Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of simultaneous cellobiose and xylose fermentation.
ABSTRACT: The use of plant biomass for biofuel production will require efficient utilization of the sugars in lignocellulose, primarily glucose and xylose. However, strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae presently used in bioethanol production ferment glucose but not xylose. Yeasts engineered to ferment xylose do so slowly, and cannot utilize xylose until glucose is completely consumed. To overcome these bottlenecks, we engineered yeasts to coferment mixtures of xylose and cellobiose. In these yeast strains, hydrolysis of cellobiose takes place inside yeast cells through the action of an intracellular ?-glucosidase following import by a high-affinity cellodextrin transporter. Intracellular hydrolysis of cellobiose minimizes glucose repression of xylose fermentation allowing coconsumption of cellobiose and xylose. The resulting yeast strains, cofermented cellobiose and xylose simultaneously and exhibited improved ethanol yield when compared to fermentation with either cellobiose or xylose as sole carbon sources. We also observed improved yields and productivities from cofermentation experiments performed with simulated cellulosic hydrolyzates, suggesting this is a promising cofermentation strategy for cellulosic biofuel production. The successful integration of cellobiose and xylose fermentation pathways in yeast is a critical step towards enabling economic biofuel production.
Project description:Background:Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose and xylose mixtures would be a cost-effective solution for the conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value products. However, most yeasts ferment glucose and xylose sequentially due to glucose catabolite repression. A well known thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, was selected for this work because it possesses cost-effective advantages over Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Results:In the present study, we employed a directed evolutionary approach using 2-deoxyglucose to develop a thermotolerant mutant capable of simultaneous cofermentation of glucose and xylose by alleviating catabolite repression. The selected mutant, K. marxianus SBK1, simultaneously cofermented 40 g/L glucose and 28 g/L xylose to produce 23.82 g/L ethanol at 40 °C. This outcome corresponded to a yield of 0.35 g/g and productivity of 0.33 g/L h, representing an 84% and 129% improvement, respectively, over the parental strain. Interestingly, following mutagenesis the overall transcriptome of the glycolysis pathway was highly downregulated in K. marxianus SBK1, except for glucokinase-1 (GLK1) which was 21-fold upregulated. Amino acid sequence of GLK1 from K. marxianus SBK1 revealed three amino acid mutations which led to more than 22-fold lower enzymatic activity compared to the parental strain. Conclusions:We herein successfully demonstrated that the cofermentation of a sugar mixture is a promising strategy for the efficient utilization of cellulosic biomass by K. marxianus SBK1. Through introduction of additional biosynthetic pathways, K. marxianus SBK1 could become a chassis-type strain for the production of fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass.
Project description:Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts.
Project description:Efficient conversion of cellulosic sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge. The present study reports a new approach for simultaneous fermentation of cellobiose and xylose by using the co-culture consisting of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae specialist strains. The co-culture system can provide competitive advantage of modularity compared to the single culture system and can be tuned to deal with fluctuations in feedstock composition to achieve robust and cost-effective biofuel production. This study characterized fermentation kinetics of the recombinant cellobiose-consuming S. cerevisiae strain EJ2, xylose-consuming S. cerevisiae strain SR8, and their co-culture. The motivation for kinetic modeling was to provide guidance and prediction of using the co-culture system for simultaneous fermentation of mixed sugars with adjustable biomass of each specialist strain under different substrate concentrations. The kinetic model for the co-culture system was developed based on the pure culture models and incorporated the effects of product inhibition, initial substrate concentration and inoculum size. The model simulations were validated by results from independent fermentation experiments under different substrate conditions, and good agreement was found between model predictions and experimental data from batch fermentation of cellobiose, xylose and their mixtures. Additionally, with the guidance of model prediction, simultaneous co-fermentation of 60 g/L cellobiose and 20 g/L xylose was achieved with the initial cell densities of 0.45 g dry cell weight /L for EJ2 and 0.9 g dry cell weight /L SR8. The results demonstrated that the kinetic modeling could be used to guide the design and optimization of yeast co-culture conditions for achieving simultaneous fermentation of cellobiose and xylose with improved ethanol productivity, which is critically important for robust and efficient renewable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Xylose is one of the major fermentable sugars present in cellulosic biomass, second only to glucose. However, Saccharomyces spp., the best sugar-fermenting microorganisms, are not able to metabolize xylose. We developed recombinant plasmids that can transform Saccharomyces spp. into xylose-fermenting yeasts. These plasmids, designated pLNH31, -32, -33, and -34, are 2 microns-based high-copy-number yeast-E. coli shuttle plasmids. In addition to the geneticin resistance and ampicillin resistance genes that serve as dominant selectable markers, these plasmids also contain three xylose-metabolizing genes, a xylose reductase gene, a xylitol dehydrogenase gene (both from Pichia stipitis), and a xylulokinase gene (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These xylose-metabolizing genes were also fused to signals controlling gene expression from S. cerevisiae glycolytic genes. Transformation of Saccharomyces sp. strain 1400 with each of these plasmids resulted in the conversion of strain 1400 from a non-xylose-metabolizing yeast to a xylose-metabolizing yeast that can effectively ferment xylose to ethanol and also effectively utilizes xylose for aerobic growth. Furthermore, the resulting recombinant yeasts also have additional extraordinary properties. For example, the synthesis of the xylose-metabolizing enzymes directed by the cloned genes in these recombinant yeasts does not require the presence of xylose for induction, nor is the synthesis repressed by the presence of glucose in the medium. These properties make the recombinant yeasts able to efficiently ferment xylose to ethanol and also able to efficiently coferment glucose and xylose present in the same medium to ethanol simultaneously.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cellobiose and xylose co-fermentation holds promise for efficiently producing biofuels from plant biomass. Cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP), an intracellular enzyme generally found in anaerobic bacteria, cleaves cellobiose to glucose and glucose-1-phosphate, providing energetic advantages under the anaerobic conditions required for large-scale biofuel production. However, the efficiency of CBP to cleave cellobiose in the presence of xylose is unknown. This study investigated the effect of xylose on anaerobic CBP-mediated cellobiose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS:Yeast capable of fermenting cellobiose by the CBP pathway consumed cellobiose and produced ethanol at rates 61% and 42% slower, respectively, in the presence of xylose than in its absence. The system generated significant amounts of the byproduct 4-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-d-xylose (GX), produced by CBP from glucose-1-phosphate and xylose. In vitro competition assays identified xylose as a mixed-inhibitor for cellobiose phosphorylase activity. The negative effects of xylose were effectively relieved by efficient cellobiose and xylose co-utilization. GX was also shown to be a substrate for cleavage by an intracellular ?-glucosidase. CONCLUSIONS:Xylose exerted negative impacts on CBP-mediated cellobiose fermentation by acting as a substrate for GX byproduct formation and a mixed-inhibitor for cellobiose phosphorylase activity. Future efforts will require efficient xylose utilization, GX cleavage by a ?-glucosidase, and/or a CBP with improved substrate specificity to overcome the negative impacts of xylose on CBP in cellobiose and xylose co-fermentation.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Efficient microbial utilization of cellulosic sugars is essential for the economic production of biofuels and chemicals. Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust microbial platform widely used in ethanol plants using sugar cane and corn starch in large-scale operations, glucose repression is one of the significant barriers to the efficient fermentation of cellulosic sugar mixtures. A recent study demonstrated that intracellular utilization of cellobiose by engineered yeast expressing a cellobiose transporter (encoded by cdt-1) and an intracellular ?-glucosidase (encoded by gh1-1) can alleviate glucose repression, resulting in the simultaneous cofermentation of cellobiose and nonglucose sugars. Here we report enhanced cellobiose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing cdt-1 and gh1-1 through laboratory evolution. When cdt-1 and gh1-1 were integrated into the genome of yeast, the single copy integrant showed a low cellobiose consumption rate. However, cellobiose fermentation rates by engineered yeast increased gradually during serial subcultures on cellobiose. Finally, an evolved strain exhibited a 15-fold-higher cellobiose fermentation rate. To identify the responsible mutations in the evolved strain, genome sequencing was performed. Interestingly, no mutations affecting cellobiose fermentation were identified, but the evolved strain contained 9 copies of cdt-1 and 23 copies of gh1-1 We also traced the copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 of mixed populations during the serial subcultures. The copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the cultures increased gradually with similar ratios as cellobiose fermentation rates of the cultures increased. These results suggest that the cellobiose assimilation pathway (transport and hydrolysis) might be a rate-limiting step in engineered yeast and copies of genes coding for metabolic enzymes might be amplified in yeast if there is a growth advantage. This study indicates that on-demand gene amplification might be an efficient strategy for yeast metabolic engineering.<h4>Importance</h4>In order to enable rapid and efficient fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates by engineered yeast, we delve into the limiting factors of cellobiose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing a cellobiose transporter (encoded by cdt-1) and an intracellular ?-glucosidase (encoded by gh1-1). Through laboratory evolution, we isolated mutant strains capable of fermenting cellobiose much faster than a parental strain. Genome sequencing of the fast cellobiose-fermenting mutant reveals that there are massive amplifications of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the yeast genome. We also found positive and quantitative relationships between the rates of cellobiose consumption and the copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the evolved strains. Our results suggest that the cellobiose assimilation pathway (transport and hydrolysis) might be a rate-limiting step for efficient cellobiose fermentation. We demonstrate the feasibility of optimizing not only heterologous metabolic pathways in yeast through laboratory evolution but also on-demand gene amplification in yeast, which can be broadly applicable for metabolic engineering.
Project description:Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and L-arabinose from lignocellulosic biomass by an oleaginous yeast is anticipated as a method for biodiesel production. However, most yeasts ferment glucose first before consuming pentoses, due to glucose repression. This preferential utilization results in delayed fermentation time and lower productivity. Therefore, co-fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars could achieve cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to microbial lipid. Comprehensive screening of oleaginous yeasts capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose, xylose, and L-arabinose was performed by measuring the concentration of sugars remaining in the medium and of lipids accumulated in the cells. We found that of 1189 strains tested, 12 had the ability to co-ferment the sugars. The basidiomycete yeast Pseudozyma hubeiensis IPM1-10, which had the highest sugars consumption rate of 94.1 %, was selected by culturing in a batch culture with the mixed-sugar medium. The strain showed (1) simultaneous utilization of all three sugars, and (2) high lipid-accumulating ability. This study suggests that P. hubeiensis IPM1-10 is a promising candidate for second-generation biodiesel production from hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Background:An economically viable production of biofuels and biochemicals from lignocellulose requires microorganisms that can readily convert both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions into product. The yeast Candida intermedia displays a high capacity for uptake and conversion of several lignocellulosic sugars including the abundant pentose d-xylose, an underutilized carbon source since most industrially relevant microorganisms cannot naturally ferment it. Thus, C. intermedia constitutes an important source of knowledge and genetic information that could be transferred to industrial microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve their capacity to ferment lignocellulose-derived xylose. Results:To understand the genetic determinants that underlie the metabolic properties of C. intermedia, we sequenced the genomes of both the in-house-isolated strain CBS 141442 and the reference strain PYCC 4715. De novo genome assembly and subsequent analysis revealed C. intermedia to be a haploid species belonging to the CTG clade of ascomycetous yeasts. The two strains have highly similar genome sizes and number of protein-encoding genes, but they differ on the chromosomal level due to numerous translocations of large and small genomic segments. The transcriptional profiles for CBS 141442 grown in medium with either high or low concentrations of glucose and xylose were determined through RNA-sequencing analysis, revealing distinct clusters of co-regulated genes in response to different specific growth rates, carbon sources and osmotic stress. Analysis of the genomic and transcriptomic data also identified multiple xylose reductases, one of which displayed dual NADH/NADPH co-factor specificity that likely plays an important role for co-factor recycling during xylose fermentation. Conclusions:In the present study, we performed the first genomic and transcriptomic analysis of C. intermedia and identified several novel genes for conversion of xylose. Together the results provide insights into the mechanisms underlying saccharide utilization in C. intermedia and reveal potential target genes to aid in xylose fermentation in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bioethanol obtained by fermenting cellulosic fraction of biomass holds promise for blending in petroleum. Cellulose hydrolysis yields glucose while hemicellulose hydrolysis predominantly yields xylose. Economic feasibility of bioethanol depends on complete utilization of biomass carbohydrates and an efficient co-fermenting organism is a prerequisite. While hexose fermentation capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a boon, however, its inability to ferment pentose is a setback. RESULTS:Two xylose fermenting Kodamaea ohmeri strains were isolated from Lagenaria siceraria flowers through enrichment on xylose. They showed 61% glucose fermentation efficiency in fortified medium. Medium engineering with 0.1% yeast extract and peptone, stimulated co-fermentation potential of both strains yielding maximum ethanol 0.25 g g-1 on mixed sugars with ~ 50% fermentation efficiency. Strains were tolerant to inhibitors like 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, furfural and acetic acid. Both K. ohmeri strains grew well on biologically pretreated rice straw hydrolysates and produced ethanol. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report of native Kodamaea sp. exhibiting notable mixed substrate utilization and ethanol fermentation. K. ohmeri strains showed relevant traits like utilizing and co-fermenting mixed sugars, exhibiting excellent growth, inhibitor tolerance, and ethanol production on rice straw hydrolysates.
Project description:The use of inedible lignocellulosic biomasses for biomanufacturing provides important environmental and economic benefits for society. Efficient co-utilization of lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, is critical for the viability of lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, the phenomenon of glucose repression prevents co-utilization of both glucose and xylose in cellulosic hydrolysates. To circumvent glucose repression, co-utilization of cellobiose and xylose by Bacillus coagulans NL01 was investigated. During co-fermentation of cellobiose and xylose, B. coagulans NL01 simultaneously consumed the sugar mixtures and exhibited an improved lactic acid yield compared with co-fermentation of glucose and xylose. Moreover, the cellobiose metabolism of B. coagulans NL01 was investigated for the first time. Based on comparative genomic analysis, two gene clusters that encode two different operons of the cellobiose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (assigned as CELO1 and CELO2) were identified. For CELO1, five genes were arranged as celA (encoding EIIAcel), celB (encoding EIIBcel), celC (encoding EIICcel), pbgl (encoding 6-phospho-?-glucosidase), and celR (encoding a transcriptional regulator), and these genes were found to be ubiquitous in different B. coagulans strains. Based on gene knockout results, CELO1 was confirmed to be responsible for the transport and assimilation of cellobiose. For CELO2, the five genes were arranged as celR, celB, celA, celX (encoding DUF871 domain-containing protein), and celC, and these genes were only found in some B. coagulans strains. However, through a comparison of cellobiose fermentation by NL01 and DSM1 that only possess CELO1, it was observed that CELO2 might also play an important role in the utilization of cellobiose in vivo despite the fact that no pbgl gene was found. When CELO1 or CELO2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant strain exhibited distinct cellobiose uptake and consumption. This study demonstrated the cellobiose-assimilating pathway of B. coagulans and provided a new co-utilization strategy of cellobiose and xylose to overcome the obstacles that result from glucose repression in a biorefinery system.