Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic mycotic infection, most common in the tropics and subtropics, following traumatic fungal implantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72 year-old farmer was admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial Hospital, northern Laos, with a growth on the left lower leg which began 1 week after a forefoot leech bite 10 years previously. He presented with a cauliflower-like mass and plaque-like lesions on his lower leg/foot and cellulitis with a purulent tender swelling of his left heel. Twenty-two Chrysomya bezziana larvae were extracted from his heel. PCR of a biopsy of a left lower leg nodule demonstrated Fonsecaea pedrosoi, monophora, or F. nubica. He was successfully treated with long term terbinafin plus itraconazole pulse-therapy and local debridement. CONCLUSIONS: Chromoblastomycosis is reported for the first time from Laos. It carries the danger of bacterial and myiasis superinfection. Leech bites may facilitate infection.
Project description:Chromoblastomycosis, a chronic fungal infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by dematiaceous fungi, is associated with low cure and high relapse rates. Among all factors affecting clinical outcome, etiological agents have an important position. In southern China, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Fonsecaea monophora are main causative agents causing Chromoblastomycosis. We treated one case of chromoblastomycosis by photodynamic therapy (PDT) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) irradiation combined with terbinafine 250 mg a day. The lesions were improved after two sessions of ALA-PDT treatment, each including nine times, at an interval of 1 week, combined with terbinafine 250 mg/day oral, and clinical improvement could be observed. In the following study, based on the clinical treatment, the effect of PDT and antifungal drugs on this isolate was detected in vitro. It showed sensitivity to terbinafine, itraconazole or voriconazole, and PDT inhibited the growth. Both the clinic and experiments in vitro confirm the good outcome of ALA-PDT applied in the inhibition of F. monophora. It demonstrated that combination of antifungal drugs with ALA-PDT arises as a promising alternative method for the treatment of these refractory cases of chromoblastomycosis.
Project description:The fungal genus Fonsecaea comprises etiological agents of human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic implantation skin disease. The current hypothesis is that patients acquire the infection through an injury from plant material. The present study aimed to evaluate a model of infection in plant and animal hosts to understand the parameters of trans-kingdom pathogenicity. Clinical strains of causative agents of chromoblastomycosis (Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Fonsecaea monophora) were compared with a strain of Fonsecaea erecta isolated from a living plant. The clinical strains of F. monophora and F. pedrosoi remained concentrated near the epidermis, whereas F. erecta colonized deeper plant tissues, resembling an endophytic behavior. In an invertebrate infection model with larvae of a beetle, Tenebrio molitor, F. erecta exhibited the lowest survival rates. However, F. pedrosoi produced dark, spherical to ovoidal cells that resembled muriform cells, the invasive form of human chromoblastomycosis confirming the role of muriform cells as a pathogenic adaptation in animal tissues. An immunologic assay in BALB/c mice demonstrated the high virulence of saprobic species in animal models was subsequently controlled via host higher immune response.
Project description:Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic, cutaneous or subcutaneous mycosis characterized by the presence of muriform cells in host tissue. Implantation disease is caused by melanized fungi related to black yeasts, which, in humid tropical climates, are mainly members of the genus <i>Fonsecaea</i>. In endemic areas of Brazil, <i>F. pedrosoi</i> and <i>F. monophora</i> are the prevalent species. The current hypothesis of infection is traumatic introduction via plant materials, especially by plant thorns. However, isolation studies have demonstrated a low frequency of the agents in environmental substrates. The present study aimed to detect <i>F. pedrosoi</i> and <i>F. monophora</i> in shells of babassu coconuts, soil, plant debris, and thorns from endemic areas of chromoblastomycosis in Maranhão state, northern Brazil, using Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) with padlock probes as a new environmental screening tool for agents of chromoblastomycosis. In addition to molecular screening, the environmental samples were analyzed by fungal isolation using mineral oil flotation. The limit of detection of the RCA method was 2.88 × 10<sup>7</sup> copies of DNA per sample for the used padlock probes, indicating that this represents an efficient and sensitive molecular tool for the environmental screening of <i>Fonsecaea</i> agents. In contrast, with isolation from the same samples using several selective methods, no agents of chromoblastomycosis were recovered.
Project description:Chromoblastomycosis is a mutilating infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Proven cases of the main agent, Fonsecaea pedrosoi are mainly limited to (sub)tropical, humid climates of Latin and Central America and the Caribbean. Fonsecaea monophora has a global distribution along the equator. Cases outside the (sub)tropics have thus far mostly been considered to have been imported, but here we report the first endemic case by F. monophora from Argentina. Patient was a 82-year-old rural female worker from Corrientes, a province with a dry continental climate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Because of reductions in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Laos, identification of the causes of fever in people without malaria, and discussion of the best empirical treatment options, are urgently needed. We aimed to identify the causes of non-malarial acute fever in patients in rural Laos. METHODS:For this prospective study, we recruited 1938 febrile patients, between May, 2008, and December, 2010, at Luang Namtha provincial hospital in northwest Laos (n=1390), and between September, 2008, and December, 2010, at Salavan provincial hospital in southern Laos (n=548). Eligible participants were aged 5-49 years with fever (?38°C) lasting 8 days or less and were eligible for malaria testing by national guidelines. FINDINGS:With conservative definitions of cause, we assigned 799 (41%) patients a diagnosis. With exclusion of influenza, the top five diagnoses when only one aetiological agent per patient was identified were dengue (156 [8%] of 1927 patients), scrub typhus (122 [7%] of 1871), Japanese encephalitis virus (112 [6%] of 1924), leptospirosis (109 [6%] of 1934), and bacteraemia (43 [2%] of 1938). 115 (32%) of 358 patients at Luang Namtha hospital tested influenza PCR-positive between June and December, 2010, of which influenza B was the most frequently detected strain (n=121 [87%]). Disease frequency differed significantly between the two sites: Japanese encephalitis virus infection (p=0·04), typhoid (p=0·006), and leptospirosis (p=0·001) were more common at Luang Namtha, whereas dengue and malaria were more common at Salavan (all p<0·0001). With use of evidence from southeast Asia when possible, we estimated that azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone, and ofloxacin would have had significant efficacy for 258 (13%), 240 (12%), 154 (8%), and 41 (2%) of patients, respectively. INTERPRETATION:Our findings suggest that a wide range of treatable or preventable pathogens are implicated in non-malarial febrile illness in Laos. Empirical treatment with doxycycline for patients with undifferentiated fever and negative rapid diagnostic tests for malaria and dengue could be an appropriate strategy for rural health workers in Laos. FUNDING:Wellcome Trust, WHO-Western Pacific Region, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic skin and subcutaneous fungal infection caused by dematiaceous fungi and is associated with low cure and high relapse rates. In southern China, Fonsecaea monophora and Fonsecaea pedrosoi are the main causative agents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We treated 5 refractory and complex cases of chromoblastomycosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) combined with oral antifungal drugs. The lesions improved after 4 to 9 sessions of ALA-PDT treatment at an interval of one or two weeks, and in some cases, mycological testing results became negative. The isolates were assayed for susceptibility to antifungal drugs and ALA-PDT in vitro, revealing sensitivity to terbinafine, itraconazole and voriconazole, with ALA-PDT altering the cell wall and increasing reactive oxygen species production. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide the basis for the development of a new therapeutic approach, and ALA-PDT combined with oral antifungal drugs constitutes a promising alternative method for the treatment of refractory and complex cases of chromoblastomycosis.
Project description:The authors report a case of 40-year-old male patient with a five-year history of chromoblastomycosis on his right leg. Diagnosis was performed by direct 40% KOH exam of skin scales, culture with micro- and macromorphologic analysis, and genotypic characterization (sequencing of a fragment of the ITS region and phylogenetic analysis) of the isolated fungus. Rhinocladiella aquaspersa was identified as the etiological agent. Initially, the treatment was with oral itraconazole 200mg/day for one year. However, the presence of "sclerotic cells" with filaments ("Borelli spiders") resulted in a change of medical treatment: a higher dose of itraconazole (400mg/day) and surgery, achieving clinical and mycological cure in one year. This is the first report of chromoblastomycosis caused by R. aquaspersa in Guatemala.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency) occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009). Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months) living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2%) were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%). In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8) died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths) was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6%) were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2%) reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4%) respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6%) had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8%) possible thiamine deficiency. CONCLUSION:Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity of this nutritional situation requires urgent attention in Laos.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal disease. In China, the principle etiologic agent was a group of dematiaceous fungi, including Fonsecaea monophora, Fonsecaea nubica, and Cladophialophora carrionii. Although the Fonsecaea species have similar morphology, their pathogenicity is quite different. This study aims to establish a new solution for early identification of Fonsecaea species because of their distinctive potential infection risk. METHODS:Five reference strains and 35 clinical isolates from patients with CBM, preserved in our laboratory, were used in this study. The universal primer ITS1 and ITS2 were chosen to amplify the highly conserved regions of rDNA. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was performed using the LIGHTCYCLER® 96 System. All the amplicons were verified by direct sequencing and the sequence were aligned with those in GenBank by BLAST analysis. RESULTS:We successfully differentiated the five strains according to their different Tm values and curve shapes. The 35 clinical isolates from patients were identified as 24 strains for F. monophora and 11 strains for F. nubica, which is consistent with the DNA sequencing results. CONCLUSION:It is the first time to use HRM analysis for identification of Fonsecaea species. Since the CBM etiologic agent in South China is mainly F. monophora and F. nubica, this strategy is sufficient to be applied in the clinical examination with high accuracy, speed, and throughput.
Project description:Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin-DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM) and Czapeck-Dox (CD) medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA). By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in ?-D-Galf-(1?5) and (1?6) linkages, ?- and ?-D-Glcp-(1?3), (1?4), and (1?6) units, as well as in ?-D-Manp. PCA from (1)H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted ?-D-Galf (? 106.0/5.23 and ? 105.3/5.23) units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had ?-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this fungus.