Acceleration of 5-methylcytosine deamination in cyclobutane dimers by G and its implications for UV-induced C-to-T mutation hotspots.
ABSTRACT: Sunlight-induced C-->T mutation hotspots occur most frequently at methylated CpG sites in tumor suppressor genes and are thought to arise from translesion synthesis past deaminated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). While it is known that methylation enhances CPD formation in sunlight, little is known about the effect of methylation and sequence context on the deamination of 5-methylcytosine ((m)C) and its contribution to mutagenesis at these hotspots. Using an enzymatic method, we have determined the yields and deamination rates of C and (m)C in CPDs and find that the frequency of UVB-induced CPDs correlates with the oxidation potential of the flanking bases. We also found that the deamination of T(m)C and (m)CT CPDs is about 25-fold faster when flanked by G's than by A's, C's or T's in duplex DNA and appears to involve catalysis by the O6 group of guanine. In contrast, the first deamination of either C or (m)C in AC(m)CG with a flanking G was much slower (t(1/2) >250 h) and rate limiting, while the second deamination was much faster. The observation that C(m)CG dimers deaminate very slowly but at the same time correlate with C-->T mutation hotspots suggests that their repair must be slow enough to allow sufficient time for deamination. There are, however, a greater number of single C-->T mutations than CC-->TT mutations at C(m)CG sites even though the second deamination is very fast, which could reflect faster repair of doubly deaminated dimers.
Project description:Sunlight-induced C to T mutation hotspots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The C or 5-methyl-C in CPDs are not stable and deaminate to U and T, respectively, which leads to the insertion of A by DNA polymerase ? and defines a probable mechanism for the origin of UV-induced C to T mutations. We have now determined the photoproduct formation and deamination rates for 10 consecutive T=(m)CG CPDs over a full helical turn at the dyad axis of a nucleosome and find that whereas photoproduct formation and deamination is greatly inhibited for the CPDs closest to the histone surface, it is greatly enhanced for the outermost CPDs. Replacing the G in a T=(m)CG CPD with A greatly decreased the deamination rate. These results show that rotational position and flanking sequence in a nucleosome can significantly and synergistically modulate CPD formation and deamination that contribute to C to T mutations associated with skin cancer induction and may have influenced the evolution of the human genome.
Project description:Sunlight-associated melanomas carry a unique C-to-T mutation signature. UVB radiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as the major form of DNA damage, but the mechanism of how CPDs cause mutations is unclear. To map CPDs at single-base resolution genome wide, we developed the circle damage sequencing (circle-damage-seq) method. In human cells, CPDs form preferentially in a tetranucleotide sequence context (5'-Py-T<>Py-T/A), but this alone does not explain the tumor mutation patterns. To test whether mutations arise at CPDs by cytosine deamination, we specifically mapped UVB-induced cytosine-deaminated CPDs. Transcription start sites (TSSs) were protected from CPDs and deaminated CPDs, but both lesions were enriched immediately upstream of the TSS, suggesting a mutation-promoting role of bound transcription factors. Most importantly, the genomic dinucleotide and trinucleotide sequence specificity of deaminated CPDs matched the prominent mutation signature of melanomas. Our data identify the cytosine-deaminated CPD as the leading premutagenic lesion responsible for mutations in melanomas.
Project description:Sunlight-induced C to T mutation hot spots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The C and 5-methyl-C in CPDs are not stable and deaminate to U and T, respectively, which leads to the insertion of A by the DNA damage bypass polymerase ?, thereby defining a probable mechanism for the origin of UV-induced C to T mutations. Deamination rates for T(m)CG CPDs have been found to vary 12-fold with rotational position in a nucleosome in vitro. To determine the influence of nucleosome structure on deamination rates in vivo, we determined the deamination rates of CPDs at TCG sites in a stably positioned nucleosome within the FOS promoter in HeLa cells. A procedure for in vivo hydroxyl radical footprinting with Fe-EDTA was developed, and, together with results from a cytosine methylation protection assay, we determined the translational and rotational positions of the TCG sites. Consistent with the in vitro observations, deamination was slower for one CPD located at an intermediate rotational position compared with two other sites located at outside positions, and all were much faster than for CPDs at non-TCG sites. Photoproduct formation was also highly suppressed at one site, possibly due to its interaction with a histone tail. Thus, it was shown that CPDs of TCG sites deaminate the fastest in vivo and that nucleosomes can modulate both their formation and deamination, which could contribute to the UV mutation hot spots and cold spots.
Project description:Mutations in sunlight-induced melanoma arise from cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), DNA photoproducts that are typically created picoseconds after an ultraviolet (UV) photon is absorbed at thymine or cytosine. We found that in melanocytes, CPDs are generated for >3 hours after exposure to UVA, a major component of the radiation in sunlight and in tanning beds. These "dark CPDs" constitute the majority of CPDs and include the cytosine-containing CPDs that initiate UV-signature C?T mutations. Dark CPDs arise when UV-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species combine to excite an electron in fragments of the pigment melanin. This creates a quantum triplet state that has the energy of a UV photon but induces CPDs by energy transfer to DNA in a radiation-independent manner. Melanin may thus be carcinogenic as well as protective against cancer. These findings also validate the long-standing suggestion that chemically generated excited electronic states are relevant to mammalian biology.
Project description:While is it well known that human telomeric DNA sequences can adopt G-quadruplex structures, some promoters sequences have also been found to form G-quadruplexes, and over 40% of promoters contain putative G-quadruplex-forming sequences. Because UV light has been shown to crosslink human telomeric G-quadruplexes by cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation between T's on adjacent loops, UV light might also be able to photocrosslink G-quadruplexes in promoters. To investigate this possibility, 15 potentially UV-crosslinkable G-quadruplex-forming sequences found in a search of human DNA promoters were UVB irradiated in vitro, and three were confirmed to have formed nonadjacent CPDs by mass spectrometry. In addition to nonadjacent T=T CPDs found in human telomeric DNA, a nonadjacent T=U CPD was discovered that presumably arose from deamination of a nonadjacent T=C CPD. Analysis of the three sequences by circular dichroism, melting temperature analysis and chemical footprinting confirmed the presence of G-quadruplexes that could explain the formation of the nonadjacent CPDs. The formation of nonadjacent CPDs from the sequences in vitro suggests that they might be useful probes for the presence of non-B DNA structures, such as G-quadruplexes, in vivo, and if they were to form in vivo, might also have significant biological consequences.
Project description:Spontaneous deamination of cytosine to uracil in DNA is a ubiquitous source of C?T mutations, but occurs with a half life of ?50?000 years. In contrast, cytosine within sunlight induced cyclobutane dipyrimidine dimers (CPD's), deaminate within hours to days. Methylation of C increases the frequency of CPD formation at PyCG sites which correlate with C?T mutation hotspots in skin cancers. MeCP2 binds to mCG sites and acts as a transcriptional regulator and chromatin modifier affecting thousands of genes, but its effect on CPD formation and deamination is unknown. We report that the methyl CpG binding domain of MeCP2 (MBD) greatly enhances C=mC CPD formation at a TCmCG site in duplex DNA and binds with equal or better affinity to the CPD-containing duplex compared with the undamaged duplex. In comparison, MBD does not enhance T=mC CPD formation at a TTmCG site, but instead increases CPD formation at the adjacent TT site. MBD was also found to completely suppress deamination of the T=mCG CPD, suggesting that MeCP2 may have the capability to both suppress UV mutagenesis at PymCpG sites as well as enhance it.
Project description:UV radiation induces two major types of DNA lesions, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts, which are both primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we investigated how chronic low-dose UV (CLUV)-induced mutagenesis occurs in rad14? NER-deficient yeast cells, which lack the yeast orthologue of human xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA). The results show that rad14? cells have a marked increase in CLUV-induced mutations, most of which are C?T transitions in the template strand for transcription. Unexpectedly, many of the CLUV-induced C?T mutations in rad14? cells are dependent on translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase ?, encoded by RAD30, despite its previously established role in error-free TLS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deamination of cytosine-containing CPDs contributes to CLUV-induced mutagenesis. Taken together, these results uncover a novel role for Pol? in the induction of C?T transitions through deamination of cytosine-containing CPDs in CLUV-exposed NER deficient cells. More generally, our data suggest that Pol? can act as both an error-free and a mutagenic DNA polymerase, depending on whether the NER pathway is available to efficiently repair damaged templates.
Project description:The most prevalent human carcinogen is sunlight-associated ultraviolet (UV), a physiologic dose of which generates thousands of DNA lesions per cell, mostly of two types: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs). It has not been possible, in living cells, to precisely characterize the respective contributions of these two lesion types to the signals that regulate cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and cell survival. Here we coupled multiparameter flow cytometry with lesion-specific photolyases that eliminate either CPDs or 6-4PPs and determined their respective contributions to DNA damage responses. Strikingly, only 6-4PP lesions activated the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response pathway. Mechanistically, 6-4PPs, but not CPDs, impeded DNA replication across the genome as revealed by microfluidic-assisted replication track analysis. Furthermore, single-stranded DNA accumulated preferentially at 6-4PPs during DNA replication, indicating selective and prolonged replication blockage at 6-4PPs. These findings suggest that 6-4PPs, although eightfold fewer in number than CPDs, are the trigger for UV-induced DNA damage responses.
Project description:Cis-syn thymine dimers are the major photoproducts of DNA and are the principal cause of mutations induced by sunlight. To better understand the nature of base pairing with cis-syn thymine dimers, we have synthesized a decamer oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing a cis-syn thymine dimer labeled at the N3 of both T's with 15N by two efficient routes from [3-15N]-thymidine phosphoramidite. In the postsynthetic irradiation route, an ODN containing an adjacent pair of [3-15N]-labeled T's was irradiated and the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN isolated by HPLC. In the mixed building block route, a mixture of cis-syn and trans-syn dimer-containing ODNs was synthesized from a mixture of [3-15N]-labeled thymine dimer phosphoramidites after which the cis-syn dimer-containing ODN was isolated by HPLC. The N3-nitrogen and imino proton signals of an (15)N-labeled thymine dimer-containing decamer duplex were assigned by 2D 1H-15N heterocorrelated HSQC NMR spectroscopy, and the 15N-1H coupling constant was found to be 1.8 Hz greater for the 5'-T than for the 3'-T. The larger coupling constant is indicative of weaker H-bonding that is consistent with the more distorted nature of the 5'-base pair found in solution state NMR and crystallographic structures.
Project description:Despite the predominance of ultraviolet A (UVA) relative to UVB in terrestrial sunlight, solar mutagenesis in humans and rodents is characterized by mutations specific for UVB. We have investigated the kinetics of repair of UVA- and UVB-induced DNA lesions in relation to mutagenicity in transgenic mouse fibroblasts irradiated with equilethal doses of UVA and UVB in comparison to simulated-sunlight UV (SSL). We have also analyzed mutagenesis-derived carcinogenesis in sunlight-associated human skin cancers by compiling the published data on mutation types found in crucial genes in nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Here, we demonstrate a resistance to repair of UVB-induced cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine-dimers (CPDs) together with rapid removal of UVA-induced oxidized purines in the genome overall and in the cII transgene of SSL-irradiated cells. The spectra of mutation induced by both UVB and SSL irradiation in this experimental system are characterized by significant increases in relative frequency of C-->T transitions at dipyrimidines, which are the established signature mutation of CPDs. This type of mutation is also the predominant mutation found in human nonmelanoma and melanoma tumor samples in the TP53, CDKN2, PTCH, and protein kinase genes. The prevailing role of UVB over UVA in solar mutagenesis in our test system can be ascribed to different kinetics of repair for lesions induced by the respective UV irradiation.