The Family Talk About Smoking (FTAS) paradigm: new directions for assessing parent-teen communications about smoking.
ABSTRACT: Smoking experimentation represents transient risk taking for some youth, whereas for others, it is the onset of a chronic smoking trajectory. However, distinguishing these groups during the experimentation phase has proved challenging. We theorized that variations in parent and teen discourse about smoking might be informative for characterizing this heterogeneity. However, standardized methods for direct assessments of these family processes have been lacking.We examined the predictive utility of directly observed facets of smoking-specific communication for predicting persistence of teen smoking experimentation using a novel method, the Family Talk About Smoking (FTAS) paradigm. The FTAS was tested in a sample of 344 teens with a history of smoking experimentation during interactions with their mothers and fathers. Level of disapproval, smoking expectancies, elaboration of consequences, and quality of personal disclosure were coded during videotaped parent-teen discussions about smoking.Patterns of observed smoking-specific communication varied by teen and parent smoking status. Predictive validity of the FTAS for teen persistent experimentation was demonstrated, net effects of reported smoking-specific socialization, general quality of communication, and parental smoking status. Teen smoking expectancies, disclosure, and disapproval predicted teen persistent experimentation with some differences based on whether interactions were with mothers or fathers. Prediction of persistent experimentation by observed maternal disclosure and elaboration of consequences was moderated by maternal smoking status.Direct observations show promise for generating detailed characterization of individual differences in patterns of family communication about smoking. Implications for targeted prevention and future research are discussed.
Project description:To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers.Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race.United States.632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7-12 in 1994-95 and followed up in 2007-2008.Birthweight and gestational age.For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, P < .05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, P < .01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, P < .05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, P < .01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, P < .05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, P < .05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care.Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents.
Project description:Concomitant complementary medicine (CM) and conventional medicine use is frequent and carries potential risks. Yet, CM users frequently neglect to disclose CM use to medical providers. Our systematic review examines rates of and reasons for CM use disclosure to medical providers. Observational studies published 2003-2016 were searched (AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Eighty-six papers reporting disclosure rates and/or reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure of CM use to medical providers were reviewed. Fourteen were selected for meta-analysis of disclosure rates of biologically-based CM. Overall disclosure rates varied (7-80%). Meta-analysis revealed a 33% disclosure rate (95%CI: 24% to 43%) for biologically-based CM. Reasons for non-disclosure included lack of inquiry from medical providers, fear of provider disapproval, perception of disclosure as unimportant, belief providers lacked CM knowledge, lacking time, and belief CM was safe. Reasons for disclosure included inquiry from medical providers, belief providers would support CM use, belief disclosure was important for safety, and belief providers would give advice about CM. Disclosure appears to be influenced by the nature of patient-provider communication. However, inconsistent definitions of CM and lack of a standard measure for disclosure created substantial heterogeneity between studies. Disclosure of CM use to medical providers must be encouraged for safe, effective patient care.
Project description:Internalizing and externalizing problems increase during adolescence. However, these problems may be mitigated by adequate parenting, including effective parent-adolescent communication. The ways in which parent-driven (i.e., parent behavior control and solicitation) and adolescent-driven (i.e., disclosure and secrecy) communication efforts are linked to adolescent psychological problems universally and cross-culturally is a question that needs more empirical investigation. The current study used a sample of 1087 adolescents (M?=?13.19 years, SD?=?0.90, 50% girls) from 12 cultural groups in nine countries including China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States to test the cultural moderation of links between parent solicitation, parent behavior control, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent secrecy with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. The results indicate that adolescent-driven communication, and secrecy in particular, is intertwined with adolescents' externalizing problems across all cultures, and intertwined with internalizing problems in specific cultural contexts. Moreover, parent-driven communication efforts were predicted by adolescent disclosure in all cultures. Overall, the findings suggest that adolescent-driven communication efforts, and adolescent secrecy in particular, are important predictors of adolescent psychological problems as well as facilitators of parent-adolescent communication.
Project description:Because few prospective studies have examined the independent influence of mothers and fathers on smoking experimentation, we tested the association between a set of parent-specific, familial and peer interactions with smoking experimentation in early adolescence. Data come from two cohorts in the British Youth Panel Survey (N = 1736; mean age at baseline, 11.26; SD = 0.65), a study of children resident with members of the British Household Panel Survey. Baseline data showed 8.2% of participants had smoked which increased to 40.3% after a 3-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models showed risk factors for the onset of experimentation included frequent time spent with peers (P < 0.001), maternal smoking (P = 0.001), female gender and older participant age (P < 0.001). Parent-child quarrels, mother-child conversations, family meal frequency and household income were not significantly associated with experimentation. Frequent father-child conversations, about things which mattered to children, were the only type of parent-child contact associated with a reduced risk of experimentation (P < 0.001), and a significant interaction suggested that maternal smoking increased the likelihood of girls but not boys experimentation (P = 0.01). This study suggests that familial risk and protective factors operate independently and that more attention should be paid to the role of fathers in smoking prevention.
Project description:To report the results of a randomized clinical trial of teen online problem-solving (TOPS) meant to improve behavioral outcomes of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI).A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of TOPS with access to Internet resources in teenagers with TBI in improving parent and self-reported behavior problems and parent-teen conflicts. Participants included 41 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years (range: 11.47-17.90 years) who had sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier. Teens in the TOPS group received 10 to 14 online sessions that provided training in problem-solving, communication skills, and self-regulation. Outcomes were assessed before treatment and at a follow-up assessment an average of 8 months later. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after we controlled for pretreatment levels. Injury severity and socioeconomic status were examined as potential moderators of treatment efficacy.Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, and follow-up assessments were completed for 35 participants (16 TOPS, 19 Internet resource comparison). The TOPS group reported significantly less parent-teen conflict at follow-up than did the Internet-resource-comparison group. Improvements in teen behavior after TOPS were moderated by injury severity; there were greater improvements in the teens' internalizing symptoms after TOPS among adolescents with severe TBI. Family socioeconomic status also moderated the efficacy of TOPS in improving behavior problems reported by both parents and teens, although the nature of the moderation effects varied.Our findings suggest that TOPS contributes to improvements in parent-teen conflict generally and parent and self-reported teen behavior problems for certain subsets of participants.
Project description:This study examines effects of a randomized controlled trial for an online, family-based prevention program for older teens, Smart Choices 4 Teens, on alcohol use and related outcomes. Families (N = 411; teen age M = 16.4, SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition in 2014-2015. Both intent to treat (ITT) and dosage models were conducted. ITT models: At the 6-month follow-up, teens in the experimental condition reported fewer friends who had been drunk, and parents in the experimental group reported more communication about social host laws. At the 12-month follow-up, parents in the experimental condition reported consuming fewer drinks than parents in the control group. Dosage models: At the 6-month follow-up, dosage was inversely related to teen drinking in the past 6 months or 30 days, frequency of teen drinking during the past 6 months and 30 days, drinks consumed by teens over the past 6 months, teen drunkenness and binge-drinking during the past 30 days, teen reported communication about safe drinking and positively related to parent and teen reported communication about social host laws. At 12 months, dosage was inversely related to teen alcohol use, frequency of teen drinking over the past 30 days, drinks consumed by teens over the past 6 months and 30 days, and teen drunkenness over the past 6 months. Results suggest that Smart Choices 4 Teens is beneficial for families. Dissemination and implementation strategies that motivate completion of program content will improve outcomes related to older teens' alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, and parent-based interventions are a promising approach. We assess the effectiveness of Steering Teens Safe, a parent-focused program to increase safe teen driving.Steering Teens Safe aimed to improve parental communication with teens about safe driving using motivational interviewing techniques in conjunction with 19 safe driving lessons. A randomized controlled trial involved 145 parent-teen dyads (70 intervention and 75 control). Intervention parents received a 45-minute session to learn the program with four follow-up phone sessions, a DVD, and a workbook. Control parents received a standard brochure about safe driving. Scores were developed to measure teen-reported quantity and quality of parental communication about safe driving. The main outcome measure was a previously validated Risky Driving Score reported by teens. Because the Score was highly skewed, a generalized linear model based on a gamma distribution was used for analysis.Intervention teens ranked their parent's success in talking about driving safety higher than control teens (p?=?0.035) and reported that their parents talked about more topics (non-significant difference). The Risky Driving Score was 21% lower in intervention compared to control teens (85% CI?=?0.60, 1.00). Interaction between communication quantity and the intervention was examined. Intervention teens who reported more successful communication had a 42% lower Risky Driving Score (95% CI?=?0.37, 0.94) than control parents with less successful communication.This program had a positive although not strong effect, and it may hold the most promise in partnership with other programs, such as Driver's Education or Graduated Driver's License policies.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014923. Registered Nov. 16, 2009.
Project description:This study investigated the relationship between parent-teen sexual communication, discussion of condoms, and condom use among adolescents in mental health treatment. Adolescents with a history of sexual intercourse and their parents completed questionnaires assessing adolescent sexual risk behavior, sexual communication, and discussion of sexual topics. Greater condom use by adolescents was associated with parent-adolescent condom discussion but was not associated with openness in sexual communication. Seventy-six percent of adolescents reported that parents had discussed condoms with them and these discussions were significantly associated with protected sexual acts. In a logistic regression, accounting for age, gender, race, and psychiatric diagnosis teens that discussed condoms with their parent were more likely to report condom use at last sex. Increasing direct communication about condoms may be an important step in increasing adolescent's safer sex behavior. Mental health disorders and family distress may make such discussions challenging but are not an insurmountable barrier to direct discussions about condoms.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking outcome expectancies were investigated in treatment-seeking military Veteran smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The investigation of smoking outcome expectancies may enhance our understanding of the relationship between PTSD and cigarette smoking. METHODS:Participants were 943 military Veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD who were current smokers enrolled in a randomized multisite effectiveness trial to test whether the integration of smoking cessation treatment into mental health care (integrated care) improves prolonged abstinence rates compared with referral to specialized smoking cessation clinics (usual care). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we evaluated the conceptual model of smoking outcome expectancies measured on the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A) version. The Kraemer method of mediation analysis was used to investigate the role of smoking outcome expectancies in mediating relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking behavior, tobacco dependence, and abstinence self-efficacy. RESULTS:The CFA supported the 10-factor structure of the SCQ-A in smokers with PTSD. Relationships between measures of PTSD symptoms and tobacco dependence were mediated by the smoking outcome expectancy regarding negative affect reduction. This same smoking outcome expectancy mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking abstinence self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS:The findings support the use of the SCQ-A as a valid measure of smoking outcome expectancies in military Veteran smokers with PTSD. Moreover, they suggest that smoking outcome expectancies may play an important role in explaining the relationship between PTSD and cigarette smoking.
Project description:Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n?=?363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts.As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables.Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572).