Epistatic interactions in genetic regulation of t-PA and PAI-1 levels in a Ghanaian population.
ABSTRACT: The proteins, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), act in concert to balance thrombus formation and degradation, thereby modulating the development of arterial thrombosis and excessive bleeding. PAI-1 is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), specifically by angiotensin II, the product of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cleavage of angiotensin I, which is produced by the cleavage of angiotensinogen (AGT) by renin (REN). ACE indirectly stimulates the release of t-PA which, in turn, activates the corresponding fibrinolytic system. Single polymorphisms in these pathways have been shown to significantly impact plasma levels of t-PA and PAI-1 differently in Ghanaian males and females. Here we explore the involvement of epistatic interactions between the same polymorphisms in central genes of the RAS and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels within the same population (n = 992). Statistical modeling of pairwise interactions was done using two-way ANOVA between polymorphisms in the ETNK2, RENIN, ACE, PAI-1, t-PA, and AGT genes. The most significant interactions that associated with t-PA levels were between the ETNK2 A6135G and the REN T9435C polymorphisms in females (p = 0.006) and the REN T9435C and the TPA I/D polymorphisms (p = 0.005) in males. The most significant interactions for PAI-1 levels were with REN T9435C and the TPA I/D polymorphisms (p = 0.001) in females, and the association of REN G6567T with the TPA I/D polymorphisms (p = 0.032) in males. Our results provide evidence for multiple genetic effects that may not be detected using single SNP analysis. Because t-PA and PAI-1 have been implicated in cardiovascular disease these results support the idea that the genetic architecture of cardiovascular disease is complex. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relationship between interacting polymorphisms of pathway specific genes that predict t-PA and PAI-1 levels.
Project description:Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thereby risk for arterial thrombosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been linked to the production of PAI-1 expression via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In addition, bradykinin can induce the release of t-PA through a B2 receptor mechanism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels in a large population-based sample (n=2527). We demonstrated a strong significant interaction within genetic variations of the bradykinin B2 gene (P=0.002) and between ACE and bradykinin B2 (p=0.003) polymorphisms on t-PA levels in females. In males, polymorphisms in the bradykinin B2 and AT1R gene showed the most strong effect on t-PA levels (P=0.006). In both females and males, the bradykinin B2 gene interacted with AT1R gene on plasma PAI-1 levels (P=0.026 and P=0.039, respectively). In addition, the current study found a borderline significant interaction between PAI 4G5G and ACE I/D on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels. These results support the idea that the interplay between the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems might play an important role in t-PA and PAI-1 biology.
Project description:Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation, and have been identified as risk factors for thromboembolic disease. Prior studies investigated determinants of t-PA and PAI-1 expression, but mainly in Caucasian subjects. The aim of this study was to identify the contributions of genetic and other factors to inter-individual variation in plasma levels of t-PA and PAI-1 in a large-scale population-based sample from urban West Africa. t-PA, PAI-1 and several demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were measured in 992 residents of Sunyani, the capital of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. In addition, nine gene polymorphisms associated with components of the renin-angiotensin and fibrinolytic systems were determined. We found that BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides were all significant predictors of t-PA and PAI-1 in both females and males. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G (rs1799768) polymorphism on PAI-1 levels in females, the TPA I/D (rs4646972) polymorphism on t-PA and PAI-1 in males, the renin (rs3730103) polymorphism on t-PA and PAI-1 in males, the ethanolamine kinase 2 (rs1917542) polymorphism on PAI-1 in males, and the renin (rs1464816) polymorphism on t-PA in females and on PAI-1 in males. This study of urban West Africans shows that t-PA and PAI-1 levels are determined by both genetic loci of the fibrinolytic and renin-angiotensin systems and other factors often associated with cardiovascular disease, and that genetic factors differ between males and females.
Project description:Vascular fibrinolytic balance is maintained primarily by interplay of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Previous research has shown that polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin (RA), bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems affect plasma concentrations of both t-PA and PAI-1 through a set of gene-gene interactions. In the present study, we extend this finding by exploring the effects of polymorphisms in genes from these systems on incident cardiovascular disease, explicitly examining two-way interactions in a large population-based study.Data from the population-based PREVEND study in Groningen, The Netherlands (n?=?8,138) were analyzed. The effects of the polymorphisms and their interactions on cardiovascular events were analyzed via Cox proportional hazards models. There was no association between five of the six polymorphisms singly and risk of cardiovascular disease. There was a significant main effect for the ACE I/D polymorphism for both dominant and additive coding schemes. There were significant interactions between the following polymorphism pairs even after adjustment for known risk factors: ACE I/D & PAI-1 4G/5G (p?=?0.012), BDKRB2 C181T & ACE I/D (p?=?0.016), BDKRB2 C58T & ACE I/D (p?=?0.025), BDKRB2 exon 1 I/D & AT1R A1166C (p?=?0.017), and BDKRB2 C58T & AT1R A1166C (p?=?0.015).This study suggests possible interactions between genes from the RA, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on the risk of cardiovascular disease, extending previous research that has demonstrated that interactions among genes from these systems influence plasma concentrations of both t-PA and PAI-1. Further explorations of these interactions are needed.
Project description:In pregnancy, the decidualised endometrium expresses high levels of prorenin and other genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) pathway. In this study we aimed to determined if the RAS was present in endometrial stromal cells and if decidualisation upregulated the expression of prorenin, the prorenin receptor ((P)RR) and associated RAS pathways. Immortalised human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) can be stimulated to decidualise by combined treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), 17?-estradiol (E2) and cAMP (MPA-mix) or with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), a global demethylating agent.HESCs were incubated for 10 days with one of the following treatments: vehicle, MPA-mix, a combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol-17? alone, or AZA. Messenger RNA abundance and protein levels of prorenin (REN), the (P)RR (ATP6AP2), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA's, respectively. Promyelocytic zinc finger (PLZF) and phospho-inositol-3 kinase (PIK3R1) mRNA abundances were also measured.HESCs expressed the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2), REN, AGT, ACE and low levels of AGTR1. MPA-mix and AZA stimulated expression of REN. Prorenin protein secretion was increased in MPA-mix treated HESCs. E2?+?MPA had no effect on any RAS genes. MPA-mix treatment was associated with increased VEGF (VEGFA) and PAI-1 (SERPINE1) mRNA and VEGF protein.An endometrial prorenin receptor/renin angiotensin system is activated by decidualisation. Since (P)RR is abundant, the increase in prorenin secretion could have stimulated VEGF A and SERPINE1 expression via Ang II, as both ACE and AGTR1 are present, or by Ang II independent pathways. Activation of the RAS in human endometrium with decidualisation, through stimulation of VEGF expression and secretion, could be critical in establishing an adequate blood supply to the developing maternal placental vascular bed.
Project description:The testis determining protein, Sry, has functions outside of testis determination. Multiple Sry loci are found on the Y-chromosome. Proteins from these loci have differential activity on promoters of renin-angiotensin system genes, possibly contributing to elevation of blood pressure. Variation at amino acid 76 accounts for the majority of differential effects by rat proteins Sry1 and Sry3. Human SRY regulated rat promoters in the same manner as rat Sry, elevating Agt, Ren, and Ace promoter activity while downregulating Ace 2. Human SRY significantly regulated human promoters of AGT, REN, ACE2, AT2, and MAS compared to control levels, elevating AGT and REN promoter activity while decreasing ACE2, AT2, and MAS. While the effect of human SRY on individual genes is often modest, we show that many different genes participating in the renin-angiotensin system can be affected by SRY, apparently in coordinated fashion, to produce more Ang II and less Ang-(1-7).
Project description:Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) systemically or locally collaborates with tissue homeostasis, growth and development, which has been extensively studied for its pharmacological implications. This study was primarily aimed at finding and characterizing local RAS in rat parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands. It was also hypothesized that vasoactive drugs could affect the expression of RAS targets, as well as saliva flow and its composition. Therefore, another objective of this study was to compare the effects of losartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker) and isoproterenol (?-adrenergic receptor agonist). Forty-one Wistar rats were divided into three groups and administered a daily intraperitoneal dose of saline, losartan or isoproterenol solutions for one week. The following RAS targets were studied using qPCR: renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE-2, elastase-2 (ELA-2), AT1-a and MAS receptors, using RPL-13 as a reference gene. Morphology of glands was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using REN, ACE, ACE-2, AT1, AT2 and MAS antibodies. The volume and total protein content of saliva were measured. Our results revealed that ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, AT2 and MAS receptors were expressed in all salivary gland samples, but REN and ELA-2 were absent. Losartan decreased mRNA expression of RAS targets in parotid (MAS) and submandibular glands (ACE and both AT receptors), without affecting morphological alterations, and significantly decreased saliva and total protein secretions. Isoproterenol treatment affected gene expression profiles in parotid (ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, MAS, AGT), and submandibular (ACE, AT2, AGT) glands, thus promoting acinar hypertrophy in serous acini, without significant changes in salivary flow or total protein content. These drugs affected mainly acini, followed by duct systems and myoepithelial cells, whereas blood vessels were not affected. In conclusion, there is a local RAS in major rat salivary glands and losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, affected not only the RAS-target gene expression but also decreased salivary flow and total protein content.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the effect of polymorphisms in renin angiotensin system genes on the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) exposure and global and executive cognitive function in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:Community. PARTICIPANTS:Three thousand seventy-five participants: mean age 73.6, 58% Caucasian, 52% female, 15% taking ACE-Is, 8 years of follow-up. MEASUREMENTS:The outcomes were longitudinal change in Executive Clock Drawing Test-1 (CLOX1), the Digit Symbol Substitution test, and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. The genetic polymorphisms included angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion deletion (ACEID) in the ACE gene and the M235T and 6AG polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene. RESULTS:For the CLOX1 outcome, there was significant interaction between 6AG and M235T polymorphisms in the AGT gene and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) in Caucasian participants (P=.01 for both polymorphisms) independent of blood pressure levels. Specifically, ACE-I exposure was protective against CLOX1 score decline in carriers of the AA genotype of the 6AG and the CC genotype of the M235T (for the ACE-I vs non-ACE-I groups, P=.01 for 6AG and P=.005 for M235T) but not the other genotypes. These associations were not significant with other cognitive tests, with ACEID, or in African Americans. CONCLUSION:ACE-Is may provide a protective effect on executive function in Caucasians with AGT gene polymorphisms known to be associated with greater renin angiotensin system activity. If confirmed in a pharmacogenetic trial, ACE-Is may be found to have additional cognitive protection in a select group of elderly individuals.
Project description:Introduction:Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (ARRTD) caused by inactivation mutations in AGT, REN, ACE, and AGTR is a very rare but fatal disorder with an unknown prevalence. Methods:We report 6 Taiwanese individuals with ARRTD from 6 unrelated families diagnosed by renal histology. Clinical features, outcome, and prevalence of carrier heterozygosity were examined. Results:All patients exhibited antenatal oligohydramnios, postnatal anuria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and profound hypotension refractory to interventions. Angiotensinogen (AGT) protein levels were diminished in the liver, along with reduced serum AGT, angiotensin I (Ang I) and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Neonatal demise occurred in all but 1 case. All individuals carried the same homozygous E3_E4 del:2870bp deletion+9bp insertion in AGT, which led to a truncated protein (1-292 amino acid). The allelic frequency of this heterozygous AGT mutation was approximately 1.2% (6/500), suggesting that ARRTD may not be exceedingly rare in Taiwan. This mutation results in skipping of exons encoding the serpin domain of AGT, which is important for renin interaction and the generation of truncated protein. In silico modeling revealed a diminished interaction between mutant AGT and renin. One patient survived after responding to high-dose hydrocortisone therapy, with resolution of profound hypotension, accompanied by an increase in serum AGT, Ang I, and Ang II levels. Conclusion:This AGT mutation may lead to the diminished interaction with renin and decreased Ang I and Ang II generation. Hydrocortisone may potentially rescue cases of ARRTD caused by this truncated AGT.
Project description:BACKGROUND The renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is physiologically important for blood pressure regulation. Altered regulation of RAS-related genes has been observed in an animal model of hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats - SHRs). The current understanding of certain RAS-related gene expression differences between Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs is either limited or has not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare the regulation of key RAS-related genes in the kidneys of adult WKYs and SHRs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Coronal sections were dissected through the hilus of kidneys from 16-week-old male WKYs and SHRs. RT-PCR analysis was performed for Ace, Ace2, Agt, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, Agtr2, Atp6ap2 (PRR), Mas1, Ren, Rnls, and Slc12a3 (NCC). RESULTS Increased mRNA expression was observed for Ace, Ace2, Agt, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, and Atp6ap2 in SHRs compared to WKYs. Mas1, Ren, Slc12a3, and Rnls showed no difference in expression between animal types. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that the upregulation of several key RAS-related genes in the kidney may account for the increased blood pressure of adult SHRs.
Project description:Some studies suggest that polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1) and angiotensin II type II receptor (AGTR2) genes may contribute to renal function variation.Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these candidate genes was performed in 2,847 participants from four racial/ethnic groups (African American, Chinese, White and Hispanic) without known cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. SNP and haplotype analyses were performed to determine associations between genotypes and cross-sectional renal function measurements, including urine albumin excretion (UAE) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine and cystatin C.Twenty-four ACE SNPs, 10 AGT SNPs, 15 AGTR1 SNPs and 6 AGTR2 SNPs were typed successfully. After adjusting for ancestry, age and gender, 3 SNPs (AGT M235T, AGT rs2148582 and AGTR1 rs2131127) showed associations with an empiric p value <0.05 with the same phenotype in multiple racial/ethnic groups, suggesting replication. The AGT M235T SNP has been shown previously to be associated with diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy.These data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with renal phenotypes in the general population, but that many associations differ across racial/ethnic groups.