A hypoxia-dependent upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by nuclear factor-κB promotes gastric tumour growth and angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms involved in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in gastric cancer remain unclear. As nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as well as HIF-1 have been implicated in angiogenesis of various cancers, we investigated their relationship in gastric cancer.Nuclear expressions of HIF-1α and NF-κB/RelA were assessed in 251 human gastric carcinoma specimens by immunohistochemical tissue array analysis. Stable human gastric cancer cells, infected with a retroviral vector containing super-suppressive mutant form of IκBα (IκBαM), were used for animal studies as well as cell culture experiments. Xenografted tumours were measured and IκBαM effects on angiogenesis and HIF-1α activation were assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, luciferase reporter assay, and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, NF-κB effects on the HIF-1α degradation and synthesis were examined.Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation positively correlated with RelA activation in clinical gastric cancer samples (P<0.001). The IκBαM overexpression suppressed tumour growth, microvessel density, and HIF-1α activation in xenografted tumours. Cell culture experiments showed that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression was reduced by NF-κB inhibition under hypoxic conditions at the translational level.The hypoxia-dependent activation of the NF-κB/HIF-1α/VEGF pathway contributes, at least in part, to gastric cancer promotion via enhancement of angiogenesis.
Project description:Aims: Adaptation to low oxygen of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow has been demonstrated to depend on the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α as well as the limited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we aimed at determining whether HIF-1α is involved in protecting HSCs from ROS. Results: Oxidative stress was induced by DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO)-treatment, which increases the mitochondrial ROS level. Hypoxia rescued Lineage-Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK) cells from BSO-induced apoptosis, whereas cells succumbed to apoptosis in normoxia. Apoptosis in normoxia was inhibited with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or by overexpression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2. Moreover, stabilized expression of oxygen-insensitive HIFs could not protect LSK cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis at normoxia, neither could short hairpin RNA to Hif-1α inhibit the protective effects by hypoxia in LSK cells. Likewise, BSO treatment of LSK cells from Hif-1α knockout mice did not suppress the effects seen in hypoxia. Microarray analysis identified the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway as a pathway induced by hypoxia. By using NF-κB lentiviral construct and DNA-binding assay, we found increased NF-κB activity in cells cultured in hypoxia compared with normoxia. Using an inhibitor against NF-κB activation, we could confirm the involvement of NF-κB signaling as BSO-mediated cell death was significantly increased in hypoxia after adding the inhibitor. Innovation: HIF-1α is not involved in protecting HSCs and progenitors to elevated levels of ROS on glutathione depletion during hypoxic conditions. Conclusion: The study proposes a putative role of NF-κB signaling as a hypoxia-induced regulator in early hematopoietic cells.
Project description:Our previous study has demonstrated that cytochalasin H (CyH) isolated from mangrove-derived endophytic fungus induces apoptosis and inhibits migration in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In this study, we further explored the effect of CyH on angiogenesis in NSCLC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. A549 and H460 NSCLC cells were treated with different concentrations of CyH for 24 h. The effects of CyH on NSCLC angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in xenografted NSCLC of nude mice was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to analyze the concentration of VEGF in the conditioned media derived from treated and untreated NSCLC cells. Western blot was performed to detect the levels of HIF-1α, p-AKT, p-P70S6K, and p-ERK1/2 proteins, and RT-qPCR was used to determine the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in A549 and H460 cells. Our results showed that CyH significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed the hemoglobin content and HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression in xenografted NSCLC tissues of nude mice. Meanwhile, CyH inhibited the secretion of VEGF protein and the expression of HIF-1α protein in A549 and H460 cells. Moreover, CyH had a significant inhibitory effect on VEGF mRNA expression but had no effect on HIF-1α mRNA expression, and CyH inhibited HIF-1α protein expression by promoting the degradation of HIF-1α protein in A549 and H460 cells. Additionally, CyH dramatically inhibited AKT, P70S6K, and ERK1/2 activation in A549 and H460 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that CyH can inhibit NSCLC angiogenesis by the suppression of HIF-1α protein accumulation and VEGF expression through PI3K/AKT/P70S6K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
Project description:Hypoxia could lead to microglia activation and inflammatory mediators' overproduction. These inflammatory molecules could amplify the neuroinflammatory process and exacerbate neuronal injury. The aim of this study is to find out whether harpagoside could reduce hypoxia-induced microglia activation.In this study, primary microglia cells harvested from neonatal ICR mice were activated by exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2 for 3 h). Harpagoside had been shown to be no cytotoxicity on microglia cells by MTT assay. The scavenger effect of harpagoside on hypoxia-enhanced microglial cells proliferation, associated inflammatory genes expression (COX-II, IL-1β and IL-6 genes) and NO synthesis were also examined.Hypoxia enhances active proliferation of microglial cells, while harpagoside can scavenge this effect. We find that harpagoside could scavenge hypoxia-enhanced inflammatory genes expression (COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 genes) and NO synthesis of microglial cells. Under 3 h' hypoxic stimulation, the nuclear contents of p65 and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) significantly increase, while the cytosol IκB-α content decreases; these effects can be reversed by 1 h's pre-incubation of 10(-8) M harpagoside. Harpagoside could decrease IκB-α protein phosphorylation and inhibit p65 protein translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, thus suppress NF-κB activation and reduce the HIF-1α generation.These results suggested that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of harpagoside might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Harpagoside protect against hypoxia-induced toxicity on microglial cells through HIF-α pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oral lichen planus (OLP) is known as a chronic inflammatory disease. Our recent studies have suggested that vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling exerts its protective effects on oral keratinocyte apoptosis by regulating microRNA-802 and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), but its roles in oral epithelial inflammatory responses in OLP are still unknown. Herein, we identify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is able to enhance interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) productions in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). METHODS:HIF-1α and cytokines levels in HOKs were investigated by real-time PCR and western blotting after LPS challenge. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on LPS-induced HIF-1α and cytokines were tested by real-time PCR, western blotting, siRNA-interference and plasmids transfection techniques. The roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 in regulating HIF-1α levels were investigated using western blotting, siRNA-interference, plasmids transfection and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Finally, HIF-1α, IFNγ and IL-1β expressions in oral epithelia derived from mice and individuals were measured by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS:As a critical regulator, vitamin D suppresses LPS-induced HIF-1α to block IFNγ and IL-1β productions. Mechanistically, vitamin D inactivates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and up-regulates von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) levels, leading to HIF-1α reduction. Moreover, HIF-1α status of oral epithelia is elevated in VDR-/- mie as well as in VDR-deficient human biopsies, accompanied with increased IFNγ and IL-1β. CONCLUSION:Collectively, this study uncovers an unrecognized roles of vitamin D/VDR signaling in regulating cytokines in oral keratinocytes and reveals the molecular basis of it.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a stress-responsive transcription factor to hypoxia and its expression is correlated to tumor progression and angiogenesis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HIF-1α gene in the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain was reportedly associated with increased HIF-1α activity. RESULTS: In this study, we focused on the relationship between SNP 1772 C > T (rs11549465) of HIF-1α gene and its breast cancer risk, as well as its correlation with HIF-1α expression and tumor angiogenesis. Ninety six breast cancer patients and 120 age-matched controls were enrolled. We found that 1772 T allele of HIF-1α gene was associated with increased breast cancer risk (adjusted OR = 14.51; 95% CI: 6.74-31.24). This SNP was not associated with clinicopathologic features of angiogenesis such as VEGF activity and the micro-vessel density and survival of breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the 1772 C > T of HIF-1α gene is a potential biomarker for breast cancer susceptibility.
Project description:Angiogenic factor with G-patch and FHA domains 1 (AGGF1) is involved in vascular development, angiogenesis, specification of hemangioblasts, and differentiation of veins. When mutated, however, it causes Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, a vascular disorder. In this study, we show that angiotensin II (AngII)-the major effector of the renin-angiotensin system and one of the most important regulators of the cardiovascular system-induces the expression of AGGF1 through NF-κB, and that AGGF1 plays a key role in AngII-induced angiogenesis. AngII significantly up-regulated the levels of AGGF1 mRNA and protein in HUVECs at concentrations of 10-40 μg/ml but not >60 μg/ml. AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor losartan inhibited AngII-induced up-regulation of AGGF1, whereas AT2R inhibitor PD123319 further increased AngII-induced up-regulation of AGGF1. Up-regulation of AGGF1 by AngII was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors, and p65 binds directly to a binding site at the promoter/regulatory region of AGGF1 and transcriptionally activates AGGF1 expression. AngII-induced endothelial tube formation was blocked by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for RELA (RELA proto-oncogene, NF-κB subunit)/p65 or AGGF1, and the effect of RELA siRNA was rescued by AGGF1. AngII-induced angiogenesis from aortic rings was severely impaired in Aggf1+/- mice, and the effect was restored by AGGF1. These data suggest that AngII acts as a critical regulator of AGGF1 expression through NF-κB, and that AGGF1 plays a key role in AngII-induced angiogenesis.-Si, W., Xie, W., Deng, W., Xiao, Y., Karnik, S. S., Xu, C., Chen, Q., Wang, Q. K. Angiotensin II increases angiogenesis by NF-κB-mediated transcriptional activation of angiogenic factor AGGF1.
Project description:Thalidomide is used in clinical practice to treat gastrointestinal vascular malformation (GIVM), but the pathogenesis of GIVM is not clear. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and 2 alpha (HIF-2α/EPAS1) are in the same family and act as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-1α and HIF-2α are up-regulated in vascular malformations in intestinal tissues from GIVM patients, but not in adjacent normal vessels. Therefore, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α during angiogenesis and the mechanism of thalidomide action. In vitro experiments confirmed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was a direct target of HIF-2α and that HIF-1α and HIF-2α regulated NOTCH1, Ang2, and DLL4, which enhanced vessel-forming of endothelial cells. Thalidomide down-regulated the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and inhibited angiogenesis. In vivo zebrafish experiments suggested that HIF-2α overexpression was associated with abnormal subintestinal vascular (SIV) sprouting, which was reversed by thalidomide. This result indicated that thalidomide regulated angiogenesis via the inhibition of HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression, which further regulated downstream factors, including VEGF, NOTCH1, DLL4, and Ang2. The abnormally high expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α may contribute to GIVM.
Project description:Angiogenesis contributes to the repair process after renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the present study, we tested the role of miR-21 in the angiogenesis induced by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α through inhibiting a predicted target gene thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1).To stabilize HIF-1α, hypoxia (1% O2 for 24 hours) was performed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was pretreated intraperitoneally 24 hours before renal I/R in mice. Locked nucleic acid modified anti-miR-21 and scrambled control was transfected with hypoxic cells or delivered into the mice via tail vein 1 hour before CoCl2 injection. The kidneys and blood were collected at 24 hours after reperfusion.HIF-1α induced by hypoxia and CoCl2 upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor and miR-21, and increased angiogenesis. It was found that expression of TSP-1 was inversely related with miR-21 in vitro and in vivo. Targeting of TSP-1 by miR-21 was further confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, HIF-1α improved renal function, accompanied with increased angiogenesis after I/R injury in mice. The protective effect of HIF-1α was attenuated by inhibition of miR-21.HIF-1α induced angiogenesis by upregulating not only vascular endothelial growth factor but also miR-21 via inhibiting a novel target gene TSP-1. Both of them may contribute to the protective effect of HIF-1α on renal I/R injury.
Project description:It is well established that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) acts as one of the most important transcription factors for tumor initiation and progression, as it both protects cells from apoptotic/necrotic signals and accelerates angiogenesis and tumor metastasis, which is mediated via the expression of target genes. However, it has not yet been clarified how oncogenic signals accelerate the activation of NF-κB. In the current study, we utilized untransformed NIH-3T3 cells stably harboring a κB-driven luciferase gene to show that an oncogenic mutant of Ras GTPase augmented TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Notably, enforced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, such as p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 , effectively canceled the accelerated activation of NF-κB, suggesting that oncogenic Ras-induced cell cycle progression is essential for the hyperactivation of NF-κB. Furthermore, we found that Ras (G12V) augmented the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, and this activation required the p38 MAP kinase. We observed that a downstream kinase of p38 MAP kinase, MSK1, was activated by Ras (G12V) and catalyzed the phosphorylation of p65/RelA at Ser-276, which is critical for its transcriptional activation. Significantly, phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit at Ser-276 was elevated in patient samples of colorectal cancer harboring oncogenic mutations of the K-Ras gene, and the expression levels of NF-κB target genes were drastically enhanced in several cancer tissues. These observations strongly suggest that oncogenic signal-induced acceleration of NF-κB activation is caused by activation of the p38 MAP kinase-MSK1 signaling axis and by cell cycle progression in cancer cells.
Project description:Vascular remodeling and angiogenesis are required to improve the perfusion of ischemic tissues. The hypoxic environment, induced by ischemia, is a potent stimulus for hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) upregulation and activation, which induce pro-angiogenic gene expression. We previously showed that the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 drives hypoxia mediated HIF-1α upregulation via inhibition of the proteasomal pathway, resulting in revascularization of wounds in vivo. However, it is still unknown if SHP-2 mediates HIF-1α upregulation by affecting 26S proteasome activity and how the proteasome is regulated upon hypoxia. Using a reporter construct containing the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-1α and a fluorogenic proteasome substrate in combination with SHP-2 mutant constructs, we show that SHP-2 inhibits the 26S proteasome activity in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions in vitro via Src kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. Moreover, the simultaneous expression of constitutively active SHP-2 (E76A) and inactive SHP-2 (CS) in separate hypoxic wounds in the mice dorsal skin fold chamber by localized magnetic nanoparticle-assisted lentiviral transduction showed specific regulation of proteasome activity in vivo. Thus, we identified a new additional mechanism of SHP-2 mediated HIF-1α upregulation and proteasome activity, being functionally important for revascularization of wounds in vivo. SHP-2 may therefore constitute a potential novel therapeutic target for the induction of angiogenesis in ischemic vascular disease.