LT?R signaling in dendritic cells induces a type I IFN response that is required for optimal clonal expansion of CD8+ T cells.
ABSTRACT: During an immune response, antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) migrate to the local draining lymph node and present antigen to CD4(+) helper T cells. Antigen-activated CD4(+) T cells then up-regulate TNF superfamily members including CD40 ligand and lymphotoxin (LT)??. Although it is well-accepted that CD40 stimulation on DCs is required for DC licensing and cross-priming of CD8(+) T-cell responses, it is likely that other signals are integrated into a comprehensive DC activation program. Here we show that a cognate interaction between LT?? on CD4(+) helper T cells and LT? receptor on DCs results in unique signals that are necessary for optimal CD8(+) T-cell expansion via a type I IFN-dependent mechanism. In contrast, CD40 signaling appears to be more critical for CD8(+) T-cell IFN? production. Therefore, different TNF family members provide integrative signals that shape the licensing potential of antigen-presenting DCs.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) link innate and adaptive immunity and use a host of innate immune and inflammatory receptors to respond to pathogens and inflammatory stimuli. Although DC maturation via canonical NF-κB signaling is critical for many of these functions, the role of noncanonical NF-κB signaling via the serine/threonine kinase NIK (NF-κB-inducing kinase) remains unclear. Because NIK-deficient mice lack secondary lymphoid organs, we generated transgenic mice with targeted NIK deletion in CD11c(+) cells. Although these mice exhibited normal lymphoid organs, they were defective in cross-priming naive CD8(+) T cells following vaccination, even in the presence of anti-CD40 or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid to induce DC maturation. This impairment reflected two intrinsic defects observed in splenic CD8(+) DCs in vitro, namely antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells and secretion of IL-12p40, a cytokine known to promote cross-priming in vivo. In contrast, antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells was not affected. These findings reveal that NIK, and thus probably the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, is critical to allow DCs to acquire the capacity to cross-present antigen and prime CD8 T cells after exposure to licensing stimuli, such as an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody or Toll-like receptor 3 ligand.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) impairs dendritic cell (DC) functions and induces suboptimal antigen-specific CD4 T cell immune responses that are poorly protective. Mucosal T-helper cells producing IFN-? (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) are important for protecting against tuberculosis (TB), but the mechanisms by which DCs generate antigen-specific T-helper responses during Mtb infection are not well defined. We previously reported that Mtb impairs CD40 expression on DCs and restricts Th1 and Th17 responses. We now demonstrate that CD40-dependent costimulation is required to generate IL-17 responses to Mtb. CD40-deficient DCs were unable to induce antigen-specific IL-17 responses after Mtb infection despite the production of Th17-polarizing innate cytokines. Disrupting the interaction between CD40 on DCs and its ligand CD40L on antigen-specific CD4 T cells, genetically or via antibody blockade, significantly reduced antigen-specific IL-17 responses. Importantly, engaging CD40 on DCs with a multimeric CD40 agonist (CD40LT) enhanced antigen-specific IL-17 generation in ex vivo DC-T cell co-culture assays. Further, intratracheal instillation of Mtb-infected DCs treated with CD40LT significantly augmented antigen-specific Th17 responses in vivo in the lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes of mice. Finally, we show that boosting CD40-CD40L interactions promoted balanced Th1/Th17 responses in a setting of mucosal DC transfer, and conferred enhanced control of lung bacterial burdens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. Our results demonstrate that CD40 costimulation by DCs plays an important role in generating antigen-specific Th17 cells and targeting the CD40-CD40L pathway represents a novel strategy to improve adaptive immunity to TB.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen-presenting cells that can efficiently prime and cross-prime antigen-specific T cells. Delivering antigen to DCs via surface receptors is thus an appealing strategy to evoke cellular immunity. Nonetheless, which DC surface receptor to target to yield the optimal CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses remains elusive. Herein, we report the superiority of CD40 over 9 different lectins and scavenger receptors at evoking antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. However, lectins (e.g., LOX-1 and Dectin-1) were more efficient than CD40 at eliciting CD4(+) T cell responses. Common and distinct patterns of subcellular and intracellular localization of receptor-bound ?CD40, ?LOX-1 and ?Dectin-1 further support their functional specialization at enhancing antigen presentation to either CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that antigen targeting to CD40 can evoke potent antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in human CD40 transgenic mice. This study provides fundamental information for the rational design of vaccines against cancers and viral infections.
Project description:The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines is limited by suboptimal DC maturation protocols. Although delivery of TLR adjuvants systemically boosts DC-based cancer vaccine efficacy, it could also increase toxicity. Here, we have engineered a drug-inducible, composite activation receptor for DCs (referred to herein as DC-CAR) comprising the TLR adaptor MyD88, the CD40 cytoplasmic region, and 2 ligand-binding FKBP12 domains. Administration of a lipid-permeant dimerizing ligand (AP1903) induced oligomerization and activation of this fusion protein, which we termed iMyD88/CD40. AP1903 administration to vaccinated mice enabled prolonged and targeted activation of iMyD88/CD40-modified DCs. Compared with conventionally matured DCs, AP1903-activated iMyD88/CD40-DCs had increased activation of proinflammatory MAPKs. AP1903-activated iMyD88/CD40-transduced human or mouse DCs also produced higher levels of Th1 cytokines, showed improved migration in vivo, and enhanced both antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and innate NK cell responses. Furthermore, treatment with AP1903 in vaccinated mice led to robust antitumor immunity against preestablished E.G7-OVA lymphomas and aggressive B16.F10 tumors. Thus, the iMyD88/CD40 unified "switch" effectively and safely replaced exogenous adjuvant cocktails, allowing remote and sustained DC activation in vivo. DC "licensing" through iMyD88/CD40 may represent a mechanism by which to exploit the natural synergy between the TLR and CD40 signaling pathways in DCs using a single small molecule drug and could augment the efficacy of antitumor DC-based vaccines.
Project description:Although induction of CD8 T-cell responses to transplants requires CD4-cell help, how this help is transmitted remains incompletely characterized. In vitro, cognate interactions between CD4 T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) induce C3a and C5a production. CD8(+) T cells lacking C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR) proliferate weakly to allogeneic DCs despite CD4 help, indicating that CD4-cell help is mediated, in part, through DC-derived C3a/C5a acting on CD8(+) T cell-expressed C3aR/C5aR. In support of this concept, augmenting DC C5a/C3a production bypasses the requirement for CD4- and CD40-dependent help to wild-type CD8(+) T cells. CD4-deficient recipients of allogeneic heart transplants prime weak CD8 responses and do not acutely reject their grafts. In contrast, CD4-deficient chimeric mice possessing decay accelerating factor deficient (Daf1(-/-)) bone marrow, in which DC C3a/C5a production is potentiated, acutely reject transplants through a CD8 cell-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, hearts transplanted into CD40(-/-) mice prime weak CD8-cell responses and survive indefinitely, but hearts transplanted into Daf1(-/-)CD40(-/-) recipients undergo CD8 cell-dependent rejection. Together, the data indicate that heightened production and activation of immune cell-derived complement bypasses the need for CD40/CD154 interactions and implicate antigen-presenting cell-produced C5a and C3a as molecular bridges linking CD4 help to CD8(+) T cells.
Project description:DCs are important mediators of peripheral tolerance for the prevention of autoimmunity. Chimeric ?DEC-205 antibodies with attached antigens allow in vivo antigen-specific stimulation of T cells by CD8(+) DCs, resulting in tolerance in nonautoimmune mice. However, it is not clear whether DC-mediated tolerance induction occurs in the context of ongoing autoimmunity. We assessed the role of CD8(+) DCs in stimulation of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells in the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Targeting of antigen to CD8(+) DCs via ?DEC-205 led to proliferation and expansion of ?-cell specific BDC2.5 T cells. These T cells also produced IL-2 and IFN-? and did not up-regulate FoxP3, consistent with an activated rather than tolerant phenotype. Similarly, endogenous BDC peptide-reactive T cells, identified with I-A(g7) tetramers, did not become tolerant after antigen delivery via ?DEC-205: no deletion or Treg induction was observed. We observed that CD8(+) DCs from NOD mice expressed higher surface levels of CD40 than CD8(+) DCs from C57BL/6 mice. Blockade of CD40-CD40L interactions reduced the number of BDC2.5 T cells remaining in mice, 10 days after antigen targeting to CD8 DCs, and blocked IFN-? production by BDC2.5 T cells. These data indicate that the ability of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells to undergo tolerance mediated by CD8(+) DCs is defective in NOD mice and that blocking CD40-CD40L interactions can restore tolerance induction.
Project description:CD4+ T cell help to CD8+ T cell responses requires that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the same antigen presenting dendritic cell (Ag+DC), but it remains controversial whether helper signals are delivered indirectly through a licensed DC and/or involve direct CD4+/CD8+ T cell contacts and/or the formation of ternary complexes. We here describe the first in vivo imaging of the intact spleen, aiming to evaluate the first interactions between antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ T cells and Ag+DCs. We show that in contrast to CD4+ T cells which form transient contacts with Ag+DC, CD8+ T cells form immediate stable contacts and activate the Ag+DC, acquire fragments of the DC membranes by trogocytosis, leading to their acquisition of some of the DC properties. They express MHC class II, and become able to present the specific Marilyn peptide to naïve Marilyn CD4+ T cells, inducing their extensive division. In vivo, these CD8+ T cells form direct stable contacts with motile naïve CD4+ T cells, recruiting them to Ag+DC binding and to the formation of ternary complexes, where CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the DC and with one another. The presence of CD8+ T cells during in vivo immune responses leads to the early activation and up-regulation of multiple functions by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, while CD4+ T cell help is important to CD8+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cells can interact directly with naïve CD4+ T cells impacting their recruitment and differentiation.
Project description:CD8+ T cells play an important role in providing protective immunity against a wide range of pathogens, and a number of different factors control their activation. Although CD40L-mediated CD40 licensing of dendritic cells (DCs) by CD4+ T cells is known to be necessary for the generation of a robust CD8+ T cell response, the contribution of CD8+ T cell-expressed CD40L on DC licensing is less clear. We have previously shown that CD8+ T cells are able to induce the production of IL-12 p70 by DCs in a CD40L-dependent manner, providing some evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated activation of DCs is possible. To better understand the role of CD40L on CD8+ T cell responses, we generated and characterized CD40L-expressing CD8+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. We found that CD40L was expressed on 30-50% of effector CD8+ T cells when stimulated and that this expression was transient. The expression of CD40L on CD8+ T cells promoted the proliferation and differentiation of both the CD40L-expressing CD8+ T cells and the bystander effector CD8+ T cells. This process occurred via a cell-extrinsic manner and was mediated by DCs. These data demonstrate the existence of a mechanism where CD8+ T cells and DCs cooperate to maximize CD8+ T cell responses.
Project description:Following activation, naïve CD8(+) T cells will differentiate into effectors that differ in their ability to survive: some will persist as memory cells while the majority will die by apoptosis. Signals given by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) at the time of priming modulate this differential outcome. We have recently shown that, in opposition to dendritic cell (DC), CD40-activated B-(CD40-B) cell vaccination fails to efficiently produce CD8(+) memory T cells. Understanding why CD40-B-cell vaccination does not lead to the generation of functional long-lived memory cells is essential to define the signals that should be provided to naïve T cells by APCs. Here we show that CD40-B cells produce very low amount of IL-6 when compared to DCs. However, supplementation with IL-6 during CD40-B-cell vaccination did not improve memory generation. Furthermore, IL-6-deficient DCs maintained the capacity to promote the formation of functional CD8(+) effectors and memory cells. Our results suggest that in APC vaccination models, IL-6 provided by the APCs is dispensable for proper CD8(+) T-cell memory generation.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key initiators of T-helper (Th) 2 immune responses against the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Although the liver is one of the main sites of antigen deposition during infection with this parasite, it is not yet clear how distinct DC subtypes in this tissue respond to S. mansoni antigens in vivo, or how the liver microenvironment might influence DC function during establishment of the Th2 response. In this study, we show that hepatic DC subsets undergo distinct activation processes in vivo following murine infection with S. mansoni. Conventional DCs (cDCs) from schistosome-infected mice upregulated expression of the costimulatory molecule CD40 and were capable of priming naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) upregulated expression of MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 but were unable to support the expansion of either naive or effector/memory CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, in vivo depletion of pDCs revealed that this subset was dispensable for either maintenance or regulation of the hepatic Th2 effector response during acute S. mansoni infection. Our data provides strong evidence that S. mansoni infection favors the establishment of an immunogenic, rather than tolerogenic, liver microenvironment that conditions cDCs to initiate and maintain Th2 immunity in the context of ongoing antigen exposure.