Evidence for naturally occurring recombination in the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein of lymphogranuloma venereum isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis.
ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of the major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) was determined for three geographically distinct lymphogranuloma venereum isolates which were serologically untypeable. The three omp1 sequences were hybrids of serovars L1 and L2, containing a putative DNA recombination site in variable segment 2. Efforts to manipulate the chlamydial genome in vitro by recombination should be intensified.
Project description:We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections in the UK, a statistic that is also reflected globally. There are three biovariants of C. trachomatis: trachoma (serotypes A-C) and two sexually transmitted pathovars; serotypes D-K and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Trachoma isolates and the sexually transmitted serotypes D-K are noninvasive, whereas the LGV strains are invasive, causing a disseminating infection of the local draining lymph nodes. Genome sequences are available for single isolates from the trachoma (serotype A) and sexually transmitted (serotype D) biotypes. We sequenced two isolates from the remaining biotype, LGV, a long-term laboratory passaged strain and the recent "epidemic" LGV isolate-causing proctitis. Although the genome of the LGV strain shows no additional genes that could account for the differences in disease outcome, we found evidence of functional gene loss and identified regions of heightened sequence variation that have previously been shown to be important sites for interstrain recombination. We have used new sequencing technologies to show that the recent clinical LGV isolate causing proctitis is unlikely to be a newly emerged strain but is most probably an old strain with relatively new clinical manifestations.
Project description:We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.
Project description:We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.
Project description:We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco. Thus, the current "outbreak" is most likely a slowly evolving epidemic.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. RESULTS: The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1) -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H) -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5-95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. CONCLUSION: This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies.
Project description:Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection that is causing an ongoing epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, the United Kingdom, and North America. Twenty-nine rectal swabs positive for Chlamydia trachomatis were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of LGV serovars. Genotyping revealed an identical L2b serovar from four specimens. All patients were MSM and human immunodeficiency virus infected. Three of the four presented with severe ulcerative proctitis. We report a cluster of rectal LGV serovar L2b infections in Sydney, Australia.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a diversity of severe and debilitating diseases worldwide. Sporadic and ongoing outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) support the need for research on virulence factors associated with these organisms. Previous analyses have been limited to single genes or genomes of laboratory-adapted reference strain L(2)/434 and outbreak strain L(2)b/UCH-1/proctitis. We characterized an unusual LGV strain, termed L(2)c, isolated from an MSM with severe hemorrhagic proctitis. L(2)c developed nonfusing, grape-like inclusions and a cytotoxic phenotype in culture, unlike the LGV strains described to date. Deep genome sequencing revealed that L(2)c was a recombinant of L(2) and D strains with conserved clustered regions of genetic exchange, including a 78-kb region and a partial, yet functional, toxin gene that was lost with prolonged culture. Indels (insertions/deletions) were discovered in an ftsK gene promoter and in the tarp and hctB genes, which encode key proteins involved in replication, inclusion formation, and histone H1-like protein activity, respectively. Analyses suggest that these indels affect gene and/or protein function, supporting the in vitro and disease phenotypes. While recombination has been known to occur for C. trachomatis based on gene sequence analyses, we provide the first whole-genome evidence for recombination between a virulent, invasive LGV strain and a noninvasive common urogenital strain. Given the lack of a genetic system for producing stable C. trachomatis mutants, identifying naturally occurring recombinants can clarify gene function and provide opportunities for discovering avenues for genomic manipulation.Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a prevalent and debilitating sexually transmitted disease in developing countries, although there are significant ongoing outbreaks in Australia, Europe, and the United States among men who have sex with men (MSM). Relatively little is known about LGV virulence factors, and only two LGV genomes have been sequenced to date. We isolated an LGV strain from an MSM with severe hemorrhagic proctitis that was morphologically unique in tissue culture compared with other LGV strains. Bioinformatic and statistical analyses identified the strain as a recombinant of L(2) and D strains with highly conserved clustered regions of genetic exchange. The unique culture morphology and, more importantly, disease phenotype could be traced to the genes involved in recombination. The findings have implications for bacterial species evolution and, in the case of ongoing LGV outbreaks, suggest that recombination is a mechanism for strain emergence that results in significant disease pathology.
Project description:We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.
Project description:An outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections has recently been reported from The Netherlands and other European countries. The Swedish surveillance system has identified three LGV cases since 2004, all with clinically suspected infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). In order to assess the prevalence of LGV in a high-risk group of MSM and include clinically atypical cases, retrospective analysis of 197 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected men was performed. Sequencing of the ompA gene showed a different serotype distribution compared to recent Swedish studies in heterosexual populations. The most common types were G (45%), D (27%), and J (26%), whereas the normally predominant type E accounted for only 4% of the chlamydia cases. Furthermore, certain ompA genotype variants of the dominant serotypes were highly prevalent among MSM, and the reason for this is discussed. No additional case of LGV was detected by retrospective analysis of the high-risk MSM population. This indicates that, thus far, LGV in Sweden is only a result of sporadic import from infected MSM clusters abroad.