Pseudo-response regulator (PRR) homologues of the moss Physcomitrella patens: insights into the evolution of the PRR family in land plants.
ABSTRACT: The pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) are the circadian clock component proteins in the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana. They contain a receiver-like domain (RLD) similar to the receiver domains of the RRs in the His-Asp phosphorelay system, but the RLDs lack the phosphoacceptor aspartic acid residue invariably conserved in the receiver domains. To study the evolution of PRR genes in plants, here we characterize their homologue genes, PpPRR1, PpPRR2, PpPRR3 and PpPRR4, from the moss Physcomitrella patens. In the phylogenetic analysis, PpPRRs cluster together, sister to an angiosperm PRR gene subfamily, illustrating their close relationships with the angiosperm PRRs. However, distinct from the angiosperm sequences, the RLDs of PpPRR2/3/4 exhibit a potential phosphoacceptor aspartic acid-aspartic acid-lysine (DDK) motif. Consistently, the PpPRR2 RLD had phosphotransfer ability in vitro, suggesting that PpPRR2 functions as an RR. The PpPRR1 RLD, on the other hand, shows a partially diverged DDK motif, and it did not show phosphotransfer ability. All PpPRRs were expressed in a circadian and light-dependent manner, with differential regulation between PpPRR2/4 and PpPRR1/3. Altogether, our results illustrate that PRRs originated from an RR(s) and that there are intraspecific divergences among PpPRRs. Finally, we offer scenarios for the evolution of the PRR family in land plants.
Project description:Genes encoding pseudo-response regulator (PRR) proteins play significant roles in plant circadian clocks. In this study, four genes related to flowering time were isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they are highly homologous to the counterparts of PRRs of Helianthus annuus and named as CmPRR2, CmPRR7, CmPRR37, and CmPRR73. Conserved motifs prediction indicated that most of the closely related members in the phylogenetic tree share common protein sequence motifs, suggesting functional similarities among the PRR proteins within the same subtree. In order to explore functions of the genes, we selected two Chrysanthemum varieties for comparison; that is, a short-day sensitive Zijiao and a short-day insensitive Aoyunbaixue. Compared to Aoyunbaixue, Zijiao needs 13 more days to complete the flower bud differentiation. Evidence from spatio-temporal gene expression patterns demonstrated that the CmPRRs are highly expressed in flower and stem tissues, with a growing trend across the Chrysanthemum developmental process. In addition, we also characterized the CmPRRs expression patterns and found that CmPRRs can maintain their circadian oscillation features to some extent under different photoperiod treatment conditions. These lines of evidence indicated that the four CmPRRs undergo circadian oscillation and possibly play roles in regulating the flowering time of C. morifolium.
Project description:Background:The circadian clock not only participates in regulating various stages of plant growth, development and metabolism, but confers plant environmental adaptability to stress such as drought. Pseudo-Response Regulators (PRRs) are important component of the central oscillator (the core of circadian clock) and play a significant role in plant photoperiod pathway. However, no systematical study about this gene family has been performed in cotton. Methods:PRR genes were identified in diploid and tetraploid cotton using bioinformatics methods to investigate their homology, duplication and evolution relationship. Differential gene expression, KEGG enrichment analysis and qRT-PCR were conducted to analyze PRR gene expression patterns under diurnal changes and their response to drought stress. Results:A total of 44 PRR family members were identified in four Gossypium species, with 16 in G. hirsutum, 10 in G. raimondii, and nine in G. barbadense as well as in G. arboreum. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PRR proteins were divided into five subfamilies and whole genome duplication or segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of Gossypium PRR gene family. Gene structure analysis revealed that members in the same clade are similar, and multiple cis-elements related to light and drought stress response were enriched in the promoters of GhPRR genes. qRT-PCR results showed that GhPRR genes transcripts presented four expression peaks (6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 15 h) during 24 h and form obvious rhythmic expression trend. Transcriptome data with PEG treatment, along with qRT-PCR verification suggested that members of clade III (GhPRR5a, b, d) and clade V (GhPRR3a and GhPRR3c) may be involved in drought response. This study provides an insight into understanding the function of PRR genes in circadian rhythm and in response to drought stress in cotton.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent (DDK) kinases trigger DNA replication in all eukaryotes, but how these kinases cooperate to regulate DNA synthesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that budding yeast Mcm4 is phosphorylated in vivo during S phase in a manner dependent on the presence of five CDK phosphoacceptor residues within the N-terminal domain of Mcm4. Mutation to alanine of these five sites (mcm4-5A) abolishes phosphorylation and decreases replication origin firing efficiency at 22 degrees C. Surprisingly, the loss of function mcm4-5A mutation confers cold and hydroxyurea sensitivity to DDK gain of function conditions (mcm5/bob1 mutation or DDK overexpression), implying that phosphorylation of Mcm4 by CDK somehow counteracts negative effects produced by ectopic DDK activation. Deletion of the S phase cyclins Clb5,6 is synthetic lethal with mcm4-5A and mimics its effects on DDK up mutants. Furthermore, we find that Clb5 expressed late in the cell cycle can still suppress the lethality of clb5,6Delta bob1 cells, whereas mitotic cyclins Clb2, 3, or 4 expressed early cannot. We propose that the N-terminal extension of eukaryotic Mcm4 integrates regulatory inputs from S-CDK and DDK, which may play an important role for the proper assembly or stabilization of replisome-progression complexes.
Project description:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of immune sensors that play a critical role in detecting and responding to several conserved patterns of microorganisms. As such, they play a major role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and anti-microbial defense. Fundamental knowledge pertaining to the discovery of PRR functions and their ligands continue to advance the understanding of immune system and disease resistance, which led to the rational design and/or application of various PRR ligands as vaccine adjuvants. In addition, the conserved nature of many PRRs throughout the animal kingdom has enabled the utilization of the comparative genomics approach in PRR identification and the study of evolution, structural features, and functions in many animal species including avian. In the present review, we focused on PRR sensing and signaling functions in the avian species, domestic chicken, mallard, and domestic goose. In addition to summarizing recent advances in the understanding of avian PRR functions, the present review utilized a comparative biology approach to identify additional PRRs, whose functions have been well studied in mammalians but await functional characterization in avian.
Project description:HIV targets the gut mucosa early in infection, causing immune and epithelial barrier dysfunction and disease progression. However, gut mucosal sensing and innate immune signaling through mucosal pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) during HIV infection and disease progression are not well defined. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we found a robust increase in PRRs and inflammatory cytokine gene expression during the acute SIV infection in both peripheral blood and gut mucosa, coinciding with viral replication. PRR expression remained elevated in peripheral blood following the transition to chronic SIV infection. In contrast, massive dampening of PRR expression was detected in the gut mucosa, despite the presence of detectable viral loads. Exceptionally, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR8 was downmodulated and diverged from expression patterns for most other TLRs in the gut. Decreased mucosal PRR expression was associated with increased abundance of several pathogenic bacterial taxa, including Pasteurellaceae members, Aggregatibacter and Actinobacillus, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Early antiretroviral therapy led to viral suppression but only partial maintenance of gut PRRs and cytokine gene expression. In summary, SIV infection dampens mucosal innate immunity through PRR dysregulation and may promote immune activation, gut microbiota changes, and ineffective viral clearance.
Project description:Since the discovery of Toll, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, as the first described pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in 1996, many families of these receptors have been discovered and characterized. PRRs play critically important roles in pathogen recognition to initiate innate immune responses that ultimately link to the generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of PRRs leads to the induction of immune and inflammatory genes, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. It is increasingly clear that many PRRs are linked to a range of inflammatory, infectious, immune, and chronic degenerative diseases. Several drugs to modulate PRR activity are already in clinical trials and many more are likely to appear in the near future. Here, we review the different families of mammalian PRRs, the ligands they recognize, the mechanisms of activation, their role in disease, and the potential of targeting these proteins to develop the anti-inflammatory therapeutics of the future.
Project description:Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Project description:Plants and animals mediate early steps of the innate immune response through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs commonly associate with or contain members of a monophyletic group of kinases called the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family that include Drosophila Pelle, human IRAKs, rice XA21 and Arabidopsis FLS2. In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, distant relatives to the IRAK family. Some IRAK and RIP family kinases fall into a small functional class of kinases termed non-RD, many of which do not autophosphorylate the activation loop. We surveyed the yeast, fly, worm, human, Arabidopsis, and rice kinomes (3,723 kinases) and found that despite the small number of non-RD kinases in these genomes (9%-29%), 12 of 15 kinases known or predicted to function in PRR signaling fall into the non-RD class. These data indicate that kinases associated with PRRs can largely be predicted by the lack of a single conserved residue and reveal new potential plant PRR subfamilies.
Project description:Histidine-aspartic acid phosphotransfer pathways are central components of prokaryotic signal transduction pathways and are also found in many eukaryotes. Tools to study histidine kinases, however, are currently quite limited. In this article, we present a new tool to study histidine-aspartic acid phosphotransfer pathways. We show that many histidine kinases will accept ATPgammaS as a substrate to form a stable thiophosphohistidine even when they do not form stable phosphohistidines using the natural substrate ATP. An antibody that has previously been used to detect thiophosphorylated serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is shown to recognize thiophosphohistidine and thiophosphoaspartic acid residues. Histidine kinase autothiophosphorylation is regulated by other protein sensor domains in the same way as autophosphorylation, and thiophosphate is transferred to downstream aspartic acid containing response regulators.
Project description:Seasonal reproduction in many organisms requires detection of day length. This is achieved by integrating information on the light environment with an internal photoperiodic time-keeping mechanism. Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in response to long days (LDs), and CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor represents a photoperiodic timer whose stability is higher when plants are exposed to light under LDs. Here, we show that PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) proteins directly mediate this stabilization. PRRs interact with and stabilize CO at specific times during the day, thereby mediating its accumulation under LDs. PRR-mediated stabilization increases binding of CO to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), leading to enhanced FT transcription and early flowering under these conditions. PRRs were previously reported to contribute to timekeeping by regulating CO transcription through their roles in the circadian clock. We propose an additional role for PRRs in which they act upon CO protein to promote flowering, directly coupling information on light exposure to the timekeeper and allowing recognition of LDs.