Inhibition of Nox2 oxidase activity ameliorates influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus pandemics and emerging anti-viral resistance highlight the urgent need for novel generic pharmacological strategies that reduce both viral replication and lung inflammation. We investigated whether the primary enzymatic source of inflammatory cell ROS (reactive oxygen species), Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, is a novel pharmacological target against the lung inflammation caused by influenza A viruses. Male WT (C57BL/6) and Nox2(-/y) mice were infected intranasally with low pathogenicity (X-31, H3N2) or higher pathogenicity (PR8, H1N1) influenza A virus. Viral titer, airways inflammation, superoxide and peroxynitrite production, lung histopathology, pro-inflammatory (MCP-1) and antiviral (IL-1β) cytokines/chemokines, CD8(+) T cell effector function and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis were assessed. Infection of Nox2(-/y) mice with X-31 virus resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers, BALF macrophages, peri-bronchial inflammation, BALF inflammatory cell superoxide and lung tissue peroxynitrite production, MCP-1 levels and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis when compared to WT control mice. Lung levels of IL-1β were ∼3-fold higher in Nox2(-/y) mice. The numbers of influenza-specific CD8+D(b)NP(366)+ and D(b)PA(224)+ T cells in the BALF and spleen were comparable in WT and Nox2(-/y) mice. In vivo administration of the Nox2 inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed viral titer, airways inflammation and inflammatory cell superoxide production following infection with X-31 or PR8. In conclusion, these findings indicate that Nox2 inhibitors have therapeutic potential for control of lung inflammation and damage in an influenza strain-independent manner.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause respiratory tract infections that can be fatal when the virus spreads to the alveolar space (i.e. alveolitis), and this is mainly observed with highly pathogenic strains. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase in endosomes has been directly implicated in IAV pathology. Recently, we demonstrated that treatment with a novel endosome-targeted NOX2 oxidase inhibitor, cholestanol-conjugated gp91dsTAT (Cgp91ds-TAT), attenuated airway inflammation and viral replication to infection with a low pathogenic influenza A viral strain. Here, we determined whether suppression of endosome NOX2 oxidase prevents the lung inflammation following infection with a highly pathogenic IAV strain. METHODS:C57Bl/6 mice were intranasally treated with either DMSO vehicle (2%) or Cgp91ds-TAT (0.2?mg/kg/day) 1 day prior to infection with the high pathogenicity PR8 IAV strain (500?PFU/mouse). At Day 3 post-infection, mice were culled for the evaluation of airway and lung inflammation, viral titres and ROS generation. RESULTS:PR8 infection resulted in a marked degree of airway inflammation, epithelial denudation, alveolitis and inflammatory cell ROS production. Cgp91ds-TAT treatment significantly attenuated airway inflammation, including neutrophil influx, the degree of alveolitis and inflammatory cell ROS generation. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory phenotype affected by Cgp91ds-TAT significantly enhanced the clearance of lung viral mRNA following PR8 infection. CONCLUSION:Endosomal NOX2 oxidase promotes pathogenic lung inflammation to IAV infection. The localized delivery of endosomal NOX2 oxidase inhibitors is a novel therapeutic strategy against IAV, which has the potential to limit the pathogenesis caused during epidemics and pandemics.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.
Project description:Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y)) mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4) PFU) influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y) mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3); BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1?, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-? was higher in Nox1(-/y) lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-? and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y) mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y) mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear to have opposing roles in the regulation of inflammation caused by influenza A viruses.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the primary pathogenic molecules produced in viral lung infections. We previously reported on the use of a recombinant human serum albumin (HSA)-thioredoxin 1 (Trx) fusion protein (HSA-Trx) for extending the half-life Trx, an endogenous protein with anti-oxidant properties. As a result, it was possible to overcome the unfavorable pharmacokinetic and short pharmacological properties of Trx. We hypothesized that HSA-Trx would attenuate the enhanced ROS production of species such as hydroxyl radicals by neutrophils during an influenza viral infection. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine were used as indices of the anti-oxidant activity of HSA-Trx. In addition, the cytoprotective effects of HSA-Trx were examined in PR8 (H1N1) influenza virus-induced lung injured mice. The findings show that HSA-Trx reduced the number of total cells, neutrophils, and total protein in BALF of influenza virus-induced lung injured mice. The HSA-Trx treatment significantly decreased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine, but failed to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, in the lungs of the virus-infected mice. On the other hand, Tamiflu(®) treatment also significantly suppressed the production of inflammatory cells and neutrophil infiltration, as well as the protein level in BALF and lung histopathological alterations caused by the influenza virus. The suppressive effect of Tamiflu(®) was slightly stronger than that of HSA-Trx. Interestingly, Tamiflu(®) significantly decreased virus proliferation, while HSA-Trx had no effect. These results indicate that HSA-Trx may be of therapeutic value for the treatment of various acute inflammatory disorders such as influenza-virus-induced pneumonia, by inhibiting inflammatory-cell responses and suppressing the overproduction of NO in the lung.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are major pathogenic molecules produced during viral lung infections, including influenza. While fluoroquinolones are widely used as antimicrobial agents for treating a variety of bacterial infections, including secondary infections associated with the influenza virus, it has been reported that they also function as anti-oxidants against ROS and as a NO regulator. Therefore, we hypothesized that levofloxacin (LVFX), one of the most frequently used fluoroquinolone derivatives, may attenuate pulmonary injuries associated with influenza virus infections by inhibiting the production of ROS species such as hydroxyl radicals and neutrophil-derived NO that is produced during an influenza viral infection. The therapeutic impact of LVFX was examined in a PR8 (H1N1) influenza virus-induced lung injury mouse model. ESR spin-trapping experiments indicated that LVFX showed scavenging activity against neutrophil-derived hydroxyl radicals. LVFX markedly improved the survival rate of mice that were infected with the influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the LVFX treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress) and nitrotyrosine (a nitrative marker) in the lungs of virus-infected mice, and the nitrite/nitrate ratio (NO metabolites) and IFN-? in BALF. These results indicate that LVFX may be of substantial benefit in the treatment of various acute inflammatory disorders such as influenza virus-induced pneumonia, by inhibiting inflammatory cell responses and suppressing the overproduction of NO in the lungs.
Project description:Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules generated in different subcellular sites or compartments, including endosomes via the NOX2-containing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase during an immune response and in mitochondria during cellular respiration. However, while endosomal NOX2 oxidase promotes innate inflammation to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, the role of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) has not been comprehensively investigated in the context of viral infections in vivo. Results: In this study, we show that pharmacological inhibition of mtROS, with intranasal delivery of MitoTEMPO, resulted in a reduction in airway/lung inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, viral titers, as well as overall morbidity and mortality in mice infected with IAV (Hkx31, H3N2). MitoTEMPO treatment also attenuated apoptotic and necrotic neutrophils and macrophages in airway and lung tissue. At an early phase of influenza infection, that is, day 3 there were significantly lower amounts of IL-1? protein in the airways, but substantially higher amounts of type I IFN-? following MitoTEMPO treatment. Importantly, blocking mtROS did not appear to alter the initiation of an adaptive immune response by lung dendritic cells, nor did it affect lung B and T cell populations that participate in humoral and cellular immunity. Innovation/Conclusion: Influenza virus infection promotes mtROS production, which drives innate immune inflammation and this exacerbates viral pathogenesis. This pathogenic cascade highlights the therapeutic potential of local mtROS antioxidant delivery to alleviate influenza virus pathology.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral bronchiolitis in both children and the elderly. There is no vaccine available for the prevention of RSV infection. Here, we generated recombinant influenza virus (PR8/RSV.HA-F) expressing an RSV F243-294 neutralizing epitope in the hemagglutinin (HA) as a chimeric protein. Neutralizing antibodies specific for both RSV and influenza virus were induced by a single intranasal immunization of mice with PR8/RSV.HA-F. Mice that were immunized with PR8/RSV.HA-F were protected against RSV infection comparable with live RSV as evidenced by significant reduction of RSV lung viral loads, as well as the absence of lung eosinophilia and RSV-specific cellular immune responses. In contrast, formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized mice showed severe disease and high cellular immune responses in lungs after RSV infection. These findings support a concept that recombinant influenza virus carrying the RSV F243-294 neutralizing epitope can be developed as a promising RSV vaccine candidate which induces protective neutralizing antibodies but avoids lung immunopathology.
Project description:Syndecan-1 is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan primarily expressed in the lung epithelium. Because the influenza virus is tropic to the airway epithelium, we investigated the role of syndecan-1 in influenza infection.To determine the mechanism by which syndecan-1 regulates the lung mucosal response to influenza infection.Wild-type (WT) and Sdc1(-/-) mice were infected with a H1N1 virus (PR8) as an experimental model of influenza infection. Human and murine airway epithelial cell cultures were also infected with PR8 to study the mechanism by which syndecan-1 regulates the inflammatory response.We found worsened outcomes and lung injury in Sdc1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice after influenza infection. Our data demonstrated that syndecan-1 suppresses bronchial epithelial apoptosis during influenza infection to limit widespread lung inflammation. Furthermore, we determined that syndecan-1 attenuated apoptosis by crosstalking with c-Met to potentiate its cytoprotective signals in airway epithelial cells during influenza infection.Our work shows that cell-associated syndecan-1 has an important role in regulating lung injury. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism in which cell membrane-associated syndecan-1 regulates the innate immune response to influenza infection by facilitating cytoprotective signals through c-Met signaling to limit bronchial epithelial apoptosis, thereby attenuating lung injury and inflammation.
Project description:Avian influenza H5N1 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses are known to induce viral pneumonia and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). The mortality rate of ARDS/DAD is extremely high, at approximately 60%, and no effective treatment for ARDS/DAD has been established. We examined serial pathological changes in the lungs of mice infected with influenza virus to determine the progress from viral pneumonia to ARDS/DAD. Mice were intranasally infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, and their lungs were examined both macro- and micro-pathologically every 2 days. We also evaluated general condition, survival rate, body weight, viral loads in lung, and surfactant proteins in serum. As a result, all infected mice died within 9 days postinfection. At 2 days postinfection, inflammation in alveolar septa, i.e., interstitial pneumonia, was observed around bronchioles. From 4 to 6 days postinfection, interstitial pneumonia with alveolar collapse expanded throughout the lungs. From 6 to 9 days postinfection, DAD with severe alveolar collapse was observed in the lungs of all of dying and dead mice. In contrast, DAD was not observed in the live infected-mice from 2 to 6 days postinfection, despite their poor general condition. In addition, histopathological analysis was performed in mice infected with a dose of PR8 virus which was 50% of the lethal dose for mice in the 20-day observation period. DAD with alveolar collapse was observed in all dead mice. However, in the surviving mice, instead of DAD, glandular metaplasia was broadly observed in their lungs. The present study indicates that DAD with severe alveolar collapse is associated with death in this mouse infection model of influenza virus. Inhibition of the development of DAD with alveolar collapse may decrease the mortality rate in severe viral pneumonia caused by influenza virus infection.
Project description:Pertussis (whooping cough) is frequently complicated by concomitant infections with respiratory viruses. Here we report the effect of Bordetella pertussis infection on subsequent influenza virus (PR8) infection in mouse models and the role of pertussis toxin (PT) in this effect. BALB/c mice infected with a wild-type strain of B. pertussis (WT) and subsequently (up to 14 days later) infected with PR8 had significantly increased pulmonary viral titers, lung pathology and mortality compared to mice similarly infected with a PT-deficient mutant strain (?PT) and PR8. Substitution of WT infection by intranasal treatment with purified active PT was sufficient to replicate the exacerbating effects on PR8 infection in BALB/c and C57/BL6 mice, but the effects of PT were lost when toxin was administered 24 h after virus inoculation. PT had no effect on virus titers in primary cultures of murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) in vitro, suggesting the toxin targets an early immune response to increase viral titers in the mouse model. However, type I interferon responses were not affected by PT. Whole genome microarray analysis of gene expression in lung tissue from PT-treated and control PR8-infected mice at 12 and 36 h post-virus inoculation revealed that PT treatment suppressed numerous genes associated with communication between innate and adaptive immune responses. In mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, increase of pulmonary viral titers by PT treatment was lost. PT also suppressed levels of IL-1?, IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, KC, MCP-1 and TNF-? in the airways after PR8 infection. Furthermore PT treatment inhibited early recruitment of neutrophils and NK cells to the airways. Together these findings demonstrate that infection with B. pertussis through PT activity predisposes the host to exacerbated influenza infection by countering protective innate immune responses that control virus titers.