Conserved endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system to eliminate mutated receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is an integral part of the ER quality-control system that removes toxic misfolded proteins via ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation. Most of our knowledge on ERAD comes from biochemical and genetic studies in yeast and mammalian cells. Although ERAD is known to operate in plant cells, little is known about its molecular components and its biochemical mechanism. A genetic screen for suppressors of the Arabidopsis bri1-9, a weak dwarf mutant caused by ER retention of a structurally defective yet biochemically competent brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1, resulted in identification of the EMS-mutagenized bri1 suppressor 5 (EBS5) gene that encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast Hrd3/mammalian Sel1L protein known to be involved in ERAD. Loss-of-function ebs5 mutations block the ERAD of bri1-9 and bri1-5, another ER-retained BR receptor. We showed that EBS5 complemented the ERAD defect of the yeast ?hrd3 mutant and interacted with the two mutated BR receptors in plant cells. Using a reverse genetic approach, we discovered that two Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast/mammalian Hrd1, an ER membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase, function redundantly in the ERAD of bri1-9. Together, our results revealed functional roles of two conserved ERAD components in degrading mutated/misfolded receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a highly conserved mechanism to remove misfolded membrane/secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While many of the individual components of the ERAD machinery are well characterized in yeast and mammals, our knowledge of a plant ERAD process is rather limited. Here, we report a functional study of an Arabidopsis homolog (AtOS9) of an ER luminal lectin Yos9 (OS-9 in mammals) that recognizes a unique asparagine-linked glycan on misfolded proteins. We discovered that AtOS9 is an ER-localized glycoprotein that is co-expressed with many known/predicted ER chaperones. A T-DNA insertional atos9-t mutation blocks the degradation of a structurally imperfect yet biochemically competent brassinosteroid (BR) receptor bri1-9, causing its increased accumulation in the ER and its consequent leakage to the cell surface responsible for restoring the BR sensitivity and suppressing the dwarfism of the bri1-9 mutant. In addition, we identified a missense mutation in AtOS9 in a recently discovered ERAD mutant ems-mutagenized bri1 suppressor 6 (ebs6-1). Moreover, we showed that atos9-t also inhibits the ERAD of bri1-5, another ER-retained BR receptor, and a misfolded EFR, a BRI1-like receptor for the bacterial translation elongation factor EF-Tu. Furthermore, we found that AtOS9 interacted biochemically and genetically with EBS5, an Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast Hrd3/mammalian Sel1L known to collaborate with Yos9/OS-9 to select ERAD clients. Taken together, our results demonstrated a functional role of AtOS9 in a plant ERAD process that degrades misfolded receptor-like kinases.
Project description:In the endoplasmic reticulum, immature polypeptides coincide with terminally misfolded proteins. Consequently, cells need a well-balanced quality control system, which decides about the fate of individual proteins and maintains protein homeostasis. Misfolded and unassembled proteins are sent for destruction via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to prevent the accumulation of potentially toxic protein aggregates. Here, we report the identification of Arabidopsis thaliana OS9 as a component of the plant ERAD pathway. OS9 is an ER-resident glycoprotein containing a mannose-6-phosphate receptor homology domain, which is also found in yeast and mammalian lectins involved in ERAD. OS9 fused to the C-terminal domain of YOS9 can complement the ERAD defect of the corresponding yeast ?yos9 mutant. An A. thaliana OS9 loss-of-function line suppresses the severe growth phenotype of the bri1-5 and bri1-9 mutant plants, which harbour mutated forms of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that OS9 associates with Arabidopsis SEL1L/HRD3, which is part of the plant ERAD complex and with the ERAD substrates BRI1-5 and BRI1-9, but only the binding to BRI1-5 occurs in a glycan-dependent way. OS9-deficiency results in activation of the unfolded protein response and reduces salt tolerance, highlighting the role of OS9 during ER stress. We propose that OS9 is a component of the plant ERAD machinery and may act specifically in the glycoprotein degradation pathway.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is an essential part of an ER-localized protein quality-control system for eliminating terminally misfolded proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ERAD machinery is conserved among yeast, animals, and plants; however, it remains unknown if the plant ERAD system involves plant-specific components. Here we report that the Arabidopsis ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 suppressor 7 (EBS7) gene encodes an ER membrane-localized ERAD component that is highly conserved in land plants. Loss-of-function ebs7 mutations prevent ERAD of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-9 (bri1-9) and bri1-5, two ER-retained mutant variants of the cell-surface receptor for brassinosteroids (BRs). As a result, the two mutant receptors accumulate in the ER and consequently leak to the plasma membrane, resulting in the restoration of BR sensitivity and phenotypic suppression of the bri1-9 and bri1-5 mutants. EBS7 accumulates under ER stress, and its mutations lead to hypersensitivity to ER and salt stresses. EBS7 interacts with the ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase Arabidopsis thaliana HMG-CoA reductase degradation 1a (AtHrd1a), one of the central components of the Arabidopsis ERAD machinery, and an ebs7 mutation destabilizes AtHrd1a to reduce polyubiquitination of bri1-9. Taken together, our results uncover a plant-specific component of a plant ERAD pathway and also suggest its likely biochemical function.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a unique mechanism to degrade misfolded proteins via complexes containing several highly-conserved ER-anchored ubiquitin ligases such as HMG-CoA reductase degradation1 (Hrd1). Arabidopsis has a similar Hrd1-containing ERAD machinery; however, our knowledge of this complex is limited. Here we report two closely-related Arabidopsis proteins, Protein Associated With Hrd1-1 (PAWH1) and PAWH2, which share a conserved domain with yeast Altered Inheritance of Mitochondria24. PAWH1 and PAWH2 localize to the ER membrane and associate with Hrd1 via EMS-mutagenized Bri1 Suppressor7 (EBS7), a plant-specific component of the Hrd1 complex. Simultaneously elimination of two PAWHs constitutively activates the unfolded protein response and compromises stress tolerance. Importantly, the pawh1 pawh2 double mutation reduces the protein abundance of EBS7 and Hrd1 and inhibits degradation of several ERAD substrates. Our study not only discovers additional plant-specific components of the Arabidopsis Hrd1 complex but also reveals a distinct mechanism for regulating the Hrd1 stability.
Project description:Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) are crucial signals for protein folding, quality control, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) in yeast and mammals. Although similar ERAD processes were reported in plants, little is known about their biochemical mechanisms, especially their relationships with N-glycans. Here, we show that a missense mutation in the Arabidopsis EMS-mutagenized bri1 suppressor 3 (EBS3) gene suppresses a dwarf mutant, bri1-9, the phenotypes of which are caused by ER retention and ERAD of a brassinosteroid receptor, BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BR1). EBS3 encodes the Arabidopsis ortholog of the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 9 (ALG9), which catalyzes the ER luminal addition of two terminal ?1,2 mannose (Man) residues in assembling the three-branched N-glycan precursor [glucose(Glc)](3)(Man)(9)[N-acetylglucosamine(GlcNAc)](2). Consistent with recent discoveries revealing the importance of the Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) C-branch in generating an ERAD signal, the ebs3-1 mutation prevents the Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) assembly and inhibits the ERAD of bri1-9. By contrast, overexpression of EBS4 in ebs3-1 bri1-9, which encodes the Arabidopsis ortholog of the yeast ALG12 catalyzing the ER luminal ?1,6 Man addition, adds an ?1,6 Man to the truncated N-glycan precursor accumulated in ebs3-1 bri1-9, promotes the bri1-9 ERAD, and neutralizes the ebs3-1 suppressor phenotype. Furthermore, a transfer (T)-DNA insertional alg3-T2 mutation, which causes accumulation of an even smaller N-glycan precursor carrying a different exposed ?1,6 Man, promotes the ERAD of bri1-9 and enhances its dwarfism. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the glycan signal to mark an ERAD client in Arabidopsis is likely conserved to be an ?1,6 Man-exposed N-glycan.
Project description:The HRD (HMG-CoA reductase degradation) pathway is a conserved route of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), by which misfolded ER proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded. ERAD substrates are ubiquitinated by the action of the Hrd1 RING-H2 E3 ligase. Hrd1 is always present in a stoichiometric complex with the ER membrane protein Hrd3, which is also required for HRD-dependent degradation. Despite its conserved presence, unequivocal study of Hrd3 function has been precluded by its central role in Hrd1 stability. Loss of Hrd3 causes unrestricted self-degradation of Hrd1, resulting in significant loss of the core ligase. Accordingly, the degree to which Hrd3 functions independently of Hrd1 stabilization has remained unresolved. By capitalizing on our studies of Usa1 in Hrd1 degradation, we have devised a new approach to evaluate Hrd3 functions in ERAD. We now show that Hrd3 has a direct and critical role in ERAD in addition to Hrd1 stabilization. This direct component of Hrd3 is phenotypically as important as Hrd1 in the native HRD complex. Hrd3 was required the E3 activity of Hrd1, rather than substrate or E2 recruitment to Hrd1. Although Hrd1 can function in some circumstances independent of Hrd3, these studies show an indispensable role for Hrd3 in living cells.
Project description:Eukaryotic organisms have quality-control mechanisms that allow misfolded or unassembled proteins to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The ERAD pathway is well studied in yeast and mammals; however, the biological functions of plant ERAD have not been reported. Through molecular and cellular biological approaches, we found that ERAD is necessary for plants to overcome salt stress. Upon salt treatment ubiquitinated proteins increased in plant cells, especially unfolded proteins that quickly accumulated in the ER and subsequently induced ER stress responses. Defect in HRD3A of the HRD1/HRD3 complex of the ERAD pathway resulted in alteration of the unfolded protein response (UPR), increased plant sensitivity to salt, and retention of ERAD substrates in plant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Ca(2+) release from the ER is involved in the elevation of UPR and reactive oxygen species (ROS) participates the ERAD-related plant salt response pathway.
Project description:Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are extracted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), polyubiquitylated by a protein complex termed the Hmg-CoA reductase degradation ligase (HRD-ligase), and degraded by cytosolic 26S proteasomes. This process is termed ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We previously showed that the membrane protein Der1, which is a subunit of the HRD-ligase, is involved in the export of aberrant polypeptides from the ER. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a close spatial proximity of Der1 and the substrate receptor Hrd3 in the ER lumen. We report here on a mutant Hrd3KR that is selectively defective for ERAD of soluble proteins. Hrd3KR displays subtle structural changes that affect its positioning toward Der1. Furthermore, increased quantities of the ER-resident Hsp70-type chaperone Kar2 and the Hsp40-type cochaperone Scj1 bind to Hrd3KR. Of note, deletion of SCJ1 impairs ERAD of model substrates and causes the accumulation of client proteins at Hrd3. Our data imply a function of Scj1 in the removal of malfolded proteins from the receptor Hrd3, which facilitates their delivery to downstream-acting components like Der1.
Project description:Misfolded luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD-L): They are retrotranslocated into the cytosol, polyubiquitinated, and degraded by the proteasome. ERAD-L is mediated by the Hrd1 complex (composed of Hrd1, Hrd3, Der1, Usa1, and Yos9), but the mechanism of retrotranslocation remains mysterious. Here, we report a structure of the active Hrd1 complex, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy analysis of two subcomplexes. Hrd3 and Yos9 jointly create a luminal binding site that recognizes glycosylated substrates. Hrd1 and the rhomboid-like Der1 protein form two "half-channels" with cytosolic and luminal cavities, respectively, and lateral gates facing one another in a thinned membrane region. These structures, along with crosslinking and molecular dynamics simulation results, suggest how a polypeptide loop of an ERAD-L substrate moves through the ER membrane.
Project description:The recognition of terminally misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the extraction of these proteins to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation are determined by a quality control mechanism in the ER. In yeast, Yos9p, an ER lectin containing a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain, enhances ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of glycoproteins. We show here that human XTP3-B (hXTP3-B), an ER lectin containing two MRH domains, has two transcriptional variants, and both isoforms retard ERAD of the human alpha(1)-antitrypsin variant null Hong Kong (NHK), a terminally misfolded glycoprotein. The hXTP3-B long isoform strongly inhibited ERAD of NHK-QQQ, which lacks all of the N-glycosylation sites of NHK, but the short transcriptional variant of hXTP3-B had almost no effect. Examination of complex formation by immunoprecipitation and by fractionation using sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the hXTP3-B long isoform associates with the HRD1-SEL1L membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase complex and BiP, forming a 27 S ER quality control scaffold complex. The hXTP3-B short isoform, however, is excluded from scaffold formation. Another MRH domain-containing ER lectin, hOS-9, is incorporated into this large complex, but gp78, another mammalian homolog of the yeast ubiquitin ligase Hrd1p, is not. Based on these results, we propose that this large ER quality control scaffold complex, containing ER lectins, a chaperone, and a ubiquitin ligase, provides a platform for the recognition and sorting of misfolded glycoproteins as well as nonglycosylated proteins prior to retrotranslocation into the cytoplasm for degradation.