Conservation and diversification of dileucine signal recognition by adaptor protein (AP) complex variants.
ABSTRACT: The clathrin-associated, heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3, recognize signals in the cytosolic domains of transmembrane proteins, leading to their sorting to endosomes, lysosomes, lysosome-related organelles, and/or the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. One type of signal, referred to as "dileucine-based," fits the consensus motif (D/E)XXXL(L/I). Previous biochemical analyses showed that (D/E)XXXL(L/I) signals bind to a combination of two subunits of each AP complex, namely the AP-1 ?-?1, AP-2 ?-?2, and AP-3 ?-?3 hemicomplexes, and structural studies revealed that an imperfect variant of this motif lacking the (D/E) residue binds to a site straddling the interface of ? and ?2. Herein, we report mutational and binding analyses showing that canonical (D/E)XXXL(L/I) signals bind to this same site on AP-2, and to similar sites on AP-1 and AP-3. The strength and amino acid requirements of different interactions depend on the specific signals and AP complexes involved. We also demonstrate the occurrence of diverse AP-1 heterotetramers by combinatorial assembly of various ? and ?1 subunit isoforms encoded by different genes. These AP-1 variants bind (D/E)XXXL(L/I) signals with marked preferences for certain sequences, implying that they are not functionally equivalent. Our results thus demonstrate that different AP complexes share a conserved binding site for (D/E)XXXL(L/I) signals. However, the characteristics of the binding site on each complex vary, providing for the specific recognition of a diverse repertoire of (D/E)XXXL(L/I) signals.
Project description:The transport of glucose across cell membranes is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). The class III glucose transporters GLUT8 and GLUT12 both contain a similar [DE]XXXL[LI] dileucine sorting signal in their amino terminus. This type of dileucine motif facilitates protein trafficking to various organelles or to the plasma membrane via interactions with adaptor protein (AP) complexes. The [DE]XXXL[LI] motif in GLUT8 is thought to direct it to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments via its interactions with AP1 and AP2. Unlike GLUT8, the [DE]XXXL[LI] motif does not direct GLUT12 to a lysosomal compartment. Rather, GLUT12 resides in the Golgi network and at the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we found that exchanging the XXX (TQP) residues in GLUT8 with the corresponding residues in GLUT12 (GPN) resulted in a dramatic missorting of GLUT8 to the cell surface. We postulated that the XXX amino acids upstream of the dileucine motif in GLUT8 influence the degree of interaction between the [DE]XXXL[LI] motif and adaptor proteins. To further explore its trafficking mechanisms, we created mutant constructs to identify the role that each of the individual XXX amino acids has for regulating the intracellular sorting of GLUT8. Here we find that the XXX amino acids, specifically the position of a proline -2 from the dileucine residues, influence the affinity of APs for GLUT8 and GLUT12.
Project description:The class III sugar transport facilitator GLUT8 co-localizes with the lysosomal protein LAMP1 in heterologous expression systems. GLUT8 carries a [D/E]XXXL[L/I]-type dileucine sorting signal that has been postulated to retain the protein in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment via interactions with clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes. However, contradictory findings have been described regarding the subcellular localization of the endogenous GLUT8 and the adaptor proteins that interact with its dileucine motif. Here we demonstrate that endogenous GLUT8 is localized in a late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of spermatocytes and spermatids, and that the adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4, interact with its N-terminal intracellular domain (NICD). In addition, fusion of the GLUT8 NICD to the tailless lumenal domain of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (TAC) protein (interleukin-2 receptor a chain) targeted the protein to intracellular membranes, indicating that its N-terminal dileucine signal is sufficient for endosomal/lysosomal targeting of the transporter. The localization and targeting of GLUT8 show striking similarities to sorting mechanisms reported for lysosomal proteins. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for GLUT8 in the so far unexplored substrate transport across intracellular membranes.
Project description:Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu(2+) transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the ?1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu(2+) conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative ?1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu(2+) concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the ?1A subunit isoform of AP-1.
Project description:Sorting signals for cargo selection into coated vesicles are usually in the form of short linear motifs. Three motifs for clathrin-mediated endocytosis have been identified: YXXPhi, [D/E]XXXL[L/I] and FXNPXY. To search for new endocytic motifs, we made a library of CD8 chimeras with random sequences in their cytoplasmic tails, and used a novel fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay to select for endocytosed constructs. Out of the five tails that were most efficiently internalized, only one was found to contain a conventional motif. Two contain dileucine-like sequences that appear to be variations on the [D/E]XXXL[L/I] motif. Another contains a novel internalization signal, YXXXPhiN, which is able to function in cells expressing a mutant mu2 that cannot bind YXXPhi, indicating that it is not a variation on the YXXPhi motif. Similar sequences are present in endogenous proteins, including a functional YXXXPhiN (in addition to a classical YXXPhi) in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Thus, the repertoire of endocytic motifs is more extensive than the three well-characterized sorting signals.
Project description:In spite of the many key cellular functions of chloride channels, the mechanisms that mediate their subcellular localization are largely unknown. ClC-2 is a ubiquitous chloride channel usually localized to the basolateral domain of epithelia that regulates cell volume, ion transport, and acid-base balance; mice knocked out for ClC-2 are blind and sterile. Previous work suggested that CLC-2 is sorted basolaterally by TIFS(812)LL, a dileucine motif in CLC-2's C-terminal domain. However, our in silico modeling of ClC-2 suggested that this motif was buried within the channel's dimerization interface and identified two cytoplasmically exposed dileucine motifs, ESMI(623)LL and QVVA(635)LL, as candidate sorting signals. Alanine mutagenesis and trafficking assays support a scenario in which ESMI(623)LL acts as the authentic basolateral signal of ClC-2. Silencing experiments and yeast three-hybrid assays demonstrated that both ubiquitous (AP-1A) and epithelium-specific (AP-1B) forms of the tetrameric clathrin adaptor AP-1 are capable of carrying out basolateral sorting of ClC-2 through interactions of ESMI(623)LL with a highly conserved pocket in their γ1-σ1A hemicomplex.
Project description:Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs.
Project description:Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 is caused by defects in the gene OCA2, encoding a pigment cell-specific, 12-transmembrane domain protein with homology to ion permeases. The function of the OCA2 protein remains unknown, and its subcellular localization is under debate. Here, we show that endogenous OCA2 in melanocytic cells rapidly exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and thus does not behave as a resident ER protein. Consistently, exogenously expressed OCA2 localizes within melanocytes to melanosomes, and, like other melanosomal proteins, localizes to lysosomes when expressed in nonpigment cells. Mutagenized OCA2 transgenes stimulate melanin synthesis in OCA2-deficient cells when localized to melanosomes but not when specifically retained in the ER, contradicting a proposed primary function for OCA2 in the ER. Steady-state melanosomal localization requires a conserved consensus acidic dileucine-based sorting motif within the cytoplasmic N-terminal region of OCA2. A second dileucine signal within this region confers steady-state lysosomal localization in melanocytes, suggesting that OCA2 might traverse multiple sequential or parallel trafficking routes. The two dileucine signals physically interact in a differential manner with cytoplasmic adaptors known to function in trafficking other proteins to melanosomes. We conclude that OCA2 is targeted to and functions within melanosomes but that residence within melanosomes may be regulated by secondary or alternative targeting to lysosomes.
Project description:The cardinal feature of neuronal polarization is the establishment and maintenance of axons and dendrites. How axonal and dendritic proteins are sorted and targeted to different compartments is poorly understood. Here, we identified distinct dileucine motifs that are necessary and sufficient to target transmembrane proteins to either the axon or the dendrite through direct interactions with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes (APs) in C. elegans. Axonal targeting requires AP-3, while dendritic targeting is mediated by AP-1. The axonal dileucine motif binds to AP-3 with higher efficiency than to AP-1. Both AP-3 and AP-1 are localized to the Golgi but occupy adjacent domains. We propose that AP-3 and AP-1 directly select transmembrane proteins and target them to axon and dendrite, respectively, by sorting them into distinct vesicle pools.
Project description:Select plasma membrane proteins can be marked as cargo for inclusion into clathrin-coated pits by common internalization signals (e.g. YXXΦ, dileucine motifs, NPXY) that serve as universal recognition sites for the AP-2 adaptor complex or other clathrin-associated sorting proteins. However, some surface proteins, such as the Kir2.3 potassium channel, lack canonical signals but are still targeted for clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Here, we explore the mechanism. We found an unusual endocytic signal in Kir2.3 that is based on two consecutive pairs of hydrophobic residues. Characterized by the sequence ΦΦXΦΦ (a tandem di-hydrophobic (TDH) motif, where Φ is a hydrophobic amino acid), the signal shows no resemblance to other endocytic motifs, yet it directly interacts with AP-2 to target the Kir2.3 potassium channel into the endocytic pathway. We found that the tandem di-hydrophobic motif directly binds to the ασ2 subunits of AP-2, interacting within a large hydrophobic cleft that encompasses part of the docking site for di-Leu signals, but includes additional structures. These observations expand the repertoire of clathrin-dependent internalization signals and the ways in which AP-2 can coordinate endocytosis of cargo proteins.
Project description:Several retroviruses downmodulate the cell surface expression of envelope (Env) proteins through peptide sequences located in the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane (TM) subunit. We investigated whether cell surface expression of a chimeric protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the TM protein (CTM) of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was regulated by two membrane-proximal dileucine motifs or by tyrosine Y487 or Y498 in YXXL motifs. A chimeric protein composed of the extracellular and membrane-spanning portions of human CD8-alpha plus a wild-type (wt) BLV CTM was detectable on the surface of only 40% of the cells in which it was transiently expressed. Replacement of either dileucine pair with alanines increased the level of surface display of chimeric proteins. Nearly all cells became surface positive when both dileucine motifs were altered simultaneously and when either an N-terminal segment containing both dileucine motifs or a C-terminal segment containing all YXXL motifs was deleted. In contrast, replacement of Y487 or Y498 with alanine or phenylalanine enabled only small increases in surface display compared with wt levels. Chimeric proteins had similar stabilities but were downmodulated from the cell surface at three different rates. Point mutants segregated into each of the three groups of proteins categorized according to these different rates. Interestingly, Y487 mutants were downmodulated less efficiently than Y498 mutants, which behaved like wt. CD8-CTM chimeric proteins were phosphorylated on serine residues, but the native BLV Env protein was not phosphorylated either in transfected cells or in a lymphoid cell line constitutively producing BLV. Thus, both dileucine and YXXL motifs within the BLV CTM contribute to downmodulation of a protein containing this domain. Interactions with other proteins may influence surface exposure of Env protein complexes in virus-infected cells, assisting in viral evasion of adaptive immunity.