B-cell display-based one-step method to generate chimeric human IgG monoclonal antibodies.
ABSTRACT: The recent development of screening strategies based on the generation and display of large libraries of antibody fragments has allowed considerable advances for the in vitro isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We previously developed a technology referred to as the 'ADLib (Autonomously Diversifying Library) system', which allows the rapid screening and isolation in vitro of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from libraries of immunoglobulin M (IgM) displayed by the chicken B-cell line DT40. Here, we report a novel application of the ADLib system to the production of chimeric human mAbs. We have designed gene knock-in constructs to generate DT40 strains that coexpress chimeric human IgG and chicken IgM via B-cell-specific RNA alternative splicing. We demonstrate that the application of the ADLib system to these strains allows the one-step selection of antigen-specific human chimeric IgG. In addition, the production of chimeric IgG can be selectively increased when we modulate RNA processing by overexpressing the polyadenylation factor CstF-64. This method provides a new way to efficiently design mAbs suitable for a wide range of purposes including antibody therapy.
Project description:Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody's Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the 'ADLib system'). To upgrade this ADLib system with the ability to generate customized mAbs, we developed a novel and rapid engineering technology that enables seamless exchanges of mAbs' Fc domains after initial selections of mAb-producing clones by the ADLib system, using a gene-replacement unit for recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In this system, Cre-recombinase recognition sites were inserted into the Fc region of the active DT40 IgM allele, allowing the replacement of the Fc domain by the sequences of interest upon co-transfection of a Cre recombinase and a donor DNA, enabling the rapid exchange of Fc regions. Combining this method with the ADLib system, we demonstrate rapid Fc engineering to generate fluorescent antibodies and to enhance affinity to Fc receptors.
Project description:A panel of six different murine hybridoma clones secreting IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the human IgM Fc receptor (FcμR) was generated. All MAbs specifically precipitated a major protein of ∼60 kDa from membrane lysates of FcμR-bearing, but not FcμR-negative, cells as did IgM-ligands. Pre-incubation of membrane lysate of FcμR-bearing cells with these MAbs completely removed the ∼60 kDa IgM-reactive protein. By using recombinant human/mouse chimeric FcμR proteins, the epitope recognized by HM7 and HM10 MAbs was mapped to the Ig-like domain of human FcμR, whereas the other MAbs recognized the stalk region. Pre-incubation of FcμR(+) cells with the Ig-like domain-specific MAbs, but not with others, markedly inhibited subsequent IgM-ligand binding. A similar, but much weaker, inhibition was also observed when the incubation order was reversed. When FcμR(+) cells were simultaneously incubated with both IgM-ligands and MAbs, HM7 MAb efficiently competed with IgM for FcμR binding. Unlike control Jurkat cells, FcμR-bearing cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by agonistic IgM anti-Fas MAb (CH11); however, addition of the HM7 MAb inhibited the interaction of the Fc portion of CH11 MAb with FcμR, thereby promoting apoptosis of FcμR-bearing Jurkat cells. The variable regions of the HM7 MAb were composed of Ighv14-3, Ighd1-2, and Ighj2 for the γ2b heavy chain and Igk3-4 and Igkj2 for the κ light chain. These findings suggest that HM7 MAb efficiently blocks the ligand-binding activity of FcμR.
Project description:NgR1, NgR2, and NgR3 which constitute the Nogo-66 receptor family are primarily expressed by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and believed to limit axonal growth and sprouting following CNS injury. In an attempt to define the expression and decipher the function of individual members of the Nogo-66 receptor family, we previously reported the generation of selective rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Here we exploit the same immune repertoires by phage display technology to generate rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with nanomolar affinity to epitopes that are specific for NgR1 and NgR2, respectively, but at the same time conserved between mouse, rat, and human orthologs. Employing phage display vector pC3C, a newly designed phagemid optimized for the generation and selection of Fab libraries with human constant domains, rabbit mAbs were selected from chimeric rabbit/human Fab libraries, characterized in terms of specificity, affinity, and amino acid sequence, and finally converted to chimeric rabbit/human IgG. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate strong and specific recognition of cell surface bound Nogo-66 receptor family members by chimeric rabbit/human IgG. The rabbit mAbs reported here together with their amino acid sequences constitute a defined panel of species cross-reactive reagents in infinite supply which will aid investigations toward a functional role of the Nogo-66 receptor family in and beyond the CNS.
Project description:Early etiological diagnosis is very important for the control of sudden viral infections, and requires antibodies with both high sensitivity and high specificity. Traditional antibody preparation methods have limitations, such as a long and arduous cycle, complicated operation, and high expenses. A chicken lymphoma cell line, DT40, is known to produce IgM-type antibodies and undergo gene conversion and somatic mutation in the variable region of the immunoglobulin gene during culture. Here, the DT40 cell line was developed to produce antibody libraries and prepare antibody rapidly in vitro. Since hypermutation in DT40 cells was regulated by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, AID expression needs to be controlled to either fix the Ig sequence by stopping mutation or improve affinity by resuming mutation after the antibodies have been selected. In this study, we generated a novel AID-inducible DT40 cell line (DT40-H7), in which the endogenous AID gene was knocked out using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system, and an inducible AID gene, based on the Tet-Off expression system, was stably transfected. AID expression was controlled in DT40-H7 cells in a simple and efficient manner; gene conversion and point mutations were observed only when AID was expressed. Using the antibody library generated from this cell line, we successfully obtained monoclonal antibodies against the NS1 protein of Zika virus. The DT40-H7 cell line represents a useful tool for the selection and evolution of antibodies and may also be a powerful tool for the rapid selection and generation of diagnostic antibodies for emerging infectious diseases.
Project description:The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of DNA vaccines encoding Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) as a vaccine type for the production of GP-specific hybridomas and antibodies.DNA vaccines were constructed to express Ebola virus GP. Mice were injected with GP DNA vaccines and their splenocytes were used for hybridoma production. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), limiting dilution subcloning, antibody purification methods, and Western blot assays were used to select GP-specific hybridomas and purify monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from the hybridoma cells.Twelve hybridomas, the cell supernatants of which displayed GP-binding activity, were selected by ELISA. When purified MAbs from 12 hybridomas were tested for their reactivity to GP, 11 MAbs, except for 1 MAb (from the A6-9 hybridoma) displaying an IgG2a type, were identified as IgM isotypes. Those 11 MAbs failed to recognize GP. However, the MAb from A6-9 recognized the mucin-like region of GP and remained reactive to the antigen at the lowest tested concentration (1.95 ng/mL). This result suggests that IgM-secreting hybridomas are predominantly generated by DNA vaccination. However, boosting with GP resulted in greater production of IgG-secreting hybridomas than GP DNA vaccination alone.DNA vaccination may preferentially generate IgM-secreting hybridomas, but boosting with the protein antigen can reverse this propensity. Thus, this protein boosting approach may have implications for the production of IgG-specific hybridomas in the context of the DNA vaccination platform. In addition, the purified monoclonal IgG antibodies may be useful as therapeutic antibodies for controlling Ebola virus infection.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-1/2 (TRAIL-R1/R2), also known as death receptors, are expressed in a wide variety of tumor cells. Although TRAIL can induce cell apoptosis by engaging its cognate TRAIL-R1/R2, some tumor cells are or become resistant to TRAIL treatment. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TRAIL-R1/R2 have been developed to use as potential antitumor therapeutic agents instead of TRAIL. However, TRAIL-R1/R2-based tumor therapy has not yet been realized. We previously generated a series of fully human monoclonal antibodies against TRAIL-R1 (TR1-mAbs) that induced tumor cell apoptosis. In this study, we identified the antigenic binding sites of these TR1-mAbs and proposed two major epitopes on the extracellular domain of TRAIL-R1. The analysis revealed that the epitopes of some TR1-mAbs partially overlaps with the beginning of TRAIL-binding sites, and other epitopes are located within the TRAIL-binding region. Among these mAbs, TR1-422 and TR1-419 mAbs have two antigenic binding sites that bound to the same binding region, but they have different essential amino acid residues and binding site sizes. Furthermore, we investigated the apoptosis activity of TR1-419 and TR1-422 mAbs in the form of IgG and IgM. In contrast to the IgG-type TR1-419 and TR1-422 mAbs, which enhanced and inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis, respectively, both IgM-type TR1-419 and TR1-422 mAb strongly induced cell apoptosis with or without soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL). Moreover, the results showed that IgM-type TR1-419 and TR1-422 mAbs alone can sufficiently activate the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways and suppress tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, we identified two antigenic binding sites with agonistic activity, and their specific IgM-type mAbs exhibited strong cytotoxic activity in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these agonistic antigenic binding sites may be useful for the development of effective Ab-based drugs or Ab-based cell immunotherapy for various human solid tumors.
Project description:Diagnosis of human arboviral infections relies heavily on serological techniques such as the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and the indirect IgG ELISA. Broad application of these assays is hindered by the lack of standardized positive human control sera that react with a wide variety of flaviviruses (e.g., dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, and Powassan viruses), or alphaviruses (e.g., Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses) that can cause human disease. We have created human-murine chimeric monoclonal antibodies (cMAbs) by combining the variable regions of flavivirus (6B6C-1) or alphavirus (1A4B-6) broadly cross-reactive murine MAbs (mMAbs) with the constant region of human IgG1. These cMAbs may be used as standardized reagents capable of replacing human infection-immune-positive control sera in indirect IgG ELISA for diagnosis of all human flaviviral or alphaviral infections. The IgG cMAbs secreted from plasmid-transformed Sp2/0-Ag14 cells had serological activity identical to that of the parent mMAbs, as measured by ELISA using multiple flaviviruses or alphaviruses.
Project description:Controversy exists regarding isotype-related differences in the antibacterial and protective properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class and various IgG subclasses. To clarify this issue, a murine hybridoma secreting IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the O polysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O6 LPS was class switched, by sib selection, to produce an IgG3 MAb with identical specificity and variable region heavy and light chain nucleotide sequences. This IgG3-secreting cell line was further switched to the production of O-specific, variable region-identical IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG2a MAbs. Functional comparisons of these LPS-specific IgM and IgG MAb isotypes revealed similar LPS binding, opsonic, and protective activities. Relatively minor isotype-related differences in levels of efficiency of MAb-mediated, complement-dependent opsonophagocytic killing (IgM > IgG2a > IgG3 > IgG2b > > IgG1) were not associated with corresponding differences in in vivo functions. These findings, in conjunction with previously published data, support a cautious approach to generic conclusions regarding the immunotherapeutic superiority of LPS-specific antibodies belonging to either the IgM or IgG class or to a particular IgG subclass.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies offer great tools for research. We encountered a potentially useful mouse IgM monoclonal antibody whose antigen is expressed in normal skin but lost in human skin cancer. Because IgM is difficult to work with and the antigen was unknown, we decided to convert the IgM (µ) to IgG (?) version. After cDNA for the antibody was obtained by RACE PCR, we made a series of molecules with different combinations of IgM and IgG domains. Whereas VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-C?3 and VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-Hinge-C?2-C?3 functionally bound to the antigen, VH-C?1-Hinge-C?2-C?3, VH-Cµ1-Hinge-C?2-C?3, and VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-C?2-C?3 did not. Gel filtration analyses revealed that the functional molecules tend to form multimers and the multimeric forms retained antigen binding activity. Furthermore, the mutation of amino acid residue p.309Q?>?C of mouse IgG and addition of IgM tailpiece to the C-terminus of the molecules induced multimer formation, dramatically enhanced antibody functionality and all non-functional molecules became strongly functional. The functional molecules could be bound by protein A/protein G and other IgG specific reagents and therefore should be useful for further characterization of the antigen. Our study revealed that multimerization of converted IgM is functionally important for antigen binding activity of engineered IgM/IgG chimeric antibodies.
Project description:Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS) vaccines induce type-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA. Type-specific IgG to the PS is sufficient to confer protection against the homologous serotype of the pneumococcus, but the efficacies of type-specific IgM and IgA are less well understood. We examined the in vitro activities and efficacies in mice of two human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to type 8 PS, NAD (IgA) and D11 (IgM). MAb-mediated opsonophagocytic killing was evaluated after coculture of type 8 pneumococci with human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), type-specific or control MAbs, and human complement sources. The effects of the MAbs on PMN interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 secretion were determined in supernatants from cocultures containing pneumococci and PMNs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAb efficacy was determined in an intratracheal model of type 8 infection in mice with classical complement pathway deficiency. Both MAbs were protective in 100% of infected mice. Neither MAb promoted a significant amount of killing of type 8 pneumococci compared to its isotype control MAb. Both type-specific MAbs mediated complement-dependent modulation of PMN IL-8 secretion, with increased secretion at effector/target (E:T) ratios of 500:1 and 50:1 and reduced secretion at 1:5. Trypan blue staining revealed that PMNs cocultured with D11 were less viable at an E:T ratio of 1:5 than PMNs cocultured with the control MAb. PMN IL-6 secretion was increased by both type-specific and control MAbs. These results suggest that certain type-specific IgM and IgAs might contribute to host defense by modulation of the inflammatory response to pneumococci.