Regulation of PTEN expression by the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling protein BRG1 in human colorectal carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant expression of Brahma-related gene-1 (BRG1), a core component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated in cancer development; however, the biological significance of BRG1 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains unknown.In CRC tissues, expression of BRG1 and Brahma (BRM) was investigated immunohistochemically. Colorectal carcinoma-derived DLD-1 cells were used for knockdown of BRG1 and PTEN with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and transduction of Akt. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis was performed to explore the genes affected by BRG1.Expression of BRG1, but not BRM, was frequently elevated in CRC specimens, and knockdown of BRG1 suppressed cell proliferation of DLD-1 cells. By cDNA microarray, we determined that PTEN expression was negatively regulated by BRG1 in DLD-1 cells, which subsequently influenced the cyclin D1 levels via the phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signalling pathway. The interplay of BRG1 on cyclin D1 expression was confirmed by the introduction of Akt and knockdown of PTEN in the BRG1 siRNA-transduced DLD-1 cells. Interestingly, this positive correlation between BRG1 and cyclin D1 expression was also observed in CRC specimens.Brahma-related gene-1 has an important role in the process of CRC development by activating the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and resultant upregulation of cyclin D1 levels.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction inflicted by inflammation is found in a host of cardiovascular pathologies. One hallmark event in this process is the aggregation and adhesion of leukocyte to the vessel wall mediated by the upregulation of adhesion molecules (CAM) in endothelial cells at the transcriptional level. The epigenetic modulator(s) of CAM transactivation and its underlying pathophysiological relevance remain poorly defined.Our goal was to determine the involvement of Brahma related gene 1 (Brg1) and Brahma (Brm) in CAM transactivation and its relevance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.In the present study, we report that proinflammatory stimuli augmented the expression of Brg1 and Brm in vitro in cultured endothelial cells and in vivo in arteries isolated from rodents. Overexpression of Brg1 and Brm promoted while knockdown of Brg1 and Brm abrogated transactivation of adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion induced by inflammatory signals. Brg1 and Brm interacted with and were recruited to the CAM promoters by nuclear factor ?B/p65. Conversely, depletion of Brg1 and Brm disrupted the kinetics of p65 binding on CAM promoters and crippled CAM activation. Silencing of Brg1 and Brm also altered key epigenetic changes associated with CAM transactivation. Of intrigue, 17?-estradiol antagonized both the expression and activity of Brg1/Brm. Most importantly, endothelial-targeted elimination of Brg1/Brm conferred atheroprotective effects to Apoe(-/-) mice on a Western diet.Our data suggest that Brg1 and Brm integrate various proinflammatory cues into CAM transactivation and endothelial malfunction and, as such, may serve as potential therapeutic targets in treating inflammation-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes containing either Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) or Brahma (Brm) play important roles in mammalian development. In this study we examined the roles of Brg1 and Brm in smooth muscle development, in vivo, through generation and analysis of mice harboring a smooth muscle-specific knockout of Brg1 on wild-type and Brm null backgrounds. Knockout of Brg1 from smooth muscle in Brg1(flox/flox) mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain promoter resulted in cardiopulmonary defects, including patent ductus arteriosus, in 30 to 40% of the mice. Surviving knockout mice exhibited decreased expression of smooth muscle-specific contractile proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, impaired contractility, shortened intestines, disorganized smooth muscle cells, and an increase in apoptosis of intestinal smooth muscle cells. Although Brm knockout mice had normal intestinal structure and function, knockout of Brg1 on a Brm null background exacerbated the effects of knockout of Brg1 alone, resulting in an increase in neonatal lethality. These data show that Brg1 and Brm play critical roles in regulating development of smooth muscle and that Brg1 has specific functions within vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscle that cannot be performed by Brm.
Project description:Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) represents one hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa). However, restoration of PTEN or inhibition of the activated PI3K/AKT pathway has shown limited success, prompting us to identify obligate targets for disease intervention. We hypothesized that PTEN loss might expose cells to unique epigenetic vulnerabilities. Here, we identified a synthetic lethal relationship between PTEN and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Higher BRG1 expression in tumors with low PTEN expression was associated with a worse clinical outcome. Genetically engineered mice (GEMs) and organoid assays confirmed that ablation of PTEN sensitized the cells to BRG1 depletion. Mechanistically, PTEN loss stabilized BRG1 protein through the inhibition of the AKT/GSK3?/FBXW7 axis. Increased BRG1 expression in PTEN-deficient PCa cells led to chromatin remodeling into configurations that drove a protumorigenic transcriptome, causing cells to become further addicted to BRG1. Furthermore, we showed in preclinical models that BRG1 antagonist selectively inhibited the progression of PTEN-deficient prostate tumors. Together, our results highlight the synthetic lethal relationship between PTEN and BRG1 and support targeting BRG1 as an effective approach to the treatment of PTEN-deficient PCa.
Project description:The ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes, Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), can induce cell cycle arrest in BRM and BRG1 deficient tumor cell lines, and mice heterozygous for Brg1 are pre-disposed to breast tumors, implicating loss of BRG1 as a mechanism for unregulated cell proliferation. To test the hypothesis that loss of BRG1 can contribute to breast cancer, we utilized RNA interference to reduce the amounts of BRM or BRG1 protein in the nonmalignant mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. When grown in reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), these cells develop into acini that resemble the lobes of normal breast tissue. Contrary to expectations, knockdown of either BRM or BRG1 resulted in an inhibition of cell proliferation in monolayer cultures. This inhibition was strikingly enhanced in three-dimensional rBM culture, although some BRM-depleted cells were later able to resume proliferation. Cells did not arrest in any specific stage of the cell cycle; instead, the cell cycle length increased by approximately 50%. Thus, SWI/SNF ATPases promote cell cycle progression in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells.
Project description:ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes contribute to the proper temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression in mammalian embryos and therefore play important roles in a number of developmental processes. SWI/SNF-like chromatin-remodeling complexes use one of two different ATPases as their catalytic subunit: brahma (BRM, also known as SMARCA2) and brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1, also known as SMARCA4). We have conditionally deleted a floxed Brg1 allele with a Tie2-Cre transgene, which is expressed in developing hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Brg1(fl/fl):Tie2-Cre(+) embryos die at midgestation from anemia, as mutant primitive erythrocytes fail to transcribe embryonic alpha- and beta-globins, and subsequently undergo apoptosis. Additionally, vascular remodeling of the extraembryonic yolk sac is abnormal in Brg1(fl/fl):Tie2-Cre(+) embryos. Importantly, Brm deficiency does not exacerbate the erythropoietic or vascular abnormalities found in Brg1(fl/fl):Tie2-Cre(+) embryos, implying that Brg1-containing SWI/SNF-like complexes, rather than Brm-containing complexes, play a crucial role in primitive erythropoiesis and in early vascular development.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 preserves genome integrity by inducing transcription of genes controlling growth arrest or apoptosis. Transcriptional activation involves nucleosomal perturbation by chromatin remodeling enzymes. Mammalian SWI/SNF remodeling complexes incorporate either the Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) or Brahma (Brm) as the ATPase subunit. The observation that tumor cell lines harboring wild-type p53 specifically maintain expression of BRG1 and that BRG1 complexes with p53 prompted us to examine the role of BRG1 in regulation of p53. Remarkably, RNAi depletion of BRG1, but not Brm, led to the activation of endogenous wild-type p53 and cell senescence. We found a proline-rich region unique to BRG1 was required for binding to the histone acetyl transferase protein, CBP, as well as to p53. Ectopic expression of a proline-rich region deletion mutant BRG1 that is defective for CBP binding inhibited p53 destabilization. Importantly, RNAi knockdown of BRG1 and CBP reduced p53 poly-ubiquitination in vivo. In support of p53 inactivation by the combined activities of BRG1 and CBP, we show that DNA damage signals promoted disassociation of BRG1 from CBP, thereby allowing p53 accumulation. Our data demonstrate a novel function of the evolutionarily conserved chromatin remodeling subunit BRG1, which cooperates with CBP to constrain p53 activity and permit cancer cell proliferation.
Project description:Although the two catalytic subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex--Brahma (Brm) and Brg1--are almost invariably co-expressed, their mutually exclusive incorporation into distinct SWI/SNF complexes predicts that Brg1- and Brm-based SWI/SNF complexes execute specific functions. Here, we show that Brg1 and Brm have distinct functions at discrete stages of muscle differentiation. While Brg1 is required for the activation of muscle gene transcription at early stages of differentiation, Brm is required for Ccnd1 repression and cell cycle arrest prior to the activation of muscle genes. Ccnd1 knockdown rescues the ability to exit the cell cycle in Brm-deficient myoblasts, but does not recover terminal differentiation, revealing a previously unrecognized role of Brm in the activation of late muscle gene expression independent from the control of cell cycle. Consistently, Brm null mice displayed impaired muscle regeneration after injury, with aberrant proliferation of satellite cells and delayed formation of new myofibers. These data reveal stage-specific roles of Brm during skeletal myogenesis, via formation of repressive and activatory SWI/SNF complexes.
Project description:Switch (SWI)/sucrose nonfermentable (SNF) is an evolutionarily conserved complex with ATPase function, capable of regulating nucleosome position to alter transcriptional programs within the cell. It is known that the SWI/SNF complex is responsible for regulation of many genes involved in cell cycle control and proliferation, and it has recently been implicated in cancer development. The ATPase action of SWI/SNF is conferred through either the brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) or brahma (Brm) subunit of the complex, and it is of central importance to the modification of nucleosome position. In this study, the role of the Brg1 and Brm subunits were examined as they relate to chromatin structure and organization. Deletion of the Brg1 ATPase results in dissolution of pericentromeric heterochromatin domains and a redistribution of histone modifications associated with these structures. This effect was highly specific to Brg1 and is not reproduced by the loss of Brm or SNF5/BAF47/INI1. Brg1 deficiency is associated with the appearance of micronuclei and aberrant mitoses that are a by-product of dissociated chromatin structure. Thus, Brg1 plays a critical role in maintaining chromatin structural integrity.
Project description:The Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related Gene 1 (BRG1) ATPases are highly conserved homologs that catalyze the chromatin remodeling functions of the multi-subunit human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes in a mutually exclusive manner. SWI/SNF enzyme subunits are mutated or missing in many cancer types, but are overexpressed without apparent mutation in other cancers. Here, we report that both BRG1 and BRM are overexpressed in most primary breast cancers independent of the tumor's receptor status. Knockdown of either ATPase in a triple negative breast cancer cell line reduced tumor formation in vivo and cell proliferation in vitro. Fewer cells in S phase and an extended cell cycle progression time were observed without any indication of apoptosis, senescence, or alterations in migration or attachment properties. Combined knockdown of BRM and BRG1 showed additive effects in the reduction of cell proliferation and time required for completion of cell cycle, suggesting that these enzymes promote cell cycle progression through independent mechanisms. Knockout of BRG1 or BRM using CRISPR/Cas9 technology resulted in the loss of viability, consistent with a requirement for both enzymes in triple negative breast cancer cells.
Project description:Background:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent and lethal malignancies worldwide. Although great advances have been made in the treatment of CRC, prognosis remains poor. Our previous study indicated that tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) was upregulated in CRC samples. Methods:In the current study, the association between TRIM14 and CRC was investigated. Protein expression was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Further, the biological roles of TRIM14 in CRC cell proliferation and apoptosis were explored both in vitro and in vivo. Results:We observed that increased TRIM14 expression in CRC tissues was closely related with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics and poor prognosis. TRIM14 knockdown markedly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in HT-29 and SW620 cells, whereas TRIM14 overexpression in LoVo cells displayed opposite results. Xenograft experiments using HT-29 cells confirmed suppression of tumor growth and induction of apoptosis upon TRIM14 knockdown in vivo. Furthermore, downregulation of TRIM14 inhibited the AKT pathway, as indicated by reduced levels of phosphorylated AKT, Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1, and elevated levels of phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN) and p27. In addition, TRIM14 colocalized with PTEN in the cytoplasm and induced PTEN ubiquitination. Moreover, PTEN overexpression significantly inhibited pro-proliferative effects of TRIM14, indicating an involvement of PTEN/AKT signaling in mediating TRIM14 functions. Conclusions:The present data demonstrate that TRIM14 overexpression promotes CRC cell proliferation, suggesting TRIM14 as an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.