Amino-terminal phosphorylation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase suppresses c-myc/IgH translocation.
ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a mutator enzyme that initiates class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes (Ig) in B lymphocytes. However, AID also produces off-target DNA damage, including mutations in oncogenes and double-stranded breaks that can serve as substrates for oncogenic chromosomal translocations. AID is strictly regulated by a number of mechanisms, including phosphorylation at serine 38 and threonine 140, which increase activity. Here we show that phosphorylation can also suppress AID activity in vivo. Serine 3 is a novel phospho-acceptor which, when mutated to alanine, leads to increased class switching and c-myc/IgH translocations without affecting AID levels or catalytic activity. Conversely, increasing AID phosphorylation specifically on serine 3 by interfering with serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) leads to decreased class switching. We conclude that AID activity and its oncogenic potential can be downregulated by phosphorylation of serine 3 and that this process is controlled by PP2A.
Project description:Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a mutator enzyme that initiates somatic mutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes by introducing uracil:guanine mismatches into DNA. Repair pathways process these mismatches to produce point mutations in the Ig variable region or double-stranded DNA breaks in the switch region DNA. However, AID can also produce off-target DNA damage, including mutations in oncogenes. Therefore, stringent regulation of AID is required for maintaining genomic stability during maturation of the antibody response. It has been proposed that AID phosphorylation at serine 38 (S38) regulates its activity, but this has not been tested in vivo. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and immunochemical approaches, we found that in addition to S38, AID is also phosphorylated at position threonine 140 (T140). Mutation of either S38 or T140 to alanine does not impact catalytic activity, but interferes with class switching and somatic hypermutation in vivo. This effect is particularly pronounced in haploinsufficient mice where AID levels are limited. Although S38 is equally important for both processes, T140 phosphorylation preferentially affects somatic mutation, suggesting that posttranslational modification might contribute to the choice between hypermutation and class switching.
Project description:Protein phosphatases are a group of universal enzymes that are responsible for the dephosphorylation of various proteins and enzymes in cells. Cellular signal transduction events are largely governed by the phosphorylation of key proteins. The length of cellular response depends on the activation of protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates the phosphate groups to halt a biological response, and fine-tune the defined cellular outcome. Dysregulation of these phosphatase(s) results in various disease phenotypes. The retina is a post-mitotic tissue, and oncogenic tyrosine and serine/ threonine kinase activities are important for retinal neuron survival. Aberrant activation of protein phosphatase(s) may have a negative effect on retinal neurons. In the current study, we characterized tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A), a major serine/ threonine kinase with a broad substrate specificity. Our data suggest that PP2A is developmentally regulated in the retina, localized predominantly in the inner retina, and expressed in photoreceptor inner segments. Our findings indicate that PKC? and mTOR may serve as PP2A substrates. We found that light regulates PP2A activity. Our studies also suggest that rhodopsin regulates PP2A and its substrate(s) dephosphorylation. PP2A substrate phosphorylation is increased in mice lacking the A-subunit of PP2A. However, there is no accompanying effect on retina structure and function. Together, our findings suggest that controlling the activity of PP2A in the retina may be neuroprotective.
Project description:Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to cytokine and growth factor stimulation of cell surface receptors. STATs hereafter are translocated to the nucleus where they act as transcription factors. Recent reports suggest that serine phosphorylation of STATs also is involved in the regulation of STAT-mediated gene transcription. Here, we studied the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in STAT3 signaling in human antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell lines and cutaneous T cell lymphoma lines, expressing a constitutively activated STAT3. We show that an inhibitor of protein phosphatases (PPs) PP1/PP2A, calyculin A, induces (i) phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine and threonine residues, (ii) inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity, and (iii) relocation of STAT3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Similar results were obtained with other PP2A inhibitors (okadaic acid, endothall thioanhydride) but not with inhibitors of PP1 (tautomycin) or PP2B (cyclosporine A). Pretreatment with the broad serine/threonine kinase inhibitor staurosporine partly blocked the calyculin A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 extracellular-regulated kinase-kinase, mitogen-activated protein p38 kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, did not. In conclusion, we provide evidence that PP2A plays a crucial role in the regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation and subcellular distribution in T cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that the level of STAT3 phosphorylation is balanced between a staurosporine-sensitive kinase(s) and PP2A.
Project description:Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a serine/threonine kinase that is important in synaptic plasticity and T cell maturation. Activation of CaMKIV requires calcium/calmodulin binding and phosphorylation at T200 by CaMK kinase. Our previous work has shown that protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) forms a complex with CaMKIV and negatively regulates its activity. Here we demonstrate that PP2A tightly regulates T200 phosphorylation of endogenous CaMKIV, but has little effect on the phosphorylation of the ectopically-expressed kinase. This differential regulation of endogenous versus exogenous CaMKIV is due to differences in their ability to associate with PP2A, as exogenous CaMKIV associates poorly with PP2A in comparison to endogenous CaMKIV. The inability of exogenous CaMKIV to associate with PP2A appears to be due to limiting amounts of endogenous PP2A regulatory B subunits, since coexpression of Balpha or Bdelta causes the recruitment of PP2Ac to ectopic CaMKIV, leading to formation of a CaMKIV.PP2A complex. Together, these data indicate that the B subunits are essential for the interaction of PP2A with CaMKIV.
Project description:Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ig class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation by producing U:G mismatches in DNA. These mismatches also have the potential to induce DNA damage including double-stranded breaks and chromosome translocations; therefore, strict regulation of AID is important for maintaining genomic stability. In addition to transcriptional regulation, it has been proposed that phosphorylation can also modulate AID activity. Using a combination of MS and immunochemical approaches we found that 5-15% of the AID expressed in activated B cells was phosphorylated at serine-38 (p38AID). This form of AID was enriched in the chromatin fraction in activated B cells, suggesting a role for phosphorylation in targeting AID to DNA. Consistent with this idea, serine-38 to alanine mutant AID (AID(S38A)) showed diminished somatic hypermutation activity on artificial and physiological DNA targets. We conclude that a small fraction of AID is phosphorylated in activated B cells and that the modified form contributes disproportionately to hypermutation.
Project description:Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous, oncogenic chromosomal translocations it is important to identify the elements that determine which genes are at risk of being "hit" and could be involved in aberrant rearrangements. Here we have investigated the influence of nuclear organization in determining "off-target" activity and the choice of fusion partners. Our studies indicate that the vast majority of known AID-mediated Igh translocation partners are found in chromosomal domains that contact this locus during class switching. Further, these interaction domains can be used to identify other genes that are hit by AID.
Project description:PP1 and PP2A-B56 are major serine/threonine phosphatase families that achieve specificity by colocalizing with substrates. At the kinetochore, however, both phosphatases localize to an almost identical molecular space and yet they still manage to regulate unique pathways and processes. By switching or modulating the positions of PP1/PP2A-B56 at kinetochores, we show that their unique downstream effects are not due to either the identity of the phosphatase or its precise location. Instead, these phosphatases signal differently because their kinetochore recruitment can be either inhibited (PP1) or enhanced (PP2A) by phosphorylation inputs. Mathematical modeling explains how these inverse phospho-dependencies elicit unique forms of cross-regulation and feedback, which allows otherwise indistinguishable phosphatases to produce distinct network behaviors and control different mitotic processes. Furthermore, our genome-wide analysis suggests that these major phosphatase families may have evolved to respond to phosphorylation inputs in opposite ways because many other PP1 and PP2A-B56-binding motifs are also phospho-regulated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) enzymes are serine/threonine phosphatases which comprise a scaffold A subunit, a regulatory B subunit and a catalytic C subunit, and have been implicated in the dephosphorylation of multiple cardiac phosphoproteins. B subunits determine subcellular targeting, substrate specificity and catalytic activity, and can themselves be regulated by post-translational modifications. We explored potential ?-adrenergic regulation of PP2A in cardiomyocytes through phosphorylation of the regulatory B subunit isoform B56?. METHODS AND RESULTS:Phosphate affinity SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of B56? in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM) exposed to the ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) agonist isoprenaline (ISO). Phosphorylation of B56? occurred at S573, primarily through stimulation of the ?1AR subtype, and was dependent on PKA activity. The functional role of the phosphorylation was explored in ARVM transduced with adenoviruses expressing wild type (WT) or non-phosphorylatable (S573A) B56?, fused to GFP at the N-terminus. C subunit expression was increased in ARVM expressing GFP-B56?-WT or GFP-B56?-S573A, both of which co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous C and A subunits. PP2A activity in cell lysates was increased in response to ISO in ARVM expressing GFP-B56?-WT but not GFP-B56?-S573A. Immunoblot analysis of the phosphoproteome in ARVM expressing GFP-B56?-WT or GFP-B56?-S573A with antibodies detecting (i) phospho-serine/threonine residues in distinct kinase substrate motifs or (ii) specific phosphorylated residues of functional importance in selected proteins revealed a comparable phosphorylation profile in the absence or presence of ISO stimulation. CONCLUSIONS:In cardiomyocytes, ?AR stimulation induces PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the PP2A regulatory subunit isoform B56? at S573, which increases associated PP2A catalytic activity. This is likely to regulate the phosphorylation status of specific B56?-PP2A substrates, which remain to be identified.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin switch region are a hallmark feature of B-cell malignancies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which primary B cells acquire or guard against these lesions. Here we find that translocations between c-myc and the IgH locus (Igh) are induced in primary B cells within hours of expression of the catalytically active form of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme that deaminates cytosine to produce uracil in DNA. Translocation also requires uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), which removes uracil from DNA to create abasic sites that are then processed to double-strand breaks. The pathway that mediates aberrant joining of c-myc and Igh differs from intrachromosomal repair during immunoglobulin class switch recombination in that it does not require histone H2AX, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) or the non-homologous end-joining protein Ku80. In addition, translocations are inhibited by the tumour suppressors ATM, Nbs1, p19 (Arf) and p53, which is consistent with activation of DNA damage- and oncogenic stress-induced checkpoints during physiological class switching. Finally, we demonstrate that accumulation of AID-dependent, IgH-associated chromosomal lesions is not sufficient to enhance c-myc-Igh translocations. Our findings reveal a pathway for surveillance and protection against AID-dependent DNA damage, leading to chromosomal translocations.
Project description:Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. We recently identified Biorientation defective 1 (Bod1) as a small protein inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A containing the B56 regulatory subunit (PP2A-B56). This phosphatase controls the amount of phosphorylation of several kinetochore proteins and thus the establishment of load-bearing chromosome-spindle attachments in time for accurate separation of sister chromatids in mitosis. Like PP2A-B56, Bod1 directly localizes to mitotic kinetochores and is required for correct segregation of mitotic chromosomes. In this report, we have probed the spatio-temporal regulation of Bod1 during mitotic progression. Kinetochore localization of Bod1 increases from nuclear envelope breakdown until metaphase. Phosphorylation of Bod1 at threonine 95 (T95), which increases Bod1's binding to and inhibition of PP2A-B56, peaks in prometaphase when PP2A-B56 localization to kinetochores is highest. We demonstrate here that kinetochore targeting of Bod1 depends on the outer kinetochore protein Ndc80 and not PP2A-B56. Crucially, Bod1 depletion functionally affects Ndc80 phosphorylation at the N-terminal serine 55 (S55), as well as a number of other phosphorylation sites within the outer kinetochore, including Knl1 at serine 24 and 60 (S24, S60), and threonine T943 and T1155 (T943, T1155). Therefore, Ndc80 recruits a phosphatase inhibitor to kinetochores which directly feeds forward to regulate Ndc80, and Knl1 phosphorylation, including sites that mediate the attachment of microtubules to kinetochores.