FoxO1 mediates an autofeedback loop regulating SIRT1 expression.
ABSTRACT: Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 and the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 are evolutionarily conserved regulators of the development of aging, oxidative stress resistance, insulin resistance, and metabolism in species ranging from invertebrates to mammals. SIRT1 deacetylates FoxO1 and enables activation of FoxO1 transcription in multiple systems. The functional consequences of the interactions between FoxO1 and SIRT1 remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the 1.5-kb rat sirt1 promoter region contains a cluster of five putative FoxO1 core binding repeat motifs (5×IRS-1) and a forkhead-like consensus binding site (FKHD-L). Luciferase promoter assays demonstrate that FoxO1 directly activates SIRT1 promoter activity and that both the IRS-1 and FKHD-L enable FoxO1-dependent SIRT1 transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that FoxO1 binds to the IRS-1 and FKHD-L sites of the SIRT1 promoter. Consistently, FoxO1 overexpression increases SIRT1 expression, and FoxO1 depletion by siRNA reduces SIRT1 expression at both the messenger RNA and protein levels in vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells. Thus, endogenous FoxO1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of SIRT1. Conversely, SIRT1 promotes FoxO1-driven SIRT1 autotranscription through interacting with and deacetylating FoxO1. Moreover, resveratrol, a plant polyphenol activator of SIRT1, increases FoxO1-dependent SIRT1 transcription activity and thus induces its expression. These findings suggest that positive feedback mechanisms regulate FoxO1-dependent SIRT1 transcription and indicate a previously unappreciated function for FoxO1. This signaling network may coordinate multiple pathways acting upon immune, inflammatory, regenerative, and metabolic processes.
Project description:Protein deacetylase Sirt1 has been implicated in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. To further elucidate how Sirt1 regulates gluconeogenesis, we took a loss-of-function approach by deleting the coding DNA sequence for the catalytic domain of the Sirt1 gene in the liver of a wild-type mouse (LKO(Sirt)¹) or a genetic diabetic mouse in which hepatic insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 are deleted (DKO(Irs½)). Whereas LKO(Sirt)¹ mice exhibited normal levels of fasting and fed blood glucose, inactivation of Sirt1 in DKO(Irs½) mice (TKO(Irs½:Sirt)¹) reduced blood glucose levels and moderately improved systemic glucose tolerance. Pyruvate tolerance was also significantly improved in TKO(Irs½:Sirt)¹ mice, suggesting that Sirt1 promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis in this diabetic mouse model. To understand why inactivation of hepatic Sirt1 does not alter blood glucose levels in the wild-type background, we searched for a potential cause and found that expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP, encoded by the Nr0b2 gene), an orphan nuclear receptor, which has been shown to suppress the activity of forkhead transcription factor FoxO1, was decreased in the liver of LKO(Sirt)¹ mice. Furthermore, our luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the Nr0b2 gene is a target of FoxO1, which is also regulated by Sirt1. After the gene is upregulated, Nr0b2 can feed back and repress FoxO1- and Sirt1-activated G6pc and Pdk4 gene expression. Thus, our results suggest that Sirt1 can both positively and negatively regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis through FoxO1 and Nr0b2 and keep this physiological process in control.
Project description:Recent studies have established SIRT1 as an important regulator of lipid metabolism, although the mechanism of its action at the molecular level has not been revealed. Here, we show that knockdown of SIRT1 with the help of small hairpin RNA decreases basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in cultured adipocytes. This effect is attributed, at least in part, to the suppression of the rate-limiting lipolytic enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), at the level of transcription. Mechanistically, SIRT1 controls acetylation status and functional activity of FoxO1 that directly binds to the ATGL promoter and regulates ATGL gene transcription. We have also found that depletion of SIRT1 decreases AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity in adipocytes. To determine the input of AMPK in regulation of lipolysis, we have established a stable adipose cell line that expresses a dominant-negative ?1 catalytic subunit of AMPK under the control of the inducible TET-OFF lentiviral expression vector. Reduction of AMPK activity does not have a significant effect on the rates of lipolysis in this cell model. We conclude, therefore, that SIRT1 controls ATGL transcription primarily by deacetylating FoxO1.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis by deacetylating Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1). HDAC9 upregulation is involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated exaggerated gluconeogenesis. Herein, we found in addition to FoxO1, HDAC9 also regulates other gluconeogenic transcription factors, including peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Unlike FoxO1, which is regulated by post-translational modification responses to HDAC9, HDAC9 regulates PGC-1?, CREB and GR by altering gene expression. Similar to PGC-1?, CREB and GR were found to be novel regulatory targets of FoxO1 by examination of the FoxO1 binding site in their promoter. PGC-1?, CREB and GR were upregulated in response to HDAC9 via FoxO1 deacetylation. These findings indicate that HDAC9-FoxO1 signalling contributes to gluconeogenesis by modulating the expression of gluconeogenic transcription factors. In particular, metabolic profiling demonstrated a clear shift towards gluconeogenesis metabolism, and HDAC9-FoxO1 signalling can be strongly induced to upregulate gluconeogenic transcription factors following HCV infection. The positive correlation between HDAC9 and gluconeogenic transcription factor expression levels in the livers of both HCV-infected patients and normal individuals further emphasizes the clinical relevance of these results. Thus, HDAC9-FoxO1 signalling axis is involved in regulating gluconeogenic transcription factors, gluconeogenesis, and HCV-induced type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Sirt1 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD(+) dependent deacetylase involved in a wide range of processes including cellular differentiation, apoptosis, as well as metabolism, and aging. In this study, we investigated the role of hypothalamic Sirt1 in energy balance. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA mediated knock down of hypothalamic Sirt1 showed to decrease food intake and body weight gain. Central administration of a specific melanocortin antagonist, SHU9119, reversed the anorectic effect of hypothalamic Sirt1 inhibition, suggesting that Sirt1 regulates food intake through the central melanocortin signaling. We also showed that fasting increases hypothalamic Sirt1 expression and decreases FoxO1 (Forkhead transcription factor) acetylation suggesting that Sirt1 regulates the central melanocortin system in a FoxO1 dependent manner. In addition, hypothalamic Sirt1 showed to regulate S6K signaling such that inhibition of the fasting induced Sirt1 activity results in up-regulation of the S6K pathway. Thus, this is the first study providing a novel role for the hypothalamic Sirt1 in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Given the role of Sirt1 in several peripheral tissues and hypothalamus, potential therapies centered on Sirt1 regulation might provide promising therapies in the treatment of metabolic diseases including obesity.
Project description:The fasting-activated longevity protein sirtuin 1 (SirT1, ref. 1) promotes gluconeogenesis in part, by increasing transcription of the key gluconeogenic genes pepck1 and g6pase, through deacetylating PGC-1alpha and FOXO1 (ref. 4). In contrast, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibits glucose production by suppressing expression of these genes. It is not known whether the inhibition of gluconeogenesis by STAT3 is controlled by metabolic regulation. Here we show that STAT3 phosphorylation and function in the liver were tightly regulated by the nutritional status of an animal, through SirT1-mediated deacetylation of key STAT3 lysine sites. The importance of the SirT1-STAT3 pathway in the regulation of gluconeogenesis was verified in STAT3-deficient mice in which the dynamic regulation of gluconeogenic genes by nutritional status was disrupted. Our results reveal a new nutrient sensing pathway through which SirT1 suppresses the inhibitory effect of STAT3, while activating the stimulatory effect of PGC-1alpha and FOXO1 on gluconeogenesis, thus ensuring maximal activation of gluconeogenic gene transcription. The connection between acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 implies that STAT3 may have an important role in other cellular processes that involve SirT1.
Project description:Trimetazidine (TMZ), as a metabolic regulator, is effective in treatment of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease with rare side effects in the clinic for long years. Interestingly, studies have shown that TMZ protects against several acute kidney injuries (AKI). However, the effect of TMZ on chronic kidney diseases (CKD) remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of TMZ in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its potential mechanisms. A rat model of DN was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection. Experimental rats were separated into three groups: control, DN and DN + TMZ treatment. Metabolic parameters, pathological features and renal function markers were evaluated after 20 weeks of diabetes induction. In vitro experiments, the effect of TMZ on high fat and high glucose (HFG) induced or TGF?1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was examined in HK-2 cells. Our results showed that TMZ could maintain renal function without affecting hemodynamic and plasma metabolic levels in diabetic rats. The effect was associated with a reversion of pathological progression of DN, especially for tubulointerstitial fibrosis. EMT is an important contributor to renal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the role of TMZ in the process of EMT in DN. Mechanistically; TMZ attenuated HFG-induced EMT by relieving oxidative stress via deacetylation forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in a Sirt1-dependent pathway. And it suppressed TGF?1-induced EMT by deacetylating Smd4 in a Sirt1-dependent manner. Moreover, our study found that TMZ upregulated Sirt1 expression by increasing the expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt), which is a rate limiting enzyme for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) generation by salvage pathway. And the increased NAD+ promoted Sirt1 expression. In conclusion, TMZ can prevent renal dysfunction and pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, partly by inhibition of EMT via FoxO1/ROS pathway and TGF?/Smad pathway in a Nampt/NAD+/Sirt1 dependent manner.
Project description:Autophagic dysfunction is observed in diabetes mellitus. Resveratrol has a beneficial effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Whether the resveratrol-induced improvement in cardiac function in diabetes is via regulating autophagy remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated protection against heart failure in diabetic mice, with a focus on the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in regulating autophagic flux. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Long-term resveratrol treatment improved cardiac function, ameliorated oxidative injury and reduced apoptosis in the diabetic mouse heart. Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol decreased p62 protein expression and promoted SIRT1 activity and Rab7 expression. Inhibiting autophagic flux with bafilomycin A1 increased diabetic mouse mortality and attenuated resveratrol-induced down-regulation of p62, but not SIRT1 activity or Rab7 expression in diabetic mouse hearts. In cultured H9C2 cells, redundant or overactive H?O? increased p62 and cleaved caspase 3 expression as well as acetylated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and inhibited SIRT1 expression. Sirtinol, SIRT1 and Rab7 siRNA impaired the resveratrol amelioration of dysfunctional autophagic flux and reduced apoptosis under oxidative conditions. Furthermore, resveratrol enhanced FOXO1 DNA binding at the Rab7 promoter region through a SIRT1-dependent pathway. These results highlight the role of the SIRT1/FOXO1/Rab7 axis in the effect of resveratrol on autophagic flux in vivo and in vitro, which suggests a therapeutic strategy for diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Cellular senescence influences organismal aging and increases predisposition to age-related diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Senescence is associated with telomere and mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, implying a potential causal role of PGC-1? in senescence pathogenesis.We generated a PGC-1?(+/-)/apolipoprotein E(-/-) mouse model and showed that PGC-1? deficiency promotes a vascular senescence phenotype that is associated with increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities, and reduced telomerase activity. PGC-1? disruption results in reduced expression of the longevity-related deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and the antioxidant catalase, and increased expression of the senescence marker p53 in aortas. Further, angiotensin II, a major hormonal inducer of vascular senescence, induces prolonged lysine acetylation of PGC-1? and releases the PGC-1?-FoxO1 complex from the SIRT1 promoter, thus reducing SIRT1 expression. The phosphorylation-defective mutant PGC-1? S570A is not acetylated, is constitutively active for forkhead box O1-dependent SIRT1 transcription, and prevents angiotensin II-induced senescence. Acetylation of PGC-1? by angiotensin II interrupts the PGC-1?-forkhead box O1-SIRT1 feed-forward signaling circuit leading to SIRT1 and catalase downregulation and vascular senescence.PGC-1? is a primary negative regulator of vascular senescence. Moreover, the central role of posttranslational modification of PGC-1? in regulating angiotensin II-induced vascular senescence may inform development of novel therapeutic strategies for mitigating age-associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
Project description:Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor that mediates the inhibitory effect of insulin on target genes in hepatic metabolism. Hepatic FoxO1 activity is up-regulated to promote glucose production during fasting and is suppressed to limit postprandial glucose excursion after meals. Increased FoxO1 activity augments the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate (IRS)2, which in turn inhibits FoxO1 activity in response to reduced insulin action. To address the underlying physiology of such a feedback loop for regulating FoxO1 activity, we delivered FoxO1-ADA by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into livers of adult mice. FoxO1-ADA is a constitutively active allele that is refractory to insulin inhibition, allowing us to determine the metabolic effect of a dislodged FoxO1 feedback loop in mice. We show that hepatic FoxO1-ADA production resulted in significant induction of IR and IRS2 expression. Mice with increased FoxO1-ADA production exhibited near glycogen depletion. Unexpectedly, hepatic FoxO1-ADA production elicited a profound unfolded protein response, culminating in the induction of hepatic glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression. These findings were recapitulated in primary human and mouse hepatocytes. FoxO1 targeted GRP78 gene for trans-activation via selective binding to an insulin responsive element in the GRP78 promoter. This effect was counteracted by insulin. Our studies underscore the importance of an IR and IRS2-dependent feedback loop to keep FoxO1 activity in check for maintaining hepatic glycogen homeostasis and promoting adaptive unfolded protein response in response to altered metabolism and insulin action. Excessive FoxO1 activity, resulting from a dislodged FoxO1 feedback loop in insulin resistant liver, is attributable to hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and metabolic abnormalities in diabetes.
Project description:In this study, we determined the molecular mechanisms whereby forkhead transcription factor Foxo1, a key downstream signaling molecule of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/insulin actions, regulates Runx2 activity and expression of the mouse osteocalcin gene 2 (Bglap2) in osteoblasts in vitro. We showed that Foxo1 inhibited Runx2-dependent transcriptional activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression and Bglap2 promoter activity in MC-4 preosteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Foxo1 physically interacted with Runx2 via its C-terminal region in osteoblasts or when co-expressed in COS-7 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Foxo1 suppressed Runx2 binding to its cognate site within the Bglap2 promoter. IGF1 and insulin prevented Foxo1 from inhibiting Runx2 activity by promoting Foxo1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. In contrast, a neutralizing anti-IGF1 antibody decreased Runx2 activity and osteocalcin expression in osteoblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that IGF1 increased Runx2 interaction with a chromatin fragment of the proximal Bglap2 promoter in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Foxo1 increased Runx2 interaction with the promoter. This study establishes that Foxo1 is a novel negative regulator of osteoblast-specific transcription factor Runx2 and modulates IGF1/insulin-dependent regulation of osteocalcin expression in osteoblasts.