetic collagen and elastin cross-links. The importance of lysyl oxidase enzyme activity to normal bone development has long been appreciated, but regulation and roles for specific LOX isoforms in bone formation in vivo is largely unexplored. Fracture healing recapitulates aspects of endochondral bone development. The present study first investigated the expression of all LOX isoforms in fracture healing. A remarkable coincidence of LOXL2 expression with the chondrogenic phase of fracture healing was found, prompting more detailed analyses of LOXL2 expression in normal growth plates, and LOXL2 expression and function in developing ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Data show that LOXL2 is expressed by pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo, and that LOXL2 expression is regulated in vitro as a function of chondrocyte differentiation. Moreover, LOXL2 knockdown studies in vitro show that LOXL2 expression is required for ATDC5 chondrocyte cell line differentiation through regulation of SNAIL and SOX9, important transcription factors that control chondrocyte differentiation. Taken together, data provide evidence that LOXL2, like LOX, is a multifunctional protein. LOXL2 promotes chondrocyte differentiation by mechanisms that are likely to include roles as both a regulator and an effector of chondrocyte differentiation.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL2) belongs to the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, which comprises Cu(2+)- and lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ)-dependent amine oxidases. LOXL2 is proposed to function similarly to LOX in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by promoting crosslinking of collagen and elastin. LOXL2 has also been proposed to regulate extracellular and intracellular cell signaling pathways. Dysregulation of LOXL2 has been linked to many diseases, including cancer, pro-oncogenic angiogenesis, fibrosis and heart diseases. In this review, we will give an overview of the current understandings and hypotheses regarding the molecular functions of LOXL2.
Project description:LOX (lysyl oxidase) and lysyl oxidase like-1-4 (LOXL 1-4) are amine oxidases, which catalyze cross-linking reactions of elastin and collagen in the connective tissue. These amine oxidases also allow the cross-link of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix of tumors, facilitating the process of cell migration and the formation of metastases. LOXL2 is of particular interest in cancer biology as it is highly expressed in some tumors. This protein also promotes oncogenic transformation and affects the proliferation of breast cancer cells. LOX and LOXL2 inhibition have thus been suggested as a promising strategy to prevent metastasis and invasion of breast cancer. BAPN (?-aminopropionitrile) was the first compound described as a LOX inhibitor and was obtained from a natural source. However, novel synthetic compounds that act as LOX/LOXL2 selective inhibitors or as dual LOX/LOX-L inhibitors have been recently developed. In this review, we describe LOX enzymes and their role in promoting cancer development and metastases, with a special focus on LOXL2 and breast cancer progression. Moreover, the recent advances in the development of LOXL2 inhibitors are also addressed. Overall, this work contextualizes and explores the importance of LOXL2 inhibition as a promising novel complementary and effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase (LOX) family genes, particularly lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2), have been implicated in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancers. This study aimed to explore the clinical implications of LOXL2 expression in pancreatic cancer (PC) in the context of EMT status. LOX family mRNA expression was measured in PC cell lines, and LOXL2 protein levels were examined in surgical specimens resected from 170 patients with PC. Higher LOXL2 expression was observed in cell lines from mesenchymal type PC than in those from epithelial type PC. A significant correlation between LOXL2 expression and the EMT status defined based on the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin was observed in surgical specimens (P?<?0.01). The disease-free survival and overall survival rates among patients with low LOXL2 expression were significantly better than those among patients with high LOXL2 expression (P?<?0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, high LOXL2 expression (P?=?0.03) was a significant independent prognostic factor for patients with PC. Additionally, LOX inhibition significantly decreased PC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In conclusion, LOXL2 expression is potentially associated with PC progression, and LOXL2 expression represents a biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients with PC who have undergone complete resection.
Project description:Hypoxia has been shown to promote tumor metastasis and lead to therapy resistance. Recent work has demonstrated that hypoxia represses E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness. The molecular mechanism of E-cadherin repression is unknown, yet lysyl oxidases have been implicated to be involved. Gene expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the related LOX-like 2 (LOXL2) is strongly induced by hypoxia. In addition to the previously demonstrated LOX, we characterize LOXL2 as a direct transcriptional target of HIF-1. We demonstrate that activation of lysyl oxidases is required and sufficient for hypoxic repression of E-cadherin, which mediates cellular transformation and takes effect in cellular invasion assays. Our data support a molecular pathway from hypoxia to cellular transformation. It includes up-regulation of HIF and subsequent transcriptional induction of LOX and LOXL2, which repress E-cadherin and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Lysyl oxidases could be an attractive molecular target for cancers of epithelial origin, in particular because they are partly extracellular.
Project description:Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase family of amine oxidases is known to be important in normal tissue development and homeostasis, as well as the onset and progression of solid tumors. Here we tested the anti-tumor properties of two generations of novel small molecule LOXL2 inhibitor in the MDA-MB-231 human model of breast cancer. We confirmed a functional role for LOXL2 activity in the progression of primary breast cancer. Inhibition of LOXL2 activity inhibited the growth of primary tumors and reduced primary tumor angiogenesis. Dual inhibition of LOXL2 and LOX showed a greater effect and also led to a lower overall metastatic burden in the lung and liver. Our data provides the first evidence to support a role for LOXL2 specific small molecule inhibitors as a potential therapy in breast cancer.
Project description:Although adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects approximately 3% of adolescents, the genetic contributions have proven difficult to identify. Work in model organisms, including zebrafish, chickens, and mice, has implicated the lysyl oxidase family of enzymes in the development of scoliosis. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in the five human lysyl oxidase genes (LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4) may be associated with the phenotype of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.This was a case-control genetic association study. A total of 112 coding and tag SNPs in LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4 were genotyped in a discovery cohort of 138 cases and 411 controls. Genotypes were tested for association with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by logistic regression with a two degree of freedom genotypic model and gender as a covariate. Fourteen SNPs with p < 0.1 in the discovery phase were genotyped in an independent replication cohort of 400 cases and 506 controls.No evidence for significant association was found between coding or tag SNPs in LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4 and the phenotype of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Despite suggestive evidence in model organisms, common variants and known coding SNPs in the five human lysyl oxidase genes do not confer increased genotypic risk for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The above methodology does not address rare variants or individually private mutations in these genes, and future research may focus on this area.
Project description:Human placental development is characterized by invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCTs) into the uterine wall during the first trimester of pregnancy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a major role in placental development, and activation of PPAR? by its agonists results in inhibition of EVCT invasion in vitro. To identify PPAR? target genes, microarray analysis was performed using GeneChip technology on EVCT primary cultures obtained from first-trimester human placentas. Gene expression was compared in EVCTs treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone versus control. A total of 139 differentially regulated genes were identified, and changes in the expression of the following 8 genes were confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain12 (ADAM12), connexin 43 (CX43), deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and PPAR?. Among the upregulated genes, lysyl oxidase (LOX) was further analyzed. In the LOX family, only LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rosiglitazone-treated EVCTs. RNA and protein expression of the subfamily members LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 were analyzed by absolute RT-qPCR and western blotting, and localized by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy. LOX protein was immunodetected in the EVCT cytoplasm, while LOXL1 was found in the nucleus and nucleolus. No signal was detected for LOXL2 protein. Specific inhibition of LOX activity by ?-aminopropionitrile in cell invasion assays led to an increase in EVCT invasiveness. These results suggest that LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 are downstream PPAR? targets and that LOX activity is a negative regulator of trophoblastic cell invasion.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and stiffness are major driving forces for the development and persistence of fibrotic diseases. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) proteins play crucial roles in ECM remodeling due to their collagen crosslinking and intracellular functions. Here, we systematically investigated LOX/L expression in primary fibroblasts and epithelial cells under fibrotic conditions, Bleomycin (BLM) induced lung fibrosis and in human IPF tissue. Basal expression of all LOX/L family members was detected in epithelial cells and at higher levels in fibroblasts. Various pro-fibrotic stimuli broadly induced LOX/L expression in fibroblasts, whereas specific induction of LOXL2 and partially LOX was observed in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissue from 14 IPF patients and healthy donors revealed strong induction of LOX and LOXL2 in bronchial and alveolar epithelium as well as fibroblastic foci. Using siRNA experiments we observed that LOXL2 and LOXL3 were crucial for fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT). As FMT could only be reconstituted with an enzymatically active LOXL2 variant, we conclude that LOXL2 enzymatic function is crucial for fibroblast transdifferentiation. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the LOX/L family in fibrotic lung disease and indicates prominent roles for LOXL2/3 in fibroblast activation and LOX/LOXL2 in IPF.
Project description:Primary murine lung fibroblasts were transfected with either control (scrambled) or sequence-specific siRNA against Lysyl oxidase (Lox), Lysyl oxidase-like (Loxl1) or Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (Loxl2) genes. Cells were harvested 48 hours after the transfection. Multiple changes in gene expression were found in the corrected p values in this microarray study. Overall design: Four control (scrambled), four siLox, four siLoxl1 and four siLoxl2 transfected samples were used for this microarray study.
Project description:Pannexin 3 (Panx3) is a new member of the gap junction pannexin family, but its expression profiles and physiological function are not yet clear. We demonstrate in this study that Panx3 is expressed in cartilage and regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Panx3 mRNA was expressed in the prehypertrophic zone in the developing growth plate and was induced during the differentiation of chondrogenic ATDC5 and N1511 cells. Panx3-transfected ATDC5 and N1511 cells promoted chondrogenic differentiation, but the suppression of endogenous Panx3 inhibited differentiation of ATDC5 cells and primary chondrocytes. Panx3-transfected ATDC5 cells reduced parathyroid hormone-induced cell proliferation and promoted the release of ATP into the extracellular space, possibly by action of Panx3 as a hemichannel. Panx3 expression in ATDC5 cells reduced intracellular cAMP levels and the activation of cAMP-response element-binding, a protein kinase A downstream effector. These Panx3 activities were blocked by anti-Panx3 antibody. Our results suggest that Panx3 functions to switch the chondrocyte cell fate from proliferation to differentiation by regulating the intracellular ATP/cAMP levels.