Targeting canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma with a human bladder cancer-specific ligand.
ABSTRACT: To determine if a human bladder cancer-specific peptide named PLZ4 can target canine bladder cancer cells.The binding of PLZ4 to five established canine invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and to normal canine bladder urothelial cells was determined using the whole cell binding assay and an affinitofluorescence assay. The WST-8 assay was performed to determine whether PLZ4 affected cell viability. In vivo tumor-specific homing/targeting property and biodistribution of PLZ4 was performed in a mouse xenograft model via tail vein injection and was confirmed with ex vivo imaging.PLZ4 exhibited high affinity and specific dose-dependent binding to canine bladder TCC cell lines, but not to normal canine urothelial cells. No significant changes in cell viability or proliferation were observed upon incubation with PLZ4. The in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging study showed that, when linked with the near-infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5, PLZ4 substantially accumulated at the canine bladder cancer foci in the mouse xenograft model as compared to the control.PLZ4 can specifically bind to canine bladder cancer cells. This suggests that the preclinical studies of PLZ4 as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic agent can be performed in dogs with naturally occurring bladder cancer, and that PLZ4 can possibly be developed in the management of canine bladder cancer.
Project description:To develop bladder cancer-specific ligands using a combinatorial chemistry approach.We performed a high-throughput one-bead one-compound combinatorial chemistry approach to identify ligands that bound to bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The whole-cell binding assay allowed successful identification of a few peptides that bound selectively to bladder cancer cells. Single cell suspensions derived from clinical bladder cancer specimens and cell lines were used to determine the binding specificity. Studies with mouse xenografts were performed to determine the in vivo binding and targeting efficiency, specificity, and biodistribution of one of the ligands.One cyclic peptide named PLZ4 (amino acid sequence: cQDGRMGFc) was identified that could selectively bind to bladder cancer cell lines and all of the 5 primary bladder cancer cells from human patients, but not to normal urothelial cells, cell mixtures from normal bladder specimens, fibroblasts, and blood cells. Comparison of PLZ4 binding to cell lines of different cancer origins showed that it was bladder cancer-specific (P < 0.05). PLZ4 could bind to tumor cells treated with urine at pH 6.0, but not to noncancerous cells collected from the urine of 4 patients actively being treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. In vivo and ex vivo imaging studies showed that PLZ4 linked to Cy5.5 fluorescent dye administered via tail vein injection was specifically taken up in mouse xenografts developed from excised fresh human bladder cancer specimens. Several ligands contain the same DGR motif, but only PLZ4 was bladder cancer-specific. We performed alanine walk and rainbow bead coding experiments, and found that the C-terminal GF residues were also important for cell binding and modulated the binding specificity.PLZ4 has the potential to be used for targeted therapy and imaging detection during diagnosis and follow-up/surveillance of noninvasive and advanced bladder cancer.
Project description:We previously developed a bladder cancer-specific ligand (PLZ4) that can specifically bind to both human and dog bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We have also developed a micelle nanocarrier drug-delivery system. Here, we assessed whether the targeting micelles decorated with PLZ4 on the surface could specifically target dog bladder cancer cells.Micelle-building monomers (ie, telodendrimers) were synthesized through conjugation of polyethylene glycol with a cholic acid cluster at one end and PLZ4 at the other, which then self-assembled in an aqueous solution to form micelles. Dog bladder cancer cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo drug delivery studies.Compared to nontargeting micelles, targeting PLZ4 micelles (23.2 ± 8.1 nm in diameter) loaded with the imaging agent DiD and the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel or daunorubicin were more efficient in targeted drug delivery and more effective in cell killing in vitro. PLZ4 facilitated the uptake of micelles together with the cargo load into the target cells. We also developed an orthotopic invasive dog bladder cancer xenograft model in mice. In vivo studies with this model showed the targeting micelles were more efficient in targeted drug delivery than the free dye (14.3×; P < 0.01) and nontargeting micelles (1.5×; P < 0.05).Targeting micelles decorated with PLZ4 can selectively target dog bladder cancer cells and potentially be developed as imaging and therapeutic agents in a clinical setting. Preclinical studies of targeting micelles can be performed in dogs with spontaneous bladder cancer before proceeding with studies using human patients.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) are used as targeted therapies for patients diagnosed with cancer with highly expressed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-Kit receptor. Resistance to targeted therapies is partially due to the activation of alternative pro-survival signaling pathways, including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In this study, we validated the effects of two RTKIs, axitinib and AB1010, in combination with COX inhibitors on the V-akt murine thymoma oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and COX-2 signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.The expression of several RTKs and their downstream signaling targets was analyzed by Western blot (WB) analysis in human and canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines. The effects of RTKIs and COX inhibitors in bladder TCC cells were assessed by MTS for cell viability, by Caspase-3/7 and Annexin V assay for apoptosis, by WB analysis for detection of COX-2 and Akt signaling pathways, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels.All tested TCC cells expressed the c-Kit and PDGFR? receptors, except human 5637 cells that had low RTKs expression. In addition, all tested cells expressed COX-1, COX-2, Akt, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhance of activated B cells proteins, except human UM-UC-3 cells, where no COX-2 expression was detected by WB analysis. Both RTKIs inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in tested bladder TCC cells, which positively correlated with their expression levels of the PDGFR? and c-Kit receptors. RTKIs increased the expression of COX-2 in h-5637 and K9TCC#1Lillie cells. Co-treatment of indomethacin inhibited AB1010-induced COX-2 expression leading to an additive effect in inhibition of cell viability and PGE2 production in tested TCC cells.Co-treatment of RTKIs with indomethacin inhibited cell viability and AB1010-induced COX-2 expression resulting in decreased PGE2 production in tested TCC cells. Thus, COX inhibition may further potentiate RTKIs therapies in bladder cancer.
Project description:The overall prognosis of bladder cancer has not been improved over the last 30 years and therefore, there is a great medical need to develop novel diagnosis and therapy approaches for bladder cancer. We developed a multifunctional nanoporphyrin platform that was coated with a bladder cancer-specific ligand named PLZ4. PLZ4-nanoporphyrin (PNP) integrates photodynamic diagnosis, image-guided photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and targeted chemotherapy in a single procedure. PNPs are spherical, relatively small (around 23 nm), and have the ability to preferably emit fluorescence/heat/reactive oxygen species upon illumination with near infrared light. Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded PNPs possess slower drug release and dramatically longer systemic circulation time compared to free DOX. The fluorescence signal of PNPs efficiently and selectively increased in bladder cancer cells but not normal urothelial cells in vitro and in an orthotopic patient derived bladder cancer xenograft (PDX) models, indicating their great potential for photodynamic diagnosis. Photodynamic therapy with PNPs was significantly more potent than 5-aminolevulinic acid, and eliminated orthotopic PDX bladder cancers after intravesical treatment. Image-guided photodynamic and photothermal therapies synergized with targeted chemotherapy of DOX and significantly prolonged overall survival of mice carrying PDXs. In conclusion, this uniquely engineered targeting PNP selectively targeted tumor cells for photodynamic diagnosis, and served as effective triple-modality (photodynamic/photothermal/chemo) therapeutic agents against bladder cancers. This platform can be easily adapted to individualized medicine in a clinical setting and has tremendous potential to improve the management of bladder cancer in the clinic.
Project description:Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer.
Project description:The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group) were fed control (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001). A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6-80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9-55.3%, P < .0001 in females) was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm) completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V) with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.
Project description:Effective treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder requires early diagnosis. Identifying novel molecular markers in TCC would guide the development of diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Ephrins mediate signals via tyrosine kinase activity that modulates diverse physiologic and developmental processes, and ephrins are increasingly implicated in carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to examine the differential regulation of EphB4 and EphB2 in normal bladder and in TCC of the bladder in 40 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for curative intent. Immunostaining and Western blotting revealed that normal urothelium expresses EphB2 (20 of 24 cases, 83% of the time) not EphB4 (0 of 24 cases, 0%). In sharp contrast, TCC specimens show loss of EphB2 expression (0 of 34 cases, 0%) and gain of EphB4 expression (32 of 34, 94%). Furthermore, EphB4 signal strength statistically correlated with higher tumor stage, and trended toward the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS). These results are confirmed by analysis of normal urothelial and tumor cell lines. EphB2 is not a survival factor in normal urothelium, while EphB4 is a survival factor in TCC. Treatment of bladder tumor xenograft with an EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA leads to 62% tumor regression and complete remission when combined with Bevacizumab. Furthermore, tissue analysis revealed that sEphB4-HSA led to increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and reduced vessel density, implicating direct tumor cell targeting as well as anti-angiogenesis effect. In summary loss of EphB2 and gain of EphB4 expression represents an inflection point in the development, growth and possibly progression of TCC. Therapeutic compounds targeting EphB4 have potential for diagnosing and treating TCC.
Project description:Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. EGFR protein expression was significantly higher in TCC than that in normal healthy bladder (P<0.001) and polypoid cystitis (P<0.005). High EGFR protein expression was significantly (P<0.01) associated with TCC with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 100%. Comparative analysis of protein and mRNA expression levels in TCC showed significant positive correlation (r=0.88, P<0.05) between mRNA and protein expression. These findings suggest that intense expression of EGFR protein could be used as a marker to help canine TCC diagnosis.
Project description:We aimed at investigating effects of long non-coding RNA maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells and regulatory relationships among lncRNA MEG3, miR-96 and ?-tropomyosin 1 (TPM1). Human clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) which contains bladder urothelial carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues were used for analysis. The expression profiles of MEG3, miR-96, TPM1, cell cycle-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot. Regulating relationship among MEG3, miR-96 and TPM1 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to observe cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. The effects of lncRNA MEG3 on bladder urothelial carcinoma were confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The mRNA expression and protein expression of MEG3, TPM1 were down-regulated in carcinoma tissues, whereas miR-96 expression was up-regulated. MEG3 overexpression resulted in miR-96 downregulation along with TPM1 upregulation, which inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle but promoted cell apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells in vitro, and at the same time inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In this process, expressions of apoptosis-related protein BCL2 associated X (Bax), cleaved-caspase 3 was up-regulated, whereas apoptosis regulator protein (Bcl-2) expression was suppressed when MEG3 was overexpressed, and cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1 was down-regulated. LncRNA MEG3 low-expression promotes the proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells by regulating miR-96 along with TPM1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To identify the hub genes related to urothelial carcinoma of the bladder prognosis and to understand their underlying mechanism. METHODS:The expression profiles of 18 pairs of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder patient tissue and paired adjacent tissue obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas were performed. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis was employed to screen gene modules and hub genes with significant differential expressions in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The hub genes expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder tissues was validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The overall survival curve and disease-free survival curve of prognostic factor (LGALS4) were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, LGALS4 messenger RNA and protein expression were also assessed in 2 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder cell lines (T24 and 5637) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The functions of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder cells with transfected pcDNA3.1-LGALS4 were identified through MTT assay, plate clone formation assay, flow cytometry, and cell migration experiments. RESULTS:LGALS4 was the hub gene of pink module and it was related to prognosis. Higher LGALS4 expression predicted higher probabilities of overall survival and disease-free survival. Overexpression of LGALS4 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder cells suppressed cell viability and migration but induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION:LGALS4 played a critical role in the progression of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and held a promise to be the biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. It predicted good prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and restrained the growth and migration of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder cells.