New insights into the mechanisms whereby low molecular weight CCR5 ligands inhibit HIV-1 infection.
ABSTRACT: CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for the chemokines CCL3, -4, and -5 and a coreceptor for entry of R5-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into CD4(+) T-cells. We investigated the mechanisms whereby nonpeptidic, low molecular weight CCR5 ligands block HIV-1 entry and infection. Displacement binding assays and dissociation kinetics demonstrated that two of these molecules, i.e. TAK779 and maraviroc (MVC), inhibit CCL3 and the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 binding to CCR5 by a noncompetitive and allosteric mechanism, supporting the view that they bind to regions of CCR5 distinct from the gp120- and CCL3-binding sites. We observed that TAK779 and MVC are full and weak inverse agonists for CCR5, respectively, indicating that they stabilize distinct CCR5 conformations with impaired abilities to activate G-proteins. Dissociation of [(125)I]CCL3 from CCR5 was accelerated by TAK779, to a lesser extent by MVC, and by GTP analogs, suggesting that inverse agonism contributes to allosteric inhibition of the chemokine binding to CCR5. TAK779 and MVC also promote dissociation of [(35)S]gp120 from CCR5 with an efficiency that correlates with their ability to act as inverse agonists. Displacement experiments revealed that affinities of MVC and TAK779 for the [(35)S]gp120-binding receptors are in the same range (IC(50) ?6.4 versus 22 nm), although we found that MVC is 100-fold more potent than TAK779 for inhibiting HIV infection. This suggests that allosteric CCR5 inhibitors not only act by blocking gp120 binding but also alter distinct steps of CCR5 usage in the course of HIV infection.
Project description:Maraviroc is a nonpeptidic small molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry inhibitor that has just entered the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of patients. We recently demonstrated that maraviroc binding to the HIV-1 coreceptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), prevents it from binding the chemokine CCL3 and the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 by an allosteric mechanism. However, incomplete knowledge of ligand-binding sites and the lack of CCR5 crystal structures have hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how the inhibitor works. Here, we addressed these issues by combining site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) with homology modeling and docking. Six crystal structures of G-protein-coupled receptors were compared for their suitability for CCR5 modeling. All CCR5 models had equally good geometry, but that built from the recently reported dimeric structure of the other HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 bound to the peptide CVX15 (Protein Data Bank code 3OE0) best agreed with the SDM data and discriminated CCR5 from non-CCR5 binders in a virtual screening approach. SDM and automated docking predicted that maraviroc inserts deeply in CCR5 transmembrane cavity where it can occupy three different binding sites, whereas CCL3 and gp120 lie on distinct yet overlapped regions of the CCR5 extracellular loop 2. Data suggesting that the transmembrane cavity remains accessible for maraviroc in CCL3-bound and gp120-bound CCR5 help explain our previous observation that the inhibitor enhances dissociation of preformed ligand-CCR5 complexes. Finally, we identified residues in the predicted CCR5 dimer interface that are mandatory for gp120 binding, suggesting that receptor dimerization might represent a target for new CCR5 entry inhibitors.
Project description:Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric CCR5 inhibitor used against HIV-1 infection. While MVC-resistant viruses have been identified in patients, it still remains incompletely known how they adjust their CD4 and CCR5 binding properties to resist MVC inhibition while preserving their replicative capacity. It is thought that they maintain high efficiency of receptor binding. To date however, information about the binding affinities to receptors for inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 remains limited.Here, we show by means of viral envelope (gp120) binding experiments and virus-cell fusion kinetics that a MVC-resistant virus (MVC-Res) that had emerged as a dominant viral quasispecies in a patient displays reduced affinities for CD4 and CCR5 either free or bound to MVC, as compared to its MVC-sensitive counterpart isolated before MVC therapy. An alanine insertion within the GPG motif (G310_P311insA) of the MVC-resistant gp120 V3 loop is responsible for the decreased CCR5 binding affinity, while impaired binding to CD4 is due to sequence changes outside V3. Molecular dynamics simulations of gp120 binding to CCR5 further emphasize that the Ala insertion alters the structure of the V3 tip and weakens interaction with CCR5 ECL2. Paradoxically, infection experiments on cells expressing high levels of CCR5 also showed that Ala allows MVC-Res to use CCR5 efficiently, thereby improving viral fusion and replication efficiencies. Actually, although we found that the V3 loop of MVC-Res is required for high levels of MVC resistance, other regions outside V3 are sufficient to confer a moderate level of resistance. These sequence changes outside V3, however, come with a replication cost, which is compensated for by the Ala insertion in V3.These results indicate that changes in the V3 loop of MVC-resistant viruses can augment the efficiency of CCR5-dependent steps of viral entry other than gp120 binding, thereby compensating for their decreased affinity for entry receptors and improving their fusion and replication efficiencies. This study thus sheds light on unsuspected mechanisms whereby MVC-resistant HIV-1 could emerge and grow in treated patients.
Project description:Maraviroc (MVC) is a CCR5 antagonist that inhibits HIV-1 entry by binding to the coreceptor and inducing structural alterations in the extracellular loops. In this study, we isolated MVC-resistant variants from an HIV-1 primary isolate that arose after 21 weeks of tissue culture passage in the presence of inhibitor. gp120 sequences from passage control and MVC-resistant cultures were cloned into NL4-3 via yeast-based recombination followed by sequencing and drug susceptibility testing. Using 140 clones, three mutations were linked to MVC resistance, but none appeared in the V3 loop as was the case with previous HIV-1 strains resistant to CCR5 antagonists. Rather, resistance was dependent upon a single mutation in the C4 region of gp120. Chimeric clones bearing this N425K mutation replicated at high MVC concentrations and displayed significant shifts in 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s), characteristic of resistance to all other antiretroviral drugs but not typical of MVC resistance. Previous reports on MVC resistance describe an ability to use a drug-bound form of the receptor, leading to reduction in maximal drug inhibition. In contrast, our structural models on K425 gp120 suggest that this resistant mutation impacts CD4 interactions and highlights a novel pathway for MVC resistance.
Project description:The CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry by altering the CCR5 extracellular loops (ECL), such that the gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) no longer recognize CCR5. The mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to MVC, the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for clinical use are poorly understood, with insights into MVC resistance almost exclusively limited to knowledge obtained from in vitro studies or from studies of resistance to other CCR5 antagonists. To more precisely understand mechanisms of resistance to MVC in vivo, we characterized Envs isolated from 2 subjects who experienced virologic failure on MVC.Envs were cloned from subjects 17 and 24 before commencement of MVC (17-Sens and 24-Sens) and after virologic failure (17-Res and 24-Res). The Envs cloned during virologic failure showed broad divergence in resistance levels, with 17-Res Env exhibiting a relatively high maximal percent inhibition (MPI) of ~90% in NP2-CD4/CCR5 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and 24-Res Env exhibiting a very low MPI of ~0 to 12% in both cell types, indicating relatively "weak" and "strong" resistance, respectively. Resistance mutations were strain-specific and mapped to the gp120 V3 loop. Affinity profiling by the 293-Affinofile assay and mathematical modeling using VERSA (Viral Entry Receptor Sensitivity Analysis) metrics revealed that 17-Res and 24-Res Envs engaged MVC-bound CCR5 inefficiently or very efficiently, respectively. Despite highly divergent phenotypes, and a lack of common gp120 resistance mutations, both resistant Envs exhibited an almost superimposable pattern of dramatically increased reliance on sulfated tyrosine residues in the CCR5 N-terminus, and on histidine residues in the CCR5 ECLs. This altered mechanism of CCR5 engagement rendered both the resistant Envs susceptible to neutralization by a sulfated peptide fragment of the CCR5 N-terminus.Clinical resistance to MVC may involve divergent Env phenotypes and different genetic alterations in gp120, but the molecular mechanism of resistance of the Envs studied here appears to be related. The increased reliance on sulfated CCR5 N-terminus residues suggests a new avenue to block HIV-1 entry by CCR5 N-terminus sulfopeptidomimetic drugs.
Project description:HIV-1 develops resistance to CCR5 antagonists such as Maraviroc (MVC) and Vicriviroc (VVC) both in vitro and in vivo, with most changes arising in the gp120 V3 region. Both compounds bind to the same hydrophobic cavity in CCR5 in subtly different ways. Here, we investigated which V3 sequence changes are most associated with MVC and VVC resistance and how they affect the interaction between gp120 and the CCR5 NT. We found that VVC- and MVC-selected amino acid changes map to different V3 locations and involve residues that interact with the CCR5 NT in different ways. Changes in VVC-selected, but not MVC-selected, variants often involve charged residues. Although the overall V3 charge tends not to change, the introduction or removal of charged residues at specific positions affects the local electrostatic potential and could have structural and functional implications. In summary, VVC and MVC trigger the evolution of distinct HIV-1 resistance patterns in V3.
Project description:Small-molecule CCR5 antagonists, such as maraviroc (MVC), likely block HIV-1 through an allosteric, noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, whereas inhibition by agonists such as PSC-RANTES is less defined and may involve receptor removal by cell surface downregulation, competitive inhibition by occluding the HIV-1 envelope binding, and/or allosteric effects by altering CCR5 conformation. We explored the inhibitory mechanisms of maraviroc and PSC-RANTES by employing pairs of virus clones with differential sensitivities to these inhibitors. Intrinsic PSC-RANTES-resistant virus (YA versus RT) or those selected in PSC-RANTES treated macaques (M584 versus P3-4) only displayed resistance in multiple-cycle assays or with a CCR5 mutant that cannot be downregulated. In single-cycle assays, these HIV-1 clones displayed equal sensitivity to PSC-RANTES inhibition, suggesting effective receptor downregulation. Prolonged PSC-RANTES exposure resulted in desensitization of the receptor to internalization such that increasing virus concentration (substrate) could saturate the receptors and overcome PSC-RANTES inhibition. In contrast, resistance to MVC was observed with the MVC-resistant HIV-1 (R3 versus S2) in both multiple- and single-cycle assays and with altered virus concentrations, which is indicative of allosteric inhibition. MVC could also mediate inhibition and possibly resistance through competitive mechanisms.
Project description:Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 regulate white blood cell trafficking, and are engaged by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 during infection. We combine directed evolution of CXCR4 and CCR5 libraries comprising nearly all ~7,000 single amino acid substitutions with deep sequencing to define sequence-fitness landscapes for surface expression and ligand interactions. Functional interaction sites are mapped based on conservation; for example, extracellular residues are conserved for binding HIV-1-blocking antibodies, as expected. Chemokine CXCL12 interacts with residues extending asymmetrically into the CXCR4 ligand-binding cavity, and distal mutations within allosteric and G protein coupling sites are identified that enhance chemokine binding. CCR5 residues conserved for gp120 interactions partially overlap with the chemokine-binding site, and gp120 binding is increased by acidic substitutions in the CCR5 N-terminus and extracellular loops. Furthermore, general features are apparent from sequence patterns, including membrane regions that are intolerant to polar mutations, and deleterious cysteine substitutions within extracellular loops. Overall design: Single-site saturation mutagenesis libraries were constructed of human CXCR4 and CCR5, and expressed in human Expi293F cells (a HEK293 derivative). Cells were evolved by FACS for surface expression and binding to protein ligands. Frequencies of variants in the sorted population (measured from RNA transcripts) were compared to frequencies in the DNA libraries to calculate log(base2) enrichment ratios for all amino acid substitutions. All evolution experiments were in duplicate.
Project description:Binding of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CCR5 co-receptor reduces constraints on the metastable transmembrane subunit gp41, thereby enabling gp41 refolding, fusion of viral and cellular membranes, and infection. We previously isolated adapted HIV-1(JRCSF) variants that more efficiently use mutant CCR5s, including CCR5(Delta18) lacking the important tyrosine sulfate-containing amino terminus. Effects of mutant CCR5 concentrations on HIV-1 infectivities were highly cooperative, implying that several may be required. However, because wild-type CCR5 efficiently mediates infections at trace concentrations that were difficult to measure accurately, analyses of its cooperativity were not feasible. New HIV-1(JRCSF) variants efficiently use CCR5(HHMH), a chimera containing murine extracellular loop 2. The adapted virus induces large syncytia in cells containing either wild-type or mutant CCR5s and has multiple gp120 mutations that occurred independently in CCR5(Delta18)-adapted virus. Accordingly, these variants interchangeably use CCR5(HHMH) or CCR5(Delta18). Additional analyses strongly support a novel energetic model for allosteric proteins, implying that the adaptive mutations reduce quaternary constraints holding gp41, thus lowering the activation energy barrier for membrane fusion without affecting bonds to specific CCR5 sites. In accordance with this mechanism, highly adapted HIV-1s require only one associated CCR5(HHMH), whereas poorly adapted viruses require several. However, because they are allosteric ensembles, complexes with additional co-receptors fuse more rapidly and efficiently than minimal ones. Similarly, wild-type HIV-1(JRCSF) is highly adapted to wild-type CCR5 and minimally requires one. The adaptive mutations cause resistances to diverse entry inhibitors and cluster appropriately in the gp120 trimer interface overlying gp41. We conclude that membrane fusion complexes are allosteric machines with an ensemble of compositions, and that HIV-1 adapts to entry limitations by gp120 mutations that reduce its allosteric hold on gp41. These results provide an important foundation for understanding the mechanisms that control membrane fusion and HIV-1's facile adaptability.
Project description:R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.
Project description:The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing insights into the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of chemokine signaling and viral entry. A comparison between CCR5 and CXCR4 crystal structures, along with models of co-receptor-gp120-V3 complexes, suggests that different charge distributions and steric hindrances caused by residue substitutions may be major determinants of HIV-1 co-receptor selectivity. These high-resolution insights into CCR5 can enable structure-based drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.