Complete genome sequence of Desulfarculus baarsii type strain (2st14).
ABSTRACT: Desulfarculus baarsii (Widdel 1981) Kuever et al. 2006 is the type and only species of the genus Desulfarculus, which represents the family Desulfarculaceae and the order Desulfarculales. This species is a mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium with the capability to oxidize acetate and fatty acids of up to 18 carbon atoms completely to CO(2). The acetyl-CoA/CODH (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway is used by this species for the complete oxidation of carbon sources and autotrophic growth on formate. The type strain 2st14(T) was isolated from a ditch sediment collected near the University of Konstanz, Germany. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the order Desulfarculales. The 3,655,731 bp long single replicon genome with its 3,303 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) is a five-subunit enzyme complex responsible for the carbonyl branch of the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway, considered one of the most ancient metabolisms for anaerobic carbon fixation, but its origin and evolutionary history have been unclear. While traditionally associated with methanogens and acetogens, the presence of CODH/ACS homologs has been reported in a large number of uncultured anaerobic lineages. Here, we have carried out an exhaustive phylogenomic study of CODH/ACS in over 6,400 archaeal and bacterial genomes. The identification of complete and likely functional CODH/ACS complexes in these genomes significantly expands its distribution in microbial lineages. The CODH/ACS complex displays astounding conservation and vertical inheritance over geological times. Rare intradomain and interdomain transfer events might tie into important functional transitions, including the acquisition of CODH/ACS in some archaeal methanogens not known to fix carbon, the tinkering of the complex in a clade of model bacterial acetogens, or emergence of archaeal-bacterial hybrid complexes. Once these transfers were clearly identified, our results allowed us to infer the presence of a CODH/ACS complex with at least four subunits in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Different scenarios on the possible role of ancestral CODH/ACS are discussed. Despite common assumptions, all are equally compatible with an autotrophic, mixotrophic, or heterotrophic LUCA. Functional characterization of CODH/ACS from a larger spectrum of bacterial and archaeal lineages and detailed evolutionary analysis of the WL methyl branch will help resolve this issue.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The future sustainable production of chemicals and fuels from nonpetrochemical resources and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are two of the greatest societal challenges. Gas fermentation, which utilizes the ability of acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum to grow and convert CO2 and CO into low-carbon fuels and chemicals, could potentially provide solutions to both. Acetogens fix these single-carbon gases via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Two enzyme activities are predicted to be essential to the pathway: carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which combines with CODH to form a CODH/ACS complex for acetyl-CoA fixation. Despite their pivotal role in carbon fixation, their functions have not been confirmed in vivo By genetically manipulating all three CODH isogenes (acsA, cooS1, and cooS2) of C. autoethanogenum, we highlighted the functional redundancies of CODH by demonstrating that cooS1 and cooS2 are dispensable for autotrophy. Unexpectedly, the cooS1 inactivation strain showed a significantly reduced lag phase and a higher growth rate than the wild type on H2 and CO2 During heterotrophic growth on fructose, the acsA inactivation strain exhibited 61% reduced biomass and the abolishment of acetate production (a hallmark of acetogens), in favor of ethanol, lactate, and 2,3-butanediol production. A translational readthrough event was discovered in the uniquely truncated (compared to those of other acetogens) C. autoethanogenum acsA gene. Insights gained from studying the function of CODH enhance the overall understanding of autotrophy and can be used for optimization of biotechnological production of ethanol and other commodities via gas fermentation. IMPORTANCE:Gas fermentation is an emerging technology that converts the greenhouse gases CO2 and CO in industrial waste gases and gasified biomass into fuels and chemical commodities. Acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum are central to this bioprocess, but the molecular and genetic characterization of this microorganism is currently lacking. By targeting all three of the isogenes encoding carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) in C. autoethanogenum, we identified the most important CODH isogene for carbon fixation and demonstrated that genetic inactivation of CODH could improve autotrophic growth. This study shows that disabling of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway via the inactivation of acsA (encodes CODH) significantly impairs heterotrophic growth and alters the product profile by abolishing acetate production. Moreover, we discovered a previously undescribed mechanism for controlling the production of this enzyme. This study provides valuable insights into the acetogenic pathway and can be used for the development of more efficient and productive strains for gas fermentation.
Project description:With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO2, and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum, which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms.IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum, which is natively incapable of CO2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), enabled C. acetobutylicum to catalyze both CO2 reduction and CO oxidation. Importantly, CODH exhibited activity in both the presence and absence of ACS. 13C-tracer studies confirmed that the engineered C. acetobutylicum strains can reduce CO2 to CO and oxidize CO during growth on glucose.
Project description:Acetogens are naturally capable of metabolizing carbon monoxide (CO), a component of synthesis gas (syngas), for autotrophic growth in order to produce biomass and metabolites such as acetyl-CoA via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. However, the autotrophic growth of acetogens is often inhibited by the presence of high CO concentrations because of CO toxicity, thus limiting their biosynthetic potential for industrial applications. Herein, we implemented adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) for growth improvement of Eubacterium limosum ATCC 8486 under high CO conditions. The strain evolved under syngas conditions with 44% CO over 150 generations, resulting in a significant increased optical density (600 nm) and growth rate by 2.14 and 1.44 folds, respectively. In addition, the evolved populations were capable of proliferating under CO concentrations as high as 80%. These results suggest that cell growth is enhanced as beneficial mutations are selected and accumulated, and the metabolism is altered to facilitate the enhanced phenotype. To identify the causal mutations related to growth improvement under high CO concentrations, we performed whole genome resequencing of each population at 50-generation intervals. Interestingly, we found key mutations in CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) complex coding genes, acsA and cooC. To characterize the mutational effects on growth under CO, we isolated single clones and confirmed that the growth rate and CO tolerance level of the single clone were comparable to those of the evolved populations and wild type strain under CO conditions. Furthermore, the evolved strain produced 1.34 folds target metabolite acetoin when compared to the parental strain while introducing the biosynthetic pathway coding genes to the strains. Consequently, this study demonstrates that the mutations in the CODH/ACS complex affect autotrophic growth enhancement in the presence of CO as well as the CO tolerance of E. limosum ATCC 8486.
Project description:Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway for acetogenesis performed by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate generated by gut bacteria via the acetyl-CoA pathway provides considerable nutrition to wood-feeding dictyopteran insects making CODH important to the obligate mutualism occurring between termites and their hindgut microbiota. To investigate CODH diversity in insect gut communities, we developed the first degenerate primers designed to amplify cooS genes, which encode the catalytic (?) subunit of anaerobic CODH enzyme complexes. These primers target over 68 million combinations of potential forward and reverse cooS primer-binding sequences. We used the primers to identify cooS genes in bacterial isolates from the hindgut of a phylogenetically lower termite and to sample cooS diversity present in a variety of insect hindgut microbial communities including those of three phylogenetically-lower termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, Reticulitermes hesperus, and Incisitermes minor, a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and an omnivorous cockroach, Periplaneta americana. In total, we sequenced and analyzed 151 different cooS genes. These genes encode proteins that group within one of three highly divergent CODH phylogenetic clades. Each insect gut community contained CODH variants from all three of these clades. The patterns of CODH diversity in these communities likely reflect differences in enzyme or physiological function, and suggest that a diversity of microbial species participate in homoacetogenesis in these communities.
Project description:The bifunctional CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) plays a central role in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of autotrophic CO(2) fixation. A recent structure of the Moorella thermoacetica enzyme revealed that the ACS active site contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster bridged to a binuclear Cu-Ni site. Here, biochemical and x-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) evidence is presented that the copper ion at the M. thermoacetica ACS active site is essential. Depletion of copper correlates with reduction in ACS activity and in intensity of the "NiFeC" EPR signal without affecting either the activity or the EPR spectroscopic properties associated with CODH. In contrast, Zn content is negatively correlated with ACS activity without any apparent relationship to CODH activity. Cu is also found in the methanogenic CODH/ACS from Methanosarcina thermophila. XAS studies are consistent with a distorted Cu(I)-S(3) site in the fully active enzyme in solution. Cu extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates an average Cu-S bond length of 2.25 A and a metal neighbor at 2.65 A, consistent with the Cu-Ni distance observed in the crystal structure. XAS experiments in the presence of seleno-CoA reveal a Cu-S(3)Se environment with a 2.4-A Se-Cu bond, strongly implicating a Cu-SCoA intermediate in the mechanism of acetyl-CoA synthesis. These results indicate an essential and functional role for copper in the CODH/ACS from acetogenic and methanogenic organisms.
Project description:Anaerobic Ni-containing carbon-monoxide dehydrogenases (Ni-CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as multi-enzyme complexes responsible for carbon fixation and energy conservation in anaerobic microbes. However, few biochemically characterized model enzymes exist, with most Ni-CODHs remaining functionally unknown. Here, we performed phylogenetic and structure-based Ni-CODH classification using an expanded dataset comprised of 1942 non-redundant Ni-CODHs from 1375 Ni-CODH-encoding genomes across 36 phyla. Ni-CODHs were divided into seven clades, including a novel clade. Further classification into 24 structural groups based on sequence analysis combined with structural prediction revealed diverse structural motifs for metal cluster formation and catalysis, including novel structural motifs potentially capable of forming metal clusters or binding metal ions, indicating Ni-CODH diversity and plasticity. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that the metal clusters responsible for intermolecular electron transfer were drastically altered during evolution. Additionally, we identified novel putative Ni-CODH-associated proteins from genomic contexts other than the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and energy converting hydrogenase system proteins. Network analysis among the structural groups of Ni-CODHs, their associated proteins and taxonomies revealed previously unrecognized gene clusters for Ni-CODHs, including uncharacterized structural groups with putative metal transporters, oxidoreductases, or transcription factors. These results suggested diversification of Ni-CODH structures adapting to their associated proteins across microbial genomes.
Project description:The C-cluster of the enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) is a structurally distinctive Ni-Fe-S cluster employed to catalyze the reduction of CO2 to CO as part of the Wood-Ljungdahl carbon fixation pathway. Using X-ray crystallography, we have observed unprecedented conformational dynamics in the C-cluster of the CODH from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, providing the first view of an oxidized state of the cluster. Combined with supporting spectroscopic data, our structures reveal that this novel, oxidized cluster arrangement plays a role in avoiding irreversible oxidative degradation at the C-cluster. Furthermore, mutagenesis of a conserved cysteine residue that binds the C-cluster in the oxidized state but not in the reduced state suggests that the oxidized conformation could be important for proper cluster assembly, in particular Ni incorporation. Together, these results lay a foundation for future investigations of C-cluster activation and assembly, and contribute to an emerging paradigm of metallocluster plasticity.
Project description:Here, we report the closed genome sequence of Clostridium formicaceticum, an Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogen that is able to convert carbon monoxide to acetate using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (4.59 Mb).
Project description:Autotrophic conversion of CO2 to value-added biochemicals has received considerable attention for the sustainable route to replace the fossil fuels. Particularly, anaerobic acetogenic bacteria are naturally capable of reducing CO2 or CO to various metabolites. To fully utilize their biosynthetic potential, systemic understanding of the metabolic network with the transcriptional and translational regulation of the corresponding genes is highly demanded. Here, we complete a genome sequence of Eubacterium limosum ATCC8466 in a circular form of 4.4 Mb, followed by integrating genome-scale measurements of its transcriptome and translatome. Interestingly, the transcriptionally abundant genes encoding the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway were regulated at translational level with decreased translation efficiency (TE). To understand the regulation, the primary transcriptome was augmented, which determined 1,458 transcription start sites (TSS) and 1,253 5’-untranslated regions (5′UTR). The data supports that under the autotrophic condition the TE of genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and the energy conservation system were regulated by 5′UTR secondary structure. In addition, it was illustrated that the strain reallocates protein synthesis and energy economically, focusing more on translation of energy conservation system rather than on carbon metabolism under autotrophic growth. Thus, our results provide potential route for strain engineering to enhance syngas fermenting capacity. Overall design: Transcription abundance and ribosomal profiling analysis of Eubacterium limosum in heterotrophic and autotrophic condition