Loop L5 acts as a conformational latch in the mitotic kinesin Eg5.
ABSTRACT: All members of the kinesin superfamily of molecular motors contain an unusual structural motif consisting of an ?-helix that is interrupted by a flexible loop, referred to as L5. We have examined the function of L5 in the mitotic kinesin Eg5 by combining site-directed mutagenesis of L5 with transient state kinetics, molecular dynamics simulations, and docking using cryo electron microscopy density. We find that mutation of a proline residue located at a turn within this loop profoundly slows nucleotide-induced structural changes both at the catalytic site as well as at the microtubule binding domain and the neck linker. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this mutation affects the dynamics not only of L5 itself but also of the switch I structural elements that sense ATP binding to the catalytic site. Our results lead us to propose that L5 regulates the rate of conformational change in key elements of the nucleotide binding site through its interactions with ?3 and in so doing controls the speed of movement and force generation in kinesin motors.
Project description:Loop 5 (L5) is a conserved loop that projects from the ?2-helix adjacent to the nucleotide site of all kinesin-family motors. L5 is critical to the function of the mitotic kinesin-5 family motors and is the binding site for several kinesin-5 inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials. Its conformational dynamics and its role in motor function are not fully understood. Our previous work using EPR spectroscopy suggested that L5 alters the nucleotide pocket conformation of the kinesin-5 motor Eg5 (Larson et al., 2010). EPR spectra of a spin-labeled nucleotide analog bound at the nucleotide site of Eg5 display a highly immobilized component that is absent if L5 is shortened or if the inhibitor STLC is added (Larson et al., 2010), which X-ray structures suggest stabilizes an L5 conformation pointing away from the nucleotide site. These data, coupled with the proximity of L5 to the nucleotide site suggest L5 could interact with a bound nucleotide, modulating function. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Eg5 to explore the interaction of L5 with the nucleotide site in greater detail. We performed MD simulations in which the L5-domain of the Eg5·ADP X-ray structure was manually deformed via backbone bond rotations. The L5-domain of Eg5 was sufficiently lengthy that portions of L5 could be located in proximity to bound ADP. The MD simulations evolved to thermodynamically stable structures at 300 K showing that L5 can interact directly with bound nucleotide with significant impingement on the ribose hydroxyls, consistent with the EPR spectroscopy results. Taken together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that L5 modulates Eg5 function via interaction with the nucleotide-binding site.
Project description:Members of the kinesin superfamily of molecular motors differ in several key structural domains, which probably allows these molecular motors to serve the different physiologies required of them. One of the most variable of these is a stem-loop motif referred to as L5. This loop is longest in the mitotic kinesin Eg5, and previous structural studies have shown that it can assume different conformations in different nucleotide states. However, enzymatic domains often consist of a mixture of conformations whose distribution shifts in response to substrate binding or product release, and this information is not available from the "static" images that structural studies provide. We have addressed this issue in the case of Eg5 by attaching a fluorescent probe to L5 and examining its fluorescence, using both steady state and time-resolved methods. This reveals that L5 assumes an equilibrium mixture of three orientations that differ in their local environment and segmental mobility. Combining these studies with transient state kinetics demonstrates that there is a major shift in this distribution during transitions that interconvert weak and strong microtubule binding states. Finally, in conjunction with previous cryo-EM reconstructions of Eg5·microtubule complexes, these fluorescence studies suggest a model in which L5 regulates both nucleotide and microtubule binding through a set of reversible interactions with helix α3. We propose that these features facilitate the production of sustained opposing force by Eg5, which underlies its role in supporting formation of a bipolar spindle in mitosis.
Project description:Kinesin superfamily motor proteins contain a structurally conserved loop near the ATP binding site, termed L5. The function of L5 is unknown, although several drug inhibitors of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 bind to L5. We used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to investigate the function of L5 in Eg5. We site-specifically attached EPR probes to ADP, L5, and the neck linker element that docks along the enzymatic head to drive forward motility on microtubules (MTs). Nucleotide-dependent spectral mobility shifts occurred in all of these structural elements, suggesting that they undergo coupled conformational changes. These spectral shifts were altered by deletion of L5 or addition of S-trityl-l-cysteine (STLC), an allosteric inhibitor that binds to L5. In particular, EPR probes attached to the neck linker of MT-bound Eg5 shifted to a more immobilized component in the nucleotide-free state relative to the ADP-bound state, consistent with the neck linker docking upon ADP release. In contrast, after L5 deletion or STLC addition, EPR spectra were highly immobilized in all nucleotide states. We conclude that L5 undergoes a conformational change that enables Eg5 to bind to MTs in a pre-powerstroke state. Deletion or inhibition of L5 with the small-molecule inhibitor STLC blocks this pre-powerstroke state, forcing the Eg5 neck linker to dock regardless of the nucleotide state.
Project description:Kinesins comprise a superfamily of molecular motors that drive a wide variety of cellular physiologies, from cytoplasmic transport to formation of the bipolar spindle in mitosis. These differing roles are reflected in corresponding polymorphisms in key kinesin structural elements. One of these is a unique loop and stem motif found in all kinesins and referred to as loop 5 (L5). This loop is longest in the mitotic kinesin Eg5 and is the target for a number of small molecule inhibitors, including ispinesib, which is being used in clinical trials in patients with cancer. In this study, we have used x-ray crystallography to identify a new structure of an Eg5-ispinesib complex and have combined this with transient state kinetics to identify a plausible sequence of conformational changes that occur in response to ispinesib binding. Our results demonstrate that ispinesib-induced structural changes in L5 from Eg5 lead to subsequent changes in the conformation of the switch II loop and helix and in the neck linker. We conclude that L5 in Eg5 simultaneously regulates the structure of both the ATP binding site and the motor's mechanical elements that generate force.
Project description:The mitotic kinesin Eg5 is an important target in cancer chemotherapy. A structurally diverse collection of canonical loop L5 inhibitors engage an allosteric pathway that includes elements of its microtubule binding region. However, recent evidence suggests that Eg5 may permit alternative allosteric mechanisms. Terpendole E, a natural-product Eg5 inhibitor, is active against mutants resistant to canonical loop L5 inhibitors and appears to offer a unique mode of inhibition. To investigate the variety of inhibitor responses, the structure-function properties of eighteen kinesin inhibitors were quantified with hydrogen-exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS), functional analysis and molecular modeling. A unique strategy for high-density data analysis was implemented, based on a scalable multivariate statistical method, as current HX-MS routines have a limited capacity to guide a characterization of ligands when additional functional data is available. Inhibitor evaluation was achieved using orthogonal partial least squares projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The strategy generated a model that identified functionally-significant conformational elements involved in kinesin inhibition, confirming the canonical allosteric pathway and identifying a novel response pathway. Terpendole E is demonstrated to be an atypical L5 site inhibitor, where binding induces an allosteric effect mediated by a destabilization in the ?-sheet core of the molecular motor, an element involved in mechanochemical coupling for structurally-related kinesins. The analysis suggests that a different approach to inhibitor development may be fruitful.
Project description:Kinesins perform mechanical work to power a variety of cellular functions, from mitosis to organelle transport. Distinct functions shape distinct enzymologies, and this is illustrated by comparing kinesin-1, a highly processive transport motor that can work alone, to Eg5, a minimally processive mitotic motor that works in large ensembles. Although crystallographic models for both motors reveal similar structures for the domains involved in mechanochemical transduction--including switch-1 and the neck linker--how movement of these two domains is coordinated through the ATPase cycle remains unknown. We have addressed this issue by using a novel combination of transient kinetics and time-resolved fluorescence, which we refer to as "structural kinetics," to map the timing of structural changes in the switch-1 loop and neck linker. We find that differences between the structural kinetics of Eg5 and kinesin-1 yield insights into how these two motors adapt their enzymologies for their distinct functions.
Project description:Essential in mitosis, the human Kinesin-5 protein is a target for >80 classes of allosteric compounds that bind to a surface-exposed site formed by the L5 loop. Not established is why there are differing efficacies in drug inhibition. Here we compare the ligand-bound states of two L5-directed inhibitors against 15 Kinesin-5 mutants by ATPase assays and IR spectroscopy. Biochemical kinetics uncovers functional differences between individual residues at the N or C termini of the L5 loop. Infrared evaluation of solution structures and multivariate analysis of the vibrational spectra reveal that mutation and/or ligand binding not only can remodel the allosteric binding surface but also can transmit long range effects. Changes in L5-localized 3(10) helix and disordered content, regardless of substitution or drug potency, are experimentally detected. Principal component analysis couples these local structural events to two types of rearrangements in beta-sheet hydrogen bonding. These transformations in beta-sheet contacts are correlated with inhibitory drug response and are corroborated by wild type Kinesin-5 crystal structures. Despite considerable evolutionary divergence, our data directly support a theorized conserved element for long distance mechanochemical coupling in kinesin, myosin, and F(1)-ATPase. These findings also suggest that these relatively rapid IR approaches can provide structural biomarkers for clinical determination of drug sensitivity and drug efficacy in nucleotide triphosphatases.
Project description:Kinesin-5 is required for forming the bipolar spindle during mitosis. Its motor domain, which contains nucleotide and microtubule binding sites and mechanical elements to generate force, has evolved distinct properties for its spindle-based functions. In this study, we report subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of microtubule-bound human kinesin-5 before and after nucleotide binding and combine this information with studies of the kinetics of nucleotide-induced neck linker and cover strand movement. These studies reveal coupled, nucleotide-dependent conformational changes that explain many of this motor's properties. We find that ATP binding induces a ratchet-like docking of the neck linker and simultaneous, parallel docking of the N-terminal cover strand. Loop L5, the binding site for allosteric inhibitors of kinesin-5, also undergoes a dramatic reorientation when ATP binds, suggesting that it is directly involved in controlling nucleotide binding. Our structures indicate that allosteric inhibitors of human kinesin-5, which are being developed as anti-cancer therapeutics, bind to a motor conformation that occurs in the course of normal function. However, due to evolutionarily defined sequence variations in L5, this conformation is not adopted by invertebrate kinesin-5s, explaining their resistance to drug inhibition. Together, our data reveal the precision with which the molecular mechanism of kinesin-5 motors has evolved for force generation.
Project description:The ATPase mechanism of kinesin superfamily members in the absence of microtubules remains largely uncharacterized. We have adopted a strategy to purify monomeric human Eg5 (HsKSP/Kinesin-5) in the nucleotide-free state (apoEg5) in order to perform a detailed transient state kinetic analysis. We have used steady-state and presteady-state kinetics to define the minimal ATPase mechanism for apoEg5 in the absence and presence of the Eg5-specific inhibitor, monastrol. ATP and ADP binding both occur via a two-step process with the isomerization of the collision complex limiting each forward reaction. ATP hydrolysis and phosphate product release are rapid steps in the mechanism, and the observed rate of these steps is limited by the relatively slow isomerization of the Eg5-ATP collision complex. A conformational change coupled to ADP release is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. We propose that the microtubule amplifies and accelerates the structural transitions needed to form the ATP hydrolysis competent state and for rapid ADP release, thus stimulating ATP turnover and increasing enzymatic efficiency. Monastrol appears to bind weakly to the Eg5-ATP collision complex, but after tight ATP binding, the affinity for monastrol increases, thus inhibiting the conformational change required for ADP product release. Taken together, we hypothesize that loop L5 of Eg5 undergoes an "open" to "closed" structural transition that correlates with the rearrangements of the switch-1 and switch-2 regions at the active site during the ATPase cycle.
Project description:Eg5 is a homotetrameric kinesin-5 motor protein that generates outward force on the overlapping, antiparallel microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. Upon binding an MT, an Eg5 dimer releases one ADP molecule, undergoes a slow (?0.5 s(-1)) isomerization, and finally releases a second ADP, adopting a tightly MT-bound, nucleotide-free (APO) conformation. This conformation precedes ATP binding and stepping. Here, we use mutagenesis, steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics, motility assays, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine Eg5 monomers and dimers as they bind MTs and initiate stepping. We demonstrate that a critical element of Eg5, loop 5 (L5), accelerates ADP release during the initial MT-binding event. Furthermore, our electron paramagnetic resonance data show that L5 mediates the slow isomerization by preventing Eg5 dimer heads from binding the MT until they release ADP. Finally, we find that Eg5 having a seven-residue deletion within L5 can still hydrolyze ATP and move along MTs, suggesting that L5 is not required to accelerate subsequent steps of the motor along the MT. Taken together, these properties of L5 explain the kinetic effects of L5-directed inhibition on Eg5 activity and may direct further interventions targeting Eg5 activity.